gnucash-docs master: Multiple changes pushed

Frank H.Ellenberger fell at code.gnucash.org
Fri Jun 30 18:00:07 EDT 2017


Updated	 via  https://github.com/Gnucash/gnucash-docs/commit/cf669822 (commit)
	 via  https://github.com/Gnucash/gnucash-docs/commit/d10b1d31 (commit)
	 via  https://github.com/Gnucash/gnucash-docs/commit/0c37c897 (commit)
	 via  https://github.com/Gnucash/gnucash-docs/commit/bd8d9fb3 (commit)
	 via  https://github.com/Gnucash/gnucash-docs/commit/df0ba23c (commit)
	 via  https://github.com/Gnucash/gnucash-docs/commit/8d8e1c01 (commit)
	 via  https://github.com/Gnucash/gnucash-docs/commit/4cdb8222 (commit)
	 via  https://github.com/Gnucash/gnucash-docs/commit/0d7d58a1 (commit)
	 via  https://github.com/Gnucash/gnucash-docs/commit/2b6a1a11 (commit)
	 via  https://github.com/Gnucash/gnucash-docs/commit/4e785019 (commit)
	 via  https://github.com/Gnucash/gnucash-docs/commit/d63cc278 (commit)
	 via  https://github.com/Gnucash/gnucash-docs/commit/688b24eb (commit)
	 via  https://github.com/Gnucash/gnucash-docs/commit/382149b9 (commit)
	 via  https://github.com/Gnucash/gnucash-docs/commit/082c8294 (commit)
	from  https://github.com/Gnucash/gnucash-docs/commit/675ca9e6 (commit)



commit cf6698226c5078fbe06112e3d9e3c330f2c6ca3c
Merge: 675ca9e d10b1d3
Author: fell <frank.h.ellenberger at gmail.com>
Date:   Fri Jun 30 23:28:46 2017 +0200

    Merge branch 'maint'


commit d10b1d3173c922159ce3267baa83b0b1e193274a
Merge: 0c37c89 bd8d9fb
Author: Frank H. Ellenberger <fellen at users.noreply.github.com>
Date:   Fri Jun 30 23:13:58 2017 +0200

    Merge pull request #94 from DiMan/patch-1
    
    Update translators and rename the file


commit 0c37c89794f546409b42f7fa9a67fbc1e23d564c
Author: fell <frank.h.ellenberger at gmail.com>
Date:   Fri Jun 30 23:00:47 2017 +0200

    Improve I18n of gnucash-guide
    
    Additional fix some typos,
    reconstruct some rev. history, ...
    and merge it in de.

diff --git a/guide/C/gnucash-guide.xml b/guide/C/gnucash-guide.xml
index e9d28bb..ea80de7 100644
--- a/guide/C/gnucash-guide.xml
+++ b/guide/C/gnucash-guide.xml
@@ -152,7 +152,7 @@
 
   <revhistory>
       <revision>
-        <revnumber>&app; Tutorial and Concepts Guide v2.6.15</revnumber>
+        <revnumber>&app; Tutorial and Concepts Guide v2.6.16</revnumber>
         <date>26 March 2017</date>
         <revdescription>
           <para role="author">Multiple authors</para>
@@ -176,6 +176,14 @@
         </revdescription>
       </revision>
       <revision>
+        <revnumber>&app; Tutorial and Concepts Guide v2.6.10</revnumber>
+        <date>20 December 2015</date>
+        <revdescription>
+          <para role="author">Multiple authors</para>
+          <para role="publisher">&app; Documentation Team</para>
+        </revdescription>
+      </revision>
+      <revision>
         <revnumber>&app; Tutorial and Concepts Guide v2.6.8</revnumber>
         <date>27 September 2015</date>
         <revdescription>
@@ -254,7 +262,7 @@
       </revision>
       <revision>
         <revnumber>&app; Tutorial and Concepts Guide v2.0.0</revnumber>
-        <date>July 2006</date>
+        <date>July 9, 2006</date>
         <revdescription>
           <para role="author">Jon Lapham
           </para>
@@ -328,23 +336,27 @@
   <legalnotice>
     <title>Feedback</title>
       <para>To report a bug or make a suggestion regarding this package or
-        this manual, follow the directions at the
-        <ulink url="http://bugzilla.gnome.org"
-          >GNOME Bug Tracking System</ulink>.
+        this manual, follow the instructions at the
+        <ulink url="https://wiki.gnucash.org/wiki/Bugzilla"
+          >Bugzilla page of the GnuCash wiki</ulink> and use the
+        <ulink url="https://bugzilla.gnome.org/browse.cgi?product=GnuCash"
+          >GNOME Bug Tracking System</ulink>. There select the component
+        <emphasis>Documentation</emphasis><!-- Translators uncomment the next line: -->
+        <!--  or <emphasis>Translations</emphasis> -->.
       </para>
-<!-- Translators may also add here a feedback address for translations -->
+<!-- Translators may also add here a feedback address for translations. -->
   </legalnotice>
 
 </bookinfo>
 <preface>
-  <title>About the Author</title>
+  <title>About the Authors</title>
   <para>
  	The GnuCash Documentation Team is a self-designated
 	group of GnuCash users and developers who have volunteered to
 	write this documentation for the benefit of the broader user
 	base. People who are interested in joining this group are
 	encouraged to express their interest on the GnuCash lists
-	(gnucash-users and gnucash-devel) for further direction.
+	(<email>gnucash-users</email> and <email>gnucash-devel</email>) for further direction.
   </para>
 
   <para>Contributors on the team so far have been:
@@ -361,14 +373,14 @@
       <firstname>Carol</firstname> <surname>Champagne</surname>
     </author>,
     <author>
-      <firstname>Frank</firstname> <surname>Ellenberger</surname>
+      <firstname>Frank</firstname> <othername role='mi'>H.</othername> <surname>Ellenberger</surname>
     </author>,
     <author>
       <firstname>Mike</firstname> <surname>Evans</surname>
     </author>,
     <author>
       <firstname>Chris</firstname> <surname>Good</surname>
-    </author>
+    </author>,
     <author>
       <firstname>Dave</firstname> <surname>Herman</surname>
     </author>,
@@ -394,15 +406,20 @@
       <firstname>Christian</firstname> <surname>Stimming</surname>
     </author>,
     <author>
-      <firstname>Bengt</firstname> <surname>Thuree</surname>
+      <firstname>David</firstname> <surname>T.</surname>
     </author>, and
     <author>
-      <firstname>David</firstname> <surname>T.</surname>
+      <firstname>Bengt</firstname> <surname>Thuree</surname>
     </author>.
 
 <!-- This is appropriate place for other contributors: translators,
       maintainers,  etc. Commented out by default.
-       <author role="translator">
+      Note: Do not use the addess tag, if you do not want to be contacted
+            with user questions over decades. -->
+<!-- 
+  </para>
+  <para> This translation was provided by
+        <author role="translator">
         <firstname>Latin</firstname>
         <surname>Translator 1</surname>
         <affiliation>
@@ -411,7 +428,7 @@
         </affiliation>
         <contrib>Latin translation</contrib>
         <email>email at address.com</email>
-      </author>
+      </author>.
 -->
   </para>
 </preface>
diff --git a/guide/de/gnucash-guide.xml b/guide/de/gnucash-guide.xml
index f2c195b..019f407 100644
--- a/guide/de/gnucash-guide.xml
+++ b/guide/de/gnucash-guide.xml
@@ -43,7 +43,7 @@
 
 <!--
   Some global declarations which are used in the files. For easier
-  maintainance they should be collected here.
+  maintenance they should be collected here.
 -->
 <!ENTITY manrevision "2.6.16">
 <!ENTITY date "26 March 2017">
@@ -85,7 +85,7 @@
   Version: 2.6.16
   Last modified: 26 March 2017
   Maintainers:
-      GnuCash Development Team <gnucash-devel at gnucash.org>
+        Gnucash Development Team <gnucash-devel at gnucash.org>
   Translators:
             Martin Mainka <martin at mainka-it.Default>
             Frank H. Ellenberger <frank.h.ellenberger at gmail.com>
@@ -140,20 +140,25 @@
   </copyright>
 
   <copyright>
-   <year>2013</year>
-   <holder>Martin Mainka (Deutsche Ãœbersetzung)</holder>
-  </copyright>
-  
-  <copyright>
-   <year>2013</year>
-   <holder>Frank H. Ellenberger (Deutsche Ãœbersetzung)</holder>
+   <year>2017</year>
+   <holder>Deutsches &app;-Ãœbersetzungsteam (Deutsche Ãœbersetzung)</holder>
   </copyright>
 
   <copyright>
    <year>2014-2016</year>
    <holder>Mechtilde Stehmann (Deutsche Ãœbersetzung)</holder>
   </copyright>
+ 
+  <copyright>
+   <year>2013-2016</year>
+   <holder>Frank H. Ellenberger (Deutsche Ãœbersetzung)</holder>
+  </copyright>
 
+  <copyright>
+   <year>2013</year>
+   <holder>Martin Mainka (Deutsche Ãœbersetzung)</holder>
+  </copyright>
+ 
     <publisher>
        <publishername>&app; Documentation Team</publishername>
        <address>
@@ -181,6 +186,14 @@
         </revdescription>
       </revision>
       <revision>
+        <revnumber>&app; Tutorial and Concepts Guide v2.6.15</revnumber>
+        <date>18 December 2016</date>
+        <revdescription>
+          <para role="author">Multiple authors</para>
+          <para role="publisher">&app; Documentation Team</para>
+        </revdescription>
+      </revision>
+      <revision>
         <revnumber>&app; Tutorial and Concepts Guide v2.6.11</revnumber>
         <date>11 January 2016</date>
         <revdescription>
@@ -343,15 +356,17 @@
     </revhistory>
 
   <releaseinfo>
-   This Guide contains a tutorial for using &app; and describes the concepts
-   behind &app;.
+   Diese Einführung enthält ein Tutorium zur Benutzung von &app; und beschreibt die Koncepte
+   dahinter.
   </releaseinfo>
   <legalnotice>
-    <title>Feedback</title>
-      <para>To report a bug or make a suggestion regarding this package or
-        this manual, follow the directions at the
-        <ulink url="http://bugzilla.gnome.org"
-          >GNOME Bug Tracking System</ulink>.
+    <title>Rückmeldung</title>
+      <para>Um bezüglich dieser Dokumentation einen Fehler zu melden oder einen
+        Verbesserungsvorschlag einzureichen, folgen Sie den Anweisungen auf der
+        <ulink url="https://wiki.gnucash.org/wiki/De/Feedback"
+          >Feedbackseite des GnuCash-Wikis</ulink> und verwenden das
+        <ulink url="https://bugzilla.gnome.org/browse.cgi?product=GnuCash"
+          >GNOME Bug Tracking System</ulink>. Dort wählen Sie, je nach Ursache, die Komponente <emphasis>Documentation</emphasis> oder <emphasis>Translations</emphasis>.
       </para>
 <!-- Translators may also add here a feedback address for translations -->
   </legalnotice>
@@ -363,9 +378,9 @@
  	Das Dokumentationsteam von &app; ist eine selbsternannte Gruppe von &app;-Nutzern 
   und -Entwicklern, die sich angeboten haben, diese Dokumentation zu schreiben, 
   zum Wohle der breiten Nutzerschaft. Menschen, die daran intressiert sind,
-  dieser Gruppe bezutreten, werden ermutigt, ihr Interesse auf der $app;
-  Mailinglisten (gnucash-de at gnucash.org und gnucash-devel at gnucash.org) 
-  für weitere Anleitungen kundzu tuen.
+  dieser Gruppe bezutreten, werden ermutigt, ihr Interesse auf einer der &app;
+  Mailinglisten <email>gnucash-devel at gnucash.org</email> (englische Dokumentation) oder <email>gnucash-de at gnucash.org</email> (Ãœbersetzung) 
+  für weitere Anleitungen kundzutun.
   </para>
 
   <para>Beitragende im Team sind bisher:
@@ -382,14 +397,14 @@
       <firstname>Carol</firstname> <surname>Champagne</surname>
     </author>,
     <author>
-      <firstname>Frank</firstname> <surname>Ellenberger</surname>
+      <firstname>Frank</firstname> <othername role='mi'>H.</othername> <surname>Ellenberger</surname>
     </author>,
     <author>
       <firstname>Mike</firstname> <surname>Evans</surname>
     </author>,
     <author>
       <firstname>Chris</firstname> <surname>Good</surname>
-    </author>
+    </author>,
     <author>
       <firstname>Dave</firstname> <surname>Herman</surname>
     </author>,
@@ -402,9 +417,6 @@
     <author>
       <firstname>Chris</firstname> <surname>Lyttle</surname>
     </author>,
-    <othercredit role="translator">
-      <firstname>Martin</firstname> <surname>Mainka</surname>
-    </othercredit>
     <author>
       <firstname>Cristian</firstname> <surname>Marchi</surname>
     </author>,
@@ -414,22 +426,24 @@
     <author>
       <firstname>Robert</firstname> <surname>Ratliff</surname>
     </author>,
-    <othercredit role="translator">
-      <firstname>Mechtilde</firstname> <surname>Stehmann</surname>
-    </othercredit>,
     <author>
       <firstname>Christian</firstname> <surname>Stimming</surname>
     </author>,
     <author>
-      <firstname>Bengt</firstname> <surname>Thuree</surname>
-    </author>, and
-    <author>
       <firstname>David</firstname> <surname>T.</surname>
+    </author> und
+    <author>
+      <firstname>Bengt</firstname> <surname>Thuree</surname>
     </author>.
 
 <!-- This is appropriate place for other contributors: translators,
       maintainers,  etc. Commented out by default.
-       <author role="translator">
+      Note: Do not use the addess tag, if you do not want to be contacted
+            with user questions over decades. -->
+  </para>
+  <para> Diese (immer noch unvollständge) Übersetzung wurde vom
+      Deutschen &app;-Übersetzungsteam erstellt. Dazu gehören bisher
+<!--    <author role="translator">
         <firstname>Latin</firstname>
         <surname>Translator 1</surname>
         <affiliation>
@@ -438,8 +452,26 @@
         </affiliation>
         <contrib>Latin translation</contrib>
         <email>email at address.com</email>
-      </author>
+    </author>,
 -->
+    <othercredit role="translator">
+      <firstname>Frank</firstname> <othername role='mi'>H.</othername> <surname>Ellenberger</surname>
+    </othercredit>,
+    <othercredit role="translator">
+      <firstname>Juergen</firstname> <surname>Hoewener</surname>
+    </othercredit>,
+    <othercredit role="translator">
+      <firstname>Martin</firstname> <surname>Mainka</surname>
+    </othercredit>,
+    <othercredit role="translator">
+      <firstname>Mechtilde</firstname> <surname>Stehmann</surname>
+    </othercredit>,
+    <othercredit role="maintainer">
+      <firstname>Christian</firstname> <surname>Stimming</surname>
+    </othercredit> und
+    <othercredit role="translator">
+      <firstname>Gerold</firstname> <surname>Strobel</surname>
+    </othercredit>.
   </para>
 </preface>
 
@@ -464,7 +496,6 @@
 </part>
 <part>
     <title>Geschäftliche Finanzen handhaben</title>
-
 &chapter13;
 &chapter14;
 &chapter15;
@@ -475,17 +506,16 @@
 &chapter20;
 &chapter21;
 &chapter22;
-
 </part>
 <part>
-<title>Anhänge</title>
+    <title>Anhänge</title>
+&glossary;
 &appendixa;
 &appendixb;
 &appendixc;
 &appendixd;
 &appendixe;
 &GFDL;
-&glossary;
 
 </part>
 </book>

commit bd8d9fb39c8cd94cd892349fbca8e5dff43a8ebe
Author: DiMan <DiMan at users.noreply.github.com>
Date:   Fri Jun 30 22:38:13 2017 +0200

    Update translators and rename the file
    
    Hello fellen,
    
    Thank you for your adaptations, a few notes: the Evgeny Zhulin is not a translator, he simply communicated the translation of Anton Tarasov. I have replaced the Translator. If the Evgeny should later take part in the translation, we can add he in the list.
    
    In addition, I corrected the filename:
    guide/ru/gnucash-guide-de.omf => guide/ru/gnucash-guide-ru.omf
    
    Regards,
    DiMan

diff --git a/guide/ru/gnucash-guide-de.omf b/guide/ru/gnucash-guide-ru.omf
similarity index 99%
rename from guide/ru/gnucash-guide-de.omf
rename to guide/ru/gnucash-guide-ru.omf
index 06f280b..d2be21d 100644
--- a/guide/ru/gnucash-guide-de.omf
+++ b/guide/ru/gnucash-guide-ru.omf
@@ -389,7 +389,7 @@
       Dmitriy Mangul
     </contributor>
     <contributor>
-      Evgeny Zhulin 
+      Anton Tarasov
     </contributor>
     <title>
       Практическое руководство по GnuCash

commit df0ba23cf23f8a3d287c24b4fdedcd1150ea1984
Merge: 8d8e1c0 0d7d58a
Author: Frank H. Ellenberger <fellen at users.noreply.github.com>
Date:   Fri Jun 30 08:45:13 2017 +0200

    Merge pull request #92 from DiMan/guide-ru-initial
    
    initial russian translation of the guide


commit 8d8e1c0189b541ac444cc31a7e00a75fb89e65bf
Author: fell <frank.h.ellenberger at gmail.com>
Date:   Fri Jun 30 08:05:19 2017 +0200

    Remove obsolete help/pt/gnucash-help-C.omf

diff --git a/help/pt/gnucash-help-C.omf b/help/pt/gnucash-help-C.omf
deleted file mode 100644
index 2c0b4f3..0000000
--- a/help/pt/gnucash-help-C.omf
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,71 +0,0 @@
-<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
-<omf>
-  <resource>
-    <creator>
-      chris at wilddev.net (Chris Lyttle)
-    </creator>
-    <maintainer>
-      gnucash-devel at gnucash.org (GnuCash Development Team)
-    </maintainer>
-    <contributor>
-      Mike Alexander
-    </contributor>
-    <contributor>
-      Yawar Amin
-    </contributor>
-    <contributor>
-      J. Alex Aycinena
-    </contributor>
-    <contributor>
-      Frank H. Ellenberger
-    </contributor>
-    <contributor>
-      Chris Good
-    </contributor>    
-    <contributor>
-      David Hampton
-    </contributor>
-    <contributor>
-      Geert Janssens
-    </contributor>
-    <contributor>
-      Chris Lyttle
-    </contributor>
-    <contributor>
-      Cristian Marchi
-    </contributor>
-    <contributor>
-      John Ralls
-    </contributor>
-    <contributor>
-      Robert Ratliff
-    </contributor>
-    <contributor>
-      Christian Stimming
-    </contributor>
-    <contributor>
-      Jesse Weinstein 
-    </contributor>
-    <title>
-      GnuCash Help Manual
-    </title>    
-    <date>
-      2013-12-29
-    </date>
-    <version identifier="2.6.0" date="2013-12-29" description="Created for
-    GnuCash 2.6.0 Release"/>
-    <subject category="Applications|Office|Financial"/>
-    <description>
-      Este documento fornece ajuda básica sobre como utilizar o gestor financeiro 
-      GnuCash.
-    </description>
-    <type>
-      user's guide
-    </type>
-    <format mime="text/xml" dtd="-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.1.2//EN"/>
-    <identifier url="gnucash-help.xml"/>
-    <language code="C"/>
-    <relation seriesid="c009f916-0589-11d7-93d6-bb01d827c635"/>
-    <rights type="GNU FDL" license.version="1.1" holder="GnuCash Development Team"/>
-  </resource>        
-</omf>

commit 4cdb822225f5af86a91dc1846cf2e5a0d173c4f6
Author: fell <frank.h.ellenberger at gmail.com>
Date:   Fri Jun 30 08:01:17 2017 +0200

    Set the right subject category in OMF files

diff --git a/guide/C/gnucash-guide-C.omf b/guide/C/gnucash-guide-C.omf
index 6c1ed55..7ec5b33 100644
--- a/guide/C/gnucash-guide-C.omf
+++ b/guide/C/gnucash-guide-C.omf
@@ -94,7 +94,7 @@
     </date>
     <version identifier="2.6.0" date="2013-12-29" description="Created for
     GnuCash 2.6.0 Release"/>
-    <subject category="GNOME|Applications"/>
+    <subject category="Applications|Office|Financial"/>
     <description>
       This document provides a tutorial and concepts guide for the GnuCash 
       Financial Application.
diff --git a/guide/de/gnucash-guide-de.omf b/guide/de/gnucash-guide-de.omf
index 758e0b2..776ab4f 100644
--- a/guide/de/gnucash-guide-de.omf
+++ b/guide/de/gnucash-guide-de.omf
@@ -39,7 +39,7 @@
     </date>
     <version identifier="2.6.0" date="2013-12-29" description="Created for
     GnuCash 2.6.0 Release"/>
-    <subject category="GNOME|Applications"/>
+    <subject category="Applications|Office|Financial"/>
     <description>
       This document provides a tutorial and concepts guide for the GnuCash 
       Financial Application.
diff --git a/guide/it/gnucash-guide-it.omf b/guide/it/gnucash-guide-it.omf
index 8d5a50e..ed1d215 100644
--- a/guide/it/gnucash-guide-it.omf
+++ b/guide/it/gnucash-guide-it.omf
@@ -21,7 +21,7 @@
     </date>
     <version identifier="2.6.0" date="2013-12-29" description="Created for
     GnuCash 2.6.0 Release"/>
-    <subject category="GNOME|Applications"/>
+    <subject category="Applications|Office|Financial"/>
     <description>
       Questo documento costituisce la guida ai concetti e il manuale per il programma
       finanziario GnuCash.
diff --git a/guide/ja/gnucash-guide-ja.omf b/guide/ja/gnucash-guide-ja.omf
index 7af4d2a..c3ee02f 100644
--- a/guide/ja/gnucash-guide-ja.omf
+++ b/guide/ja/gnucash-guide-ja.omf
@@ -22,7 +22,7 @@
     </date>
     <version identifier="2.6.0" date="2013-12-29" description="Created for
     GnuCash 2.6.0 Release"/>
-    <subject category="GNOME|Applications"/>
+    <subject category="Applications|Office|Financial"/>
     <description>
       本書は財務ソフトウェアGnuCashのチュートリアルとコンセプトガイドです。
     </description>
diff --git a/guide/pt/gnucash-guide-pt.omf b/guide/pt/gnucash-guide-pt.omf
index 43abe37..35b60fb 100644
--- a/guide/pt/gnucash-guide-pt.omf
+++ b/guide/pt/gnucash-guide-pt.omf
@@ -96,7 +96,7 @@
     </date>
     <version identifier="2.6.12" date="2016-03-25" description="Created for
     GnuCash 2.6.12 Release"/>
-    <subject category="GNOME|Applications"/>
+    <subject category="Applications|Office|Financial"/>
     <description>
       Este documento fornece um guia tutorial e conceitos para o GnuCash Aplicação financeira.
     </description>
diff --git a/help/C/gnucash-help-C.omf b/help/C/gnucash-help-C.omf
index 724cc95..0d55871 100644
--- a/help/C/gnucash-help-C.omf
+++ b/help/C/gnucash-help-C.omf
@@ -54,7 +54,7 @@
     </date>
     <version identifier="2.6.0" date="2013-12-29" description="Created for
     GnuCash 2.6.0 Release"/>
-    <subject category="GNOME|Applications"/>
+    <subject category="Applications|Office|Financial"/>
     <description>
       This document provides basic help on how to use the GnuCash Financial
       Application.
diff --git a/help/de/gnucash-help-de.omf b/help/de/gnucash-help-de.omf
index 44c124a..fbf926f 100644
--- a/help/de/gnucash-help-de.omf
+++ b/help/de/gnucash-help-de.omf
@@ -27,7 +27,7 @@
     </date>
     <version identifier="2.0.0" date="2006-07-09" description="Created for
     GnuCash 2.0.0 Release"/>
-    <subject category="GNOME|Applications"/>
+    <subject category="Applications|Office|Financial"/>
     <description>
       This document provides basic help on how to use the GnuCash Financial
       Application.
diff --git a/help/it/gnucash-help-it.omf b/help/it/gnucash-help-it.omf
index db3625f..2dada32 100644
--- a/help/it/gnucash-help-it.omf
+++ b/help/it/gnucash-help-it.omf
@@ -18,7 +18,7 @@
     </date>
     <version identifier="2.6.0" date="2013-12-29" description="Created for
     GnuCash 2.6.0 Release"/>
-    <subject category="GNOME|Applications"/>
+    <subject category="Applications|Office|Financial"/>
     <description>
       Questo documento fornisce un semplice aiuto all'utilizzo dell'applicazione finanziaria
       GnuCash.
diff --git a/help/pt/gnucash-help-C.omf b/help/pt/gnucash-help-C.omf
index 9facd50..2c0b4f3 100644
--- a/help/pt/gnucash-help-C.omf
+++ b/help/pt/gnucash-help-C.omf
@@ -54,7 +54,7 @@
     </date>
     <version identifier="2.6.0" date="2013-12-29" description="Created for
     GnuCash 2.6.0 Release"/>
-    <subject category="GNOME|Applications"/>
+    <subject category="Applications|Office|Financial"/>
     <description>
       Este documento fornece ajuda básica sobre como utilizar o gestor financeiro 
       GnuCash.
diff --git a/help/pt/gnucash-help-pt.omf b/help/pt/gnucash-help-pt.omf
index 9b3ab85..4085a6a 100644
--- a/help/pt/gnucash-help-pt.omf
+++ b/help/pt/gnucash-help-pt.omf
@@ -57,7 +57,7 @@
     </date>
     <version identifier="2.6.12" date="2016-03-25" description="Created for
     GnuCash 2.6.12 Release"/>
-    <subject category="GNOME|Applications"/>
+    <subject category="Applications|Office|Financial"/>
     <description>
      Este documento fornece ajuda básica sobre como utilizar o GnuCash Financeiro Aplicação.
     </description>

commit 0d7d58a1325f566693d5350d2b839836419fec72
Author: Frank H. Ellenberger <fellen at users.noreply.github.com>
Date:   Fri Jun 30 07:10:22 2017 +0200

    Update gnucash-guide-de.omf
    
    <contributor>: I replaced the german translators by the list of english authors and added you and Evgeny.
    BTW, shouldn't you add to the Evgeny as translator to gnucash-guide.xml?
    <subject category>: I added Financial as 3. level.
    <version>: I set the current version. Yes, the english omf file is outdated, too. ;-)

diff --git a/guide/ru/gnucash-guide-de.omf b/guide/ru/gnucash-guide-de.omf
index 58cd0f5..06f280b 100644
--- a/guide/ru/gnucash-guide-de.omf
+++ b/guide/ru/gnucash-guide-de.omf
@@ -10,26 +10,386 @@
     <maintainer>
       gnucash-devel at gnucash.org (GnuCash Development Team)
     </maintainer>
+        <contributor>
+      Yawar Amin
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Derek Atkins
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      J. Alex Aycinena
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Tom Browder
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Frank H. Ellenberger
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Mike Evans
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Chris Good
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      David Hampton
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      David Harrison
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Dave Hermann
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Geert Janssens
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Andreas Köhler
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Jon Lapham
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Chris Lyttle
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Cristian Marchi
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Sebastien Millet
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      John Ralls
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Robert Ratliff
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Michael Rensing
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Zach Sadecki
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Chris Shoemaker
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Christian Stimming
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      David Suarez
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Bengt Thuree
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Michael Witten
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Yawar Amin
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Derek Atkins
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      J. Alex Aycinena
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Tom Browder
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Frank H. Ellenberger
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Mike Evans
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Chris Good
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      David Hampton
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      David Harrison
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Dave Hermann
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Geert Janssens
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Andreas Köhler
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Jon Lapham
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Chris Lyttle
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Cristian Marchi
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Sebastien Millet
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      John Ralls
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Robert Ratliff
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Michael Rensing
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Zach Sadecki
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Chris Shoemaker
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Christian Stimming
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      David Suarez
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Bengt Thuree
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Michael Witten
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Yawar Amin
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Derek Atkins
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      J. Alex Aycinena
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Tom Browder
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Frank H. Ellenberger
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Mike Evans
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Chris Good
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      David Hampton
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      David Harrison
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Dave Hermann
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Geert Janssens
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Andreas Köhler
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Jon Lapham
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Chris Lyttle
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Cristian Marchi
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Sebastien Millet
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      John Ralls
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Robert Ratliff
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Michael Rensing
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Zach Sadecki
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Chris Shoemaker
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Christian Stimming
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      David Suarez
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Bengt Thuree
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Michael Witten
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Yawar Amin
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Derek Atkins
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      J. Alex Aycinena
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Tom Browder
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Frank H. Ellenberger
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Mike Evans
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Chris Good
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      David Hampton
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      David Harrison
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Dave Hermann
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Geert Janssens
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Andreas Köhler
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Jon Lapham
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Chris Lyttle
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Cristian Marchi
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Sebastien Millet
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      John Ralls
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Robert Ratliff
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Michael Rensing
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Zach Sadecki
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Chris Shoemaker
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Christian Stimming
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      David Suarez
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Bengt Thuree
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Michael Witten
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Yawar Amin
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Derek Atkins
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      J. Alex Aycinena
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Tom Browder
+    </contributor>
     <contributor>
       Frank H. Ellenberger
     </contributor>
     <contributor>
-      Juergen Hoewener
+      Mike Evans
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Chris Good
     </contributor>
     <contributor>
-      Martin Mainka
+      David Hampton
     </contributor>
     <contributor>
-      Niklas Spille
+      David Harrison
     </contributor>
     <contributor>
-      Mechtilde Stehmann
+      Dave Hermann
     </contributor>
-     <contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Geert Janssens
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Andreas Köhler
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Jon Lapham
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Chris Lyttle
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Cristian Marchi
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Sebastien Millet
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      John Ralls
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Robert Ratliff
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Michael Rensing
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Zach Sadecki
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Chris Shoemaker
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
       Christian Stimming
     </contributor>
     <contributor>
-      Gerold Strobel
+      David Suarez
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Bengt Thuree
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Michael Witten
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Dmitriy Mangul
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Evgeny Zhulin 
     </contributor>
     <title>
       Практическое руководство по GnuCash
@@ -37,8 +397,8 @@
     <date>
       2017-06-29
     </date>
-    <version identifier="2.6.0" date="2017-06-29" description="Создано для версии GnuCash 2.6.0"/>
-    <subject category="GNOME|Applications"/>
+    <version identifier="2.6.16" date="2017-06-29" description="Создано для версии GnuCash 2.6.16"/>
+    <subject category="GNOME|Applications|Financial"/>
     <description>
       Этот документ является практическим руководством для финансовой программы GnuCash.
     </description>

commit 2b6a1a1164eacee5271583776822075269eaa793
Author: Dima <dimang.freetime at gmail.com>
Date:   Thu Jun 29 20:57:18 2017 +0200

    omf file for Scrollkeeper/yelp

diff --git a/guide/ru/gnucash-guide-de.omf b/guide/ru/gnucash-guide-de.omf
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..58cd0f5
--- /dev/null
+++ b/guide/ru/gnucash-guide-de.omf
@@ -0,0 +1,54 @@
+<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
+<omf>
+  <resource>
+    <creator>
+      chris at wilddev.net (Chris Lyttle)
+    </creator>
+    <creator>
+      carol at io.com (Carol Champagne)
+    </creator>
+    <maintainer>
+      gnucash-devel at gnucash.org (GnuCash Development Team)
+    </maintainer>
+    <contributor>
+      Frank H. Ellenberger
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Juergen Hoewener
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Martin Mainka
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Niklas Spille
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Mechtilde Stehmann
+    </contributor>
+     <contributor>
+      Christian Stimming
+    </contributor>
+    <contributor>
+      Gerold Strobel
+    </contributor>
+    <title>
+      Практическое руководство по GnuCash
+    </title>
+    <date>
+      2017-06-29
+    </date>
+    <version identifier="2.6.0" date="2017-06-29" description="Создано для версии GnuCash 2.6.0"/>
+    <subject category="GNOME|Applications"/>
+    <description>
+      Этот документ является практическим руководством для финансовой программы GnuCash.
+    </description>
+    <type>
+      практическое руководство
+    </type>
+    <format mime="text/xml" dtd="-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.1.2//EN"/>
+    <identifier url="gnucash-guide.xml"/>
+    <language code="ru"/>
+    <relation seriesid="0a127098-3892-a788-1c87-f779d6abbc65d0"/>
+    <rights type="GNU FDL" license.version="1.1" holder="GnuCash Development Team"/>
+  </resource>
+</omf>

commit 4e7850197a6fd53b49b45093365e795cd862c6b8
Author: Dima <dimang.freetime at gmail.com>
Date:   Mon Jun 26 23:28:42 2017 +0200

    These files are not relevant now

diff --git a/guide/ru/gnc_Sample_QIF.qif b/guide/ru/gnc_Sample_QIF.qif
deleted file mode 100644
index 91f68bb..0000000
--- a/guide/ru/gnc_Sample_QIF.qif
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,206 +0,0 @@
-!Type:Cat
-NClothes2
-E
-^
-NComputer:HW
-E
-^
-NComputer:ISP
-E
-^
-NEntertainment:Disco
-E
-^
-NEntertainment:Dining Out
-E
-^
-NFurniture
-E
-^
-NGifts
-E
-^
-NGroceries
-E
-^
-NRent
-E
-^
-NBonus
-I
-^
-N
-NSalary
-I
-^
-!Option:AutoSwitch
-!Account
-NAssets:Current Assets:Checking Account
-DChecking account
-TBank
-^
-!Type:Bank
-D01/01/2006
-T1000.00
-POpening Balance
-LEquity:Opening Balances
-CX
-^
-D12/01/2006
-T-50.00
-CX
-N101
-PGrocery Store
-LExpenses:Groceries
-^
-D15/01/2006
-T-150.00
-CX
-PGrocery Store
-LExpenses:Groceries
-^
-D25/01/2006
-T600.00
-CX
-PEmployers R Us
-LIncome:Salary
-^
-D26/01/2006
-T-200.00
-CX
-PBank Saving
-LAssets:Current Assets:Savings Account
-^
-D28/01/2006
-T-350.00
-N102
-CX
-PFebruary Rent
-LExpenses:Rent
-^
-D28/01/2006
-T-20.00
-CX
-PISP Subscription
-LExpenses:Computer:ISP
-^
-D13/02/2006
-T-124.00
-CX
-PGrocery Store
-LExpenses:Groceries
-^
-D25/02/2006
-T600.00
-PEmployers R Us
-LIncome:Salary
-^
-D26/02/2006
-T-200.00
-PBank Saving
-LAssets:Current Assets:Savings Account
-^
-D28/02/2006
-T-350.00
-N103
-PMarch Rent
-LExpenses:Rent
-^
-D28/02/2006
-T-20.00
-CX
-PISP Subscription
-LExpenses:Computer:ISP
-^
-D10/02/2006
-T-67.00
-CX
-PGrocery Store
-LExpenses:Groceries
-^
-D15/02/2006
-T-276.00
-PPaid Credit Card bill
-LLiabilities:Credit Card:Visa
-^
-D20/02/2006
-T-90.00
-CX
-PGrocery Store
-LExpenses:Groceries
-^
-D15/03/2006
-T-1024.99
-PPaid Credit Card bill
-LLiabilities:Credit Card:Visa
-^
-D25/03/2006
-T700.00
-PEmployers R Us
-LIncome:Salary
-SIncome:Salary
-EBase Salary
-$600
-SIncome:Bonus
-EYearly bonus
-$2000
-^
-D26/03/2006
-T-200.00
-PBank Saving
-LAssets:Current Assets:Savings Account
-^
-D28/03/2006
-T-350.00
-CX
-PApril Rent
-LExpenses:Rent
-^
-D28/03/2006
-T-20.00
-CX
-PISP Subscription
-LExpenses:Computer:ISP
-^^
-!Option:AutoSwitch
-!Account
-NLiabilities:Credit Card:Visa
-DVISA
-TCCard
-^
-!Type:CCard
-D01/01/2006
-T-200
-PParty 4 Us
-LExpenses:Entertainment:Dining Out
-^
-D01/01/2006
-T-76
-PDiscotime
-LExpenses:Entertainment:Disco
-^
-D14/02/2006
-T-24.99
-PFlower R Us
-LExpenses:Gifts
-^
-D22/02/2006
-T-1000.00
-PFurniture R Us
-LExpenses:Furniture
-^
-D05/03/2006
-T-96.75
-PDinner 4 Us
-LExpenses:Entertainment:Dining Out
-^
-D09/03/2006
-T-2000.00
-PLaptop R Us
-LExpenses:Computer:HW
-^
-D12/03/2006
-T-120.00
-PClothes R Us
-LExpenses:Clothes
-^
diff --git a/guide/ru/gnucash-guide-C.omf b/guide/ru/gnucash-guide-C.omf
deleted file mode 100644
index 6c1ed55..0000000
--- a/guide/ru/gnucash-guide-C.omf
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,111 +0,0 @@
-<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
-<omf>
-  <resource>
-    <creator>
-      chris at wilddev.net (Chris Lyttle)
-    </creator>
-    <creator>
-      carol at io.com (Carol Champagne)
-    </creator>
-    <maintainer>
-      gnucash-devel at gnucash.org (GnuCash Development Team)
-    </maintainer>
-    <contributor>
-      Yawar Amin
-    </contributor>
-    <contributor>
-      Derek Atkins
-    </contributor>
-    <contributor>
-      J. Alex Aycinena
-    </contributor>
-    <contributor>
-      Tom Browder
-    </contributor>
-    <contributor>
-      Frank H. Ellenberger
-    </contributor>
-    <contributor>
-      Mike Evans
-    </contributor>
-    <contributor>
-      Chris Good
-    </contributor>
-    <contributor>
-      David Hampton
-    </contributor>
-    <contributor>
-      David Harrison
-    </contributor>
-    <contributor>
-      Dave Hermann
-    </contributor>
-    <contributor>
-      Geert Janssens
-    </contributor>
-    <contributor>
-      Andreas Köhler
-    </contributor>
-    <contributor>
-      Jon Lapham
-    </contributor>
-    <contributor>
-      Chris Lyttle
-    </contributor>
-    <contributor>
-      Cristian Marchi
-    </contributor>
-    <contributor>
-      Sebastien Millet
-    </contributor>
-    <contributor>
-      John Ralls
-    </contributor>
-    <contributor>
-      Robert Ratliff
-    </contributor>
-    <contributor>
-      Michael Rensing
-    </contributor>
-    <contributor>
-      Zach Sadecki
-    </contributor>
-    <contributor>
-      Chris Shoemaker
-    </contributor>
-    <contributor>
-      Christian Stimming
-    </contributor>
-    <contributor>
-      David Suarez
-    </contributor>
-    <contributor>
-      Bengt Thuree
-    </contributor>
-    <contributor>
-      Michael Witten
-    </contributor>
-
-    <title>
-      GnuCash Tutorial and Concepts Guide
-    </title>    
-    <date>
-      2013-12-29
-    </date>
-    <version identifier="2.6.0" date="2013-12-29" description="Created for
-    GnuCash 2.6.0 Release"/>
-    <subject category="GNOME|Applications"/>
-    <description>
-      This document provides a tutorial and concepts guide for the GnuCash 
-      Financial Application.
-    </description>
-    <type>
-      user's guide
-    </type>
-    <format mime="text/xml" dtd="-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.1.2//EN"/>
-    <identifier url="gnucash-guide.xml"/>
-    <language code="C"/>
-    <relation seriesid="ef1352c0-0831-11d7-91de-f42a0df0ca1a"/>
-    <rights type="GNU FDL" license.version="1.1" holder="GnuCash Development Team"/>
-  </resource>        
-</omf>

commit d63cc2785659f3345553b8fa7a66137c3b710e2b
Author: Dima <dimang.freetime at gmail.com>
Date:   Mon Jun 26 23:27:37 2017 +0200

    russian translation

diff --git a/guide/ru/ch_accts.xml b/guide/ru/ch_accts.xml
index 5cd4691..7ed816c 100644
--- a/guide/ru/ch_accts.xml
+++ b/guide/ru/ch_accts.xml
@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@ Translators:
        (translators put your name and email here)
 -->
 <chapter id="chapter_accts">
-  <title>Accounts</title>
+  <title>Счета</title>
 
   <para>This chapter will discuss some useful concepts for organizing your
   accounts. Since <application>&app;</application> does not impose any specific account tree layout,
diff --git a/guide/ru/ch_basics.xml b/guide/ru/ch_basics.xml
index fb65158..1635dd1 100644
--- a/guide/ru/ch_basics.xml
+++ b/guide/ru/ch_basics.xml
@@ -16,7 +16,7 @@
                (translators put your name and email here)
 -->
 <chapter id="chapter_basics">
-  <title>The Basics</title>
+  <title>Основы</title>
 
   <para>This chapter will introduce some of the basics of using <application>&app;</application>. It is
   recommended that you read through this chapter, before starting to do any
diff --git a/guide/ru/ch_capgain.xml b/guide/ru/ch_capgain.xml
index 2fa8e8c..05aa073 100644
--- a/guide/ru/ch_capgain.xml
+++ b/guide/ru/ch_capgain.xml
@@ -12,7 +12,7 @@
                (translators put your name and email here)
 -->
 <chapter id="chapter_capgain">
-  <title>Capital Gains</title>
+  <title>Доходы от прироста капитала</title>
 
   <para>This chapter will present some of the techniques used to keep track of
   the unrealized and realized gains and losses, better known as capital gains
diff --git a/guide/ru/ch_cbook.xml b/guide/ru/ch_cbook.xml
index bd2c28d..9756558 100644
--- a/guide/ru/ch_cbook.xml
+++ b/guide/ru/ch_cbook.xml
@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@
                (translators put your name and email here)
 -->
 <chapter id="chapter_cbook">
-  <title>Checkbook</title>
+  <title>Чековая книжка</title>
 
   <para>This chapter will give you all the specific information you need to
   manage your checkbook with <application>&app;</application>. Managing your checkbook register is the
diff --git a/guide/ru/ch_cc.xml b/guide/ru/ch_cc.xml
index 30a5ca3..9715906 100644
--- a/guide/ru/ch_cc.xml
+++ b/guide/ru/ch_cc.xml
@@ -12,7 +12,7 @@
                (translators put your name and email here)
 -->
 <chapter id="chapter_cc">
-  <title>Credit Cards</title>
+  <title>Кредитные карты</title>
 
   <para>This chapter will show you how to manage your credit cards using
   <application>&app;</application>.</para>
diff --git a/guide/ru/ch_currency.xml b/guide/ru/ch_currency.xml
index b9831f5..eed7dc1 100644
--- a/guide/ru/ch_currency.xml
+++ b/guide/ru/ch_currency.xml
@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@
                (translators put your name and email here)
 -->
 <chapter id="chapter_currency">
-  <title>Multiple Currencies</title>
+  <title>Мультивалютные операции</title>
 
   <para>This chapter will show how to set up <application>&app;</application> accounts to use
   multiple currencies.</para>
diff --git a/guide/ru/ch_expenses.xml b/guide/ru/ch_expenses.xml
index 98559f7..b7138dc 100644
--- a/guide/ru/ch_expenses.xml
+++ b/guide/ru/ch_expenses.xml
@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@
                (translators put your name and email here)
 -->
 <chapter id="chapter_expenses">
-  <title>Expense Accounts</title>
+  <title>Кредиты</title>
 
   <para>If managing your checkbook is the first step in tracking your finances, then using expense accounts
   to see where you are expending money is a close second step. This chapter will give you an understanding of
@@ -83,4 +83,4 @@
     not necessary, and that if you need to gather information on a given expense account, you can
     use various reports to extract that data without zeroing the account out.</para>
   </sect1>
-</chapter>
\ No newline at end of file
+</chapter>
diff --git a/guide/ru/ch_invest.xml b/guide/ru/ch_invest.xml
index ecbaec6..2fda155 100644
--- a/guide/ru/ch_invest.xml
+++ b/guide/ru/ch_invest.xml
@@ -15,7 +15,7 @@
                (translators put your name and email here)
 -->
 <chapter id="chapter_invest">
-  <title>Investments</title>
+  <title>Инвестиции</title>
 
   <para>This chapter explains how to manage your investments with <application>&app;</application>.
   Most people have an investment plan, whether its just putting money into a
diff --git a/guide/ru/ch_loans.xml b/guide/ru/ch_loans.xml
index ef8cd79..73a7c0b 100644
--- a/guide/ru/ch_loans.xml
+++ b/guide/ru/ch_loans.xml
@@ -12,7 +12,7 @@
                (translators put your name and email here)
 -->
 <chapter id="chapter_loans">
-  <title>Loans</title>
+  <title>Кредиты</title>
 
   <para>This chapter explains how to manage your loans with <application>&app;</application>.</para>
 
diff --git a/guide/ru/ch_reports.xml b/guide/ru/ch_reports.xml
index 7d4e3e4..67d11d3 100644
--- a/guide/ru/ch_reports.xml
+++ b/guide/ru/ch_reports.xml
@@ -12,7 +12,7 @@
                (translators put your name and email here)
 -->
  <chapter id="ch_reports">
- <title>Reports</title>
+ <title>Отчеты</title>
  <para><application>&app;</application> is a powerful double entry accounting software package that allows
 users to enter and track their money in a reliable manner. However, putting
 this information into <application>&app;</application> is only a part of the process. To be truly
diff --git a/guide/ru/ch_txns.xml b/guide/ru/ch_txns.xml
index b425dbd..4f7f375 100644
--- a/guide/ru/ch_txns.xml
+++ b/guide/ru/ch_txns.xml
@@ -12,7 +12,7 @@
                (translators put your name and email here)
 -->
 <chapter id="chapter_txns">
-  <title>Transactions</title>
+  <title>Транзакции</title>
 
   <para>This chapter will give you the basic information you need to
   understand and use transactions in <application>&app;</application>. Whereas accounts are the
diff --git a/guide/ru/gnucash-guide.xml b/guide/ru/gnucash-guide.xml
index e9d28bb..dc6bd9d 100644
--- a/guide/ru/gnucash-guide.xml
+++ b/guide/ru/gnucash-guide.xml
@@ -78,13 +78,13 @@
   Maintainers:
         Gnucash Development Team <gnucash-devel at gnucash.org>
   Translators:
-               (translators put your name and email here)
+        Dmitriy Mangul <dimang.freetime at gmail.com>
 -->
 <book id="index" lang="en-US">
 <!-- please do not change the id; for translations, change lang to -->
 <!-- appropriate code -->
  <bookinfo>
-  <title><application>&app;</application> Tutorial and Concepts Guide</title>
+  <title>Практическое руководство по <application>&app;</application></title>
   <edition>V&manrevision;</edition>
 
   <copyright>
@@ -127,6 +127,11 @@
    <holder>Carol Champagne and Chris Lyttle</holder>
   </copyright>
 
+  <copyright>
+   <year>2017</year>
+   <holder>Dmitriy Mangul (russian translation)</holder>
+  </copyright>
+
  <!-- translators: uncomment this:
 
   <copyright>
@@ -337,7 +342,7 @@
 
 </bookinfo>
 <preface>
-  <title>About the Author</title>
+  <title>Об авторах</title>
   <para>
  	The GnuCash Documentation Team is a self-designated
 	group of GnuCash users and developers who have volunteered to
@@ -395,10 +400,16 @@
     </author>,
     <author>
       <firstname>Bengt</firstname> <surname>Thuree</surname>
-    </author>, and
+    </author>, 
     <author>
       <firstname>David</firstname> <surname>T.</surname>
-    </author>.
+    </author> and
+    
+    <author role="translator">
+      <firstname>Dmitriy</firstname>
+        <surname>Mangul</surname>
+        <contrib>Russian translation</contrib>
+    </author>
 
 <!-- This is appropriate place for other contributors: translators,
       maintainers,  etc. Commented out by default.
@@ -417,14 +428,14 @@
 </preface>
 
 <part>
-    <title>Getting Started</title>
+    <title>Введение</title>
 &chapter1;
 &chapter2;
 &chapter3;
 &chapter4;
 </part>
 <part>
-    <title>Managing Personal Finances</title>
+    <title>Организация личных финансов</title>
 &chapter5;
 &chapter6;
 &chapter7;
@@ -435,7 +446,7 @@
 &chapter12;
 </part>
 <part>
-    <title>Managing Business Finances</title>
+    <title>Организация бизнес финансов</title>
 &chapter13;
 &chapter14;
 &chapter15;
@@ -444,7 +455,7 @@
 &chapter18;
 </part>
 <part>
-    <title>Appendices</title>
+    <title>Приложения</title>
 &gnc-gloss;
 &appendixa;
 &appendixb;

commit 688b24ebf9d454b942d815b300daf18c43aa1bb3
Author: Dima <dimang.freetime at gmail.com>
Date:   Mon Jun 26 22:46:11 2017 +0200

    Add the new directory "ru" into configuration files

diff --git a/configure.ac b/configure.ac
index df02082..a182bc4 100644
--- a/configure.ac
+++ b/configure.ac
@@ -203,6 +203,7 @@ guide/de/Makefile
 guide/it/Makefile
 guide/ja/Makefile
 guide/pt/Makefile
+guide/ru/Makefile
 Makefile])
 
 AC_CONFIG_FILES([guide/ja/fop.xconf])
diff --git a/guide/Makefile.am b/guide/Makefile.am
index 6a24f8f..4ecdb72 100644
--- a/guide/Makefile.am
+++ b/guide/Makefile.am
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
-SUBDIRS = C de it ja pt
+SUBDIRS = C de it ja pt ru
 
 gnomehelpdir = $(datadir)/gnome/help/gnucash-guide
 

commit 382149b928b220d9f5c923e9ad992e64f94cc5df
Author: Dima <dimang.freetime at gmail.com>
Date:   Mon Jun 26 22:44:30 2017 +0200

    copy of the files from guide/C

diff --git a/guide/ru/Makefile.am b/guide/ru/Makefile.am
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..17a0b8e
--- /dev/null
+++ b/guide/ru/Makefile.am
@@ -0,0 +1,39 @@
+figdir = figures
+docname = gnucash-guide
+lang = ru
+omffile = $(docname)-ru.omf
+entities = \
+    ch_oview.xml \
+    ch_basics.xml \
+    ch_accts.xml \
+    ch_txns.xml \
+    ch_cbook.xml \
+    ch_cc.xml \
+    ch_expenses.xml \
+    ch_loans.xml \
+    ch_invest.xml \
+    ch_reports.xml \
+    ch_capgain.xml \
+    ch_currency.xml \
+    ch_dep.xml \
+    ch_bus_features.xml \
+    ch_budgets.xml \
+    ch_oth_assets.xml \
+    ch_python_bindings.xml \
+    ch_import_business_data.xml \
+    gnc-glossary.xml \
+    fdl-appendix.xml \
+    legal.xml \
+    appendixa.xml \
+    appendixb.xml \
+    appendixc.xml \
+    appendixd.xml
+DISTCLEANFILES = $(docname)-C.omf.out
+CLEANFILES = $(DISTCLEANFILES)
+XSLTFLAGS_FO = --stringparam paper.type A4
+include $(top_srcdir)/xmldocs.make
+include $(top_srcdir)/pdf.make
+include $(top_srcdir)/epub.make
+if WITH_MOBI
+include $(top_srcdir)/mobi.make
+endif
diff --git a/guide/ru/appendixa.xml b/guide/ru/appendixa.xml
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..804bf04
--- /dev/null
+++ b/guide/ru/appendixa.xml
@@ -0,0 +1,128 @@
+<!--
+      (Do not remove this comment block.)
+  Version: 2.0.0
+  Last modified: July 9th 2006
+  Maintainers:
+               Chris Lyttle <chris at wilddev.net>
+  Author:
+  		Jon Lapham <lapham at extracta.com.br>
+  Originally designed by Carol Champagne.
+  Translators:
+               (translators put your name and email here)
+-->
+ <appendix id="appendixa">
+ <title>Migration Guide</title>
+ <para>
+This appendix is to help current users of other financial software packages in their migration to <application>&app;</application>.  We address the conceptual differences between the layout of <application>&app;</application> accounts versus other software packages.
+  </para>
+
+<sect1 id="appendixa_accts_vs_cats1">
+<title>Using Accounts vs. Categories</title>
+<para>
+If you are familiar with other personal finance programs, you are already accustomed to tracking your income and expenses as categories. Since <application>&app;</application> is a double-entry system (refer to section 2.1), incomes and expenses are tracked in accounts. The basic concept is the same, but the account structure allows more consistency with accepted business practices. So, if you are a business user as well as a home user, <application>&app;</application> makes it easy to keep track of your business as well as your personal accounts.
+</para>
+<para>
+Income and expense accounts give you the same information you would get with categories, but they also give you more flexibility in entering your transactions.    In <application>&app;</application>, you have the option to enter transactions directly into income and expense accounts through their account registers.   Other programs that use categories do not offer this option, because there is no <quote>account register</quote> for a category.
+</para>
+<para>
+You also have the option in <application>&app;</application> to treat income and expense accounts exactly as you would treat categories, if you are more comfortable with that method.  In <trademark class="registered">Quicken</trademark> and similar programs,  transactions require an account and a category.   Substitute an income or expense account name in <application>&app;</application> where you would normally enter a category name in the other programs, and the result should be the same.   We will discuss transaction entry in Chapter 4 in greater detail.
+</para>
+</sect1>
+
+ <sect1 id="appendixa_qif1">
+ <title>Organization of <acronym>QIF</acronym> Files (Discussion)</title>
+ <para>
+  </para>
+ </sect1>
+ <sect1 id="appendixa_entercharge1">
+ <title>Common Duplication Issues (Discussion)</title>
+ <para>
+ </para>
+ </sect1>
+ <sect1 id="appendixa_enterpay1">
+ <title>Checking <acronym>QIF</acronym> Data (Discussion)</title>
+ <para>
+ </para>
+ </sect1>
+
+<sect1 id="appendixa_xmlconvert1">
+<title>Converting <acronym>XML</acronym> <application>&app;</application> File</title>
+ <para>The <application>&app;</application> <acronym>XML</acronym> data file can be transformed to almost any other data
+format (e.g., <acronym>QIF</acronym>, <acronym>CSV</acronym>...) quite easily if one is familiar with <acronym>XSLT</acronym>.
+The <application>&app;</application> data file is well-formed <acronym>XML</acronym>, and it can therefore be run
+through an <acronym>XSLT</acronym> parser with an associated stylesheet.  This allows one
+to transform the file to just about any format that can be designed,
+given a properly written stylesheet.</para>
+
+  <para>A few steps need to be followed.  The writing of a stylesheet is a task
+for a different time, but if you can get one written, here’s what you
+need to do:</para>
+  <orderedlist>
+  <listitem>
+    <para>Copy the <application>&app;</application> <acronym>XML</acronym> data file to a working file.</para>
+    <note>
+      <para>If the file was last modified by a version of <application>&app;</application> older than 2.0, then
+before to continue to the next step you will need to modify the working file’s <gnc-v2>
+tag to read something like this:</para>
+    <literallayout>
+<gnc-v2 xmlns:cd="http://www.gnucash.org/XML/cd"
+        xmlns:book="http://www.gnucash.org/XML/book"
+        xmlns:gnc="http://www.gnucash.org/XML/gnc"
+        xmlns:cmdty="http://www.gnucash.org/XML/cmdty"
+        xmlns:trn="http://www.gnucash.org/XML/trn"
+        xmlns:split="http://www.gnucash.org/XML/split"
+        xmlns:act="http://www.gnucash.org/XML/act"
+        xmlns:price="http://www.gnucash.org/XML/price"
+        xmlns:ts="http://www.gnucash.org/XML/ts"
+        xmlns:slot="http://www.gnucash.org/XML/kvpslot"
+        xmlns:cust="http://www.gnucash.org/XML/cust"
+        xmlns:entry="http://www.gnucash.org/XML/entry"
+        xmlns:lot="http://www.gnucash.org/XML/lot"
+        xmlns:invoice="http://www.gnucash.org/XML/invoice"
+        xmlns:owner="http://www.gnucash.org/XML/owner"
+        xmlns:job="http://www.gnucash.org/XML/job"
+        xmlns:billterm="http://www.gnucash.org/XML/billterm"
+        xmlns:bt-days="http://www.gnucash.org/XML/bt-days"
+        xmlns:sx="http://www.gnucash.org/XML/sx"
+        xmlns:fs="http://www.gnucash.org/XML/fs"
+        xmlns:addr="http://www.gnucash.org/XML/custaddr">
+    </literallayout>
+    <para>You can put pretty much anything you want behind the equal signs, but a <acronym>URL</acronym>
+is what is typically used.</para>
+    </note>
+  </listitem>
+  <listitem>
+  <para>Create an <acronym>XSLT</acronym> stylesheet containing the transformation your desire,
+or obtain one that’s already written (AFAIK, there aren’t any, but I’m
+working on a <acronym>CSV</acronym> one).</para>
+  </listitem>
+  <listitem>
+<para>Install an <acronym>XSLT</acronym> processor such as Saxon
+(http://saxon.sourceforge.net/) or Xalan-J  (http://xml.apache.org/).
+Any conforming processor will do, really...</para>
+  </listitem>
+  <listitem>
+<para>Run the work file and the stylesheet through the processor according
+to the processor’s instructions.</para>
+  </listitem>
+  <listitem>
+<para>You will now have a file in the desired output format.  An
+enterprising individual could go so far as to write a stylesheet to
+transform the <application>&app;</application> data file to an OpenOffice spreadsheet (or
+vice-versa, for that matter).  Such things as <acronym>QIF</acronym> ought to be a little
+less work.</para>
+  </listitem>
+  </orderedlist>
+
+<para>Benefits are that you don’t need to write a Scheme module or a new C
+routine to do this transformation.  Anyone who knows or can learn <acronym>XML</acronym>
+and <acronym>XSLT</acronym> can perform this task.  Not much harder, really, than writing a
+Web page....</para>
+
+<para>Anyhow, I just wanted this tidbit to be captured somewhere permanently.
+The process works on &vers-stable; datafiles, and ought to
+work on earlier versions, too.</para>
+
+ </sect1>
+
+ </appendix>
diff --git a/guide/ru/appendixb.xml b/guide/ru/appendixb.xml
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..d13f60d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/guide/ru/appendixb.xml
@@ -0,0 +1,137 @@
+<!--
+      (Do not remove this comment block.)
+  Version: 2.0.0
+  Last modified: July 9th 2006
+  Maintainers:
+               Chris Lyttle <chris at wilddev.net>
+  Author:
+  		Jon Lapham <lapham at extracta.com.br>
+  Originally designed by Carol Champagne.
+  Translators:
+               (translators put your name and email here)
+-->
+  <appendix id="appendixb">
+    <title>Frequently Asked Questions</title>
+    <para>This is a list of questions asked on the mailing lists for which there really is no section in the documentation covering the subject.</para>
+    <sect1 id="appendixb_info">
+      <title>Sources of Information</title>
+
+      <sect2 id="appendixb_info_where">
+        <title>Q: Where’s the FAQ?</title>
+        <para>A: You’re looking at it. The most up-to-date copy can be found <ulink url="http://wiki.gnucash.org/wiki/FAQ">within the <application>&app;</application> Wiki</ulink>.</para>
+      </sect2>
+
+      <sect2 id="appendixb_info_mail">
+        <title>Q: Are there mailing lists for <application>&app;</application>?</title>
+        <para>A: Yes. Go to <ulink url="http://lists.gnucash.org/mailman/listinfo/gnucash-user">http://lists.gnucash.org/mailman/listinfo/gnucash-user</ulink> and <ulink url="http://lists.gnucash.org/mailman/listinfo/gnucash-devel">http://lists.gnucash.org/mailman/listinfo/gnucash-devel</ulink> to subscibe.</para>
+      </sect2>
+
+      <sect2 id="appendixb_info_mailarchive">
+        <title>Q: Is there a searchable archive for the mailing lists?</title>
+        <para>A: Yes, you can search the mail list archives at <ulink url="http://news.gmane.org/gmane.comp.gnome.apps.gnucash.devel"></ulink> and <ulink url="http://news.gmane.org/gmane.comp.gnome.apps.gnucash.user"></ulink> (and <ulink url="http://news.gmane.org/gmane.comp.gnome.apps.gnucash.german"></ulink> if you speak German).</para>
+      </sect2>
+
+      <sect2 id="appendixb_info_other">
+        <title>Q: Are there other means of obtaining support for <application>&app;</application>?</title>
+        <para>A: Yes. Many of the developers hang out on icq in the #gnucash discussion on irc.gnome.org. Also, there is a wiki online at <ulink url="http://wiki.gnucash.org/wiki/&app;">http://wiki.gnucash.org/wiki/&app;</ulink>.</para>
+      </sect2>
+    </sect1>
+
+    <sect1 id="appendixb_general">
+      <title>General Information</title>
+
+      <sect2 id="appendixb_software_windows">
+        <title>Q: Can I run <application>&app;</application> on Windows?</title>
+        <para>A: Yes. Starting with release 2.2.0, <application>&app;</application> is also available on Windows.</para>
+        <para>Other related options would be colinux, VMWare and a windows-based X-server hosting a remote <application>&app;</application> session.</para>
+      </sect2>
+
+      <sect2 id="appendixb_general_hard2compile">
+        <title>Q: I heard it is too hard to compile <application>&app;</application>!</title>
+        <para>A: This was probably true at the time when 1.6.0 was released. It is no longer true today, as almost every distribution ships with all the necessary libraries (except g-wrap, which means there is in fact <quote>one</quote> extra library to be installed before compiling <application>&app;</application>). However, by default, distributions won’t install the development packages of the required libraries, so you might need to start your distribution’s installer program and tell it to install not only the library packages but also the -devel packages. In general, it was noted that this problem concerns many applications in the gnome domain, and this also boils down to the fact that there is no such thing as <quote>one monolithic gnome package</quote>.</para>
+      </sect2>
+
+      <sect2 id="appendixb_general_batchmode">
+        <title>Q: Is there a batch mode (non-interactive) available for <application>&app;</application>, for building reports, etc?</title>
+        <para>A: No, for now <application>&app;</application> must be run interactively.</para>
+      </sect2>
+
+      <sect2 id="appendixb_general_multuser">
+        <title>Q: Can multiple people access the same datafile in <application>&app;</application>?</title>
+        <para>A: You can have multiple people with access to the same datafile, but they cannot use the data file simultaneously.</para>
+        <para>To setup multi-person access, all the people must have read/write access to the directory containing the file (to read the other’s created files, and to create new files).  One way to do this is by creating a user group and setting the data directory to be owned by the shared group and set to mode 2775. The <quote>2</quote> makes the directory setgid which copies the permissions to all files.</para>
+      </sect2>
+
+      <sect2 id="appendixb_general_WhyC">
+        <title>Q: Why is <application>&app;</application> written in C?</title>
+        <para>A: The core functionality of <application>&app;</application> is written in C, but do not forget that much of this can be accessed through Guile (scheme).  There are a number of reasons for why <application>&app;</application> is written in C.  The first is historical, <application>&app;</application> was started in 1996 (or maybe even earlier!) and many of the OOP (C++, Java, Python) compilers were not yet mature and standarized enough on the variety of platforms considered at that time, so C was the only option at that time.  A second reason is because the standard GUI <application>&app;</application> uses is GTK, which is written in C.</para>
+      </sect2>
+
+      <sect2 id="appendixb_general_rewrite">
+        <title>Q: Why don’t you rewrite <application>&app;</application> in programming language xyz so that I can contribute easily?</title>
+        <para>A: The quick answer is <quote>We won’t</quote>. The longer answer is complex but still amounts to <quote>We won’t</quote>. <application>&app;</application> is a large body of code maintained by a small group of developers who are comfortable in C and Scheme (Guile). Actually, 80% of it is in C and approx. 13% is in Scheme/Lisp. There is no valid reason that would justify rewriting this amount of existing code in a newer language. Also, creating language bindings to recent languages such as Python or Ruby or (insert your favourite language here) is labor intensive, and we’re already stretched pretty thin maintaining and developing the existing code.</para>
+        <para>Having said that, this is an open source project and you’re free to do with it or contribute what you want. Just don’t expect much support if the reason for your changes is that you’re not willing to learn C or Scheme. Also, <application>&app;</application> used to have SWIG bindings (<ulink url="http://www.swig.org"></ulink>) which have been used for some perl programming code. According to a list discussion, these SWIG bindings might still be a way to include other languages into <application>&app;</application>, but currently they are unused and unmaintained.</para>
+      </sect2>
+
+      <sect2 id="appendixb_general_newFeatures">
+        <title>Q: I really want feature XYZ but <application>&app;</application> doesn’t have it. How do I get it added?</title>
+        <para>A: Ask nicely. :-) You can file an enhancement request at <ulink url="http://bugzilla.gnome.org/enter_bug.cgi?product=&app;"></ulink>. Please bear in mind to describe your proposed enhancement as verbosely as possible. The trick here is to learn how to give the best information to the programmers about what your proposed new feature should do. If you want to speed up development significantly, consider donating some money as described on <application>&app;</application>Development.</para>
+      </sect2>
+
+      <sect2 id="appendixb_software_web">
+        <title>Q: Is there a web interface available for <application>&app;</application>?</title>
+        <para>A: No</para>
+      </sect2>
+
+      <sect2 id="appendixb_software_security">
+        <title>Q: How can I provide security for <application>&app;</application> data using CFS, etc.)</title>
+        <para>A: Unanswered</para>
+      </sect2>
+
+      <sect2 id="appendixb_software_contribute">
+        <title>Q: How can I contribute to the <application>&app;</application> project?</title>
+        <para>A: We’re working on a more formal process, but for now you should subscribe to the mailing list at <ulink url="http://lists.gnucash.org/mailman/listinfo/gnucash-user">http://lists.gnucash.org/mailman/listinfo/gnucash-user</ulink> and <ulink url="http://lists.gnucash.org/mailman/listinfo/gnucash-devel">http://lists.gnucash.org/mailman/listinfo/gnucash-devel</ulink> and discuss what you can contribute with the participants on the lists. Please be aware that <application>&app;</application> is a large body of code written in C and Scheme (see the FAQ above, <quote>Why is <application>&app;</application> written in C?</quote> if you want to know why). If these are languages that you are not willing to work with, consider contributing in other ways.</para>
+      </sect2>
+
+      <sect2 id="appendixb_software_bugs">
+        <title>Q: I think I found a bug. How do I report it?</title>
+        <para>A: First of all, try to verify that it is indeed a bug and that it has not been reported before. Search the mail list archives (see FAQ above). Then search the <ulink url="http://bugzilla.gnome.org">Gnome Bugzilla</ulink> database.</para>
+        <para>If you feel you have indeed found a bug, you can then report it at <ulink url="http://bugzilla.gnome.org/enter_bug.cgi?product=&app;"></ulink>. Please bear in mind to report your bug as verbosely as possible. The trick here is to learn how to give the best information to the programmers about how to reproduce bugs. A Programmer will usually only be able to fix a bug they can see, if you can’t make the programmer see your bug, it won’t get fixed!</para>
+      </sect2>
+
+    </sect1>
+    <sect1 id="appendixb_using">
+      <title>Using <application>&app;</application></title>
+
+      <sect2 id="appendixb_using_moveAtoB">
+        <title>Q: How can I move the transactions from account <quote>A</quote> into account <quote>B</quote>, thus combining them?</title>
+        <para>A: At present, <application>&app;</application> does not offer a way to move groups of splits from one account to another. You will need to move them one at a time. Open the register for account <quote>A</quote> and select the pulldown menu item <menuchoice><guimenu>View</guimenu><guimenuitem>Transaction Journal</guimenuitem></menuchoice> to expose all the splits.  For every split where the <quote>Account</quote> field shows account <quote>A</quote> reset it to account <quote>B</quote>. To do this quickly and safely, first use <keycombo><keycap>Ctrl</keycap><keycap>C</keycap></keycombo> to copy the destination account name (<quote>account B</quote>) to the clipboard.  Then highlight each reference to account <quote>A</quote> by double clicking on it and use <keycombo><keycap>Ctrl</keycap><keycap>V</keycap></keycombo> to paste the destination account name.  Pressing <keycap function="enter">Enter</keycap> after each paste, silently moves the transaction out of the register.</para>
+        <para>Be careful!  If you inadvertently set the <quote>Account</quote> field to an unintended location, you will need to search through all your accounts to find the lost transaction to correct your mistake.</para>
+      </sect2>
+
+      <sect2 id="appendixb_using_merge2files">
+        <title>Q: Is it possible to merge two <application>&app;</application> files?</title>
+        <para>A: At present this is not possible.</para>
+      </sect2>
+
+      <sect2 id="appendixb_using_SaveAcctTemplate">
+        <title>Q: How can I save a template of my account structure?</title>
+        <para>A: This is available from the menu: <menuchoice><guimenu>File</guimenu><guisubmenu>Export</guisubmenu><guimenuitem>Export Accounts</guimenuitem></menuchoice></para>
+      </sect2>
+      <sect2 id="appendixb_using_ListAll">
+        <title>Q: When I search for customers (or anything else for that matter), how can I return a list of everything?</title>
+        <para>A: Enter a search criteria of <guilabel>matches regex</guilabel>, and place a single dot <quote>.</quote> in the text field area. Then, click <guibutton>Find</guibutton>. The regular expression <quote>.</quote> means to match anything.</para>
+      </sect2>
+      <sect2 id="appendixb_using_Dates">
+        <title>Q: How can I record a transaction on different dates (actual date and bank date)?</title>
+        <para>A: You record the transaction on the date you write the check or initiate the transaction.  When it <quote>clears</quote> the bank, you can click in the <quote>Reconciled</quote> field to <quote>clear</quote> the transaction (change the <quote>n</quote>on-reconciled to <quote>c</quote>leared).</para>
+      </sect2>
+    </sect1>
+    <sect1 id="appendixb_accounting">
+      <title>Accounting</title>
+      <sect2 id="appendixb_accounting_Taxes">
+        <title>Q: How do I treat taxes?  As an account payable or as an expense?</title>
+        <para>A: This is a loaded question, and you should really talk to your accountant.  How you treat taxes really depends on what kind of taxes they are, and how you WANT to treat them..  In some cases they are expenses, in some cases they are liabilities.</para>
+      </sect2>
+    </sect1>
+  </appendix>
diff --git a/guide/ru/appendixc.xml b/guide/ru/appendixc.xml
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..04bf090
--- /dev/null
+++ b/guide/ru/appendixc.xml
@@ -0,0 +1,141 @@
+<!--
+      (Do not remove this comment block.)
+  Version: 2.0.0
+  Last modified: July 9th 2006
+  Maintainers:
+               Chris Lyttle <chris at wilddev.net>
+  Author:
+  		Jon Lapham <lapham at extracta.com.br>
+  Originally designed by Carol Champagne.
+  Translators:
+               (translators put your name and email here)
+-->
+ <appendix id="appendixc">
+ <title>Contributed Account Trees</title>
+ <para>
+   </para>
+ <sect1 id="appendixc_vat1">
+ <title>UK Vat</title>
+ <para>
+Account types (only shown if different to parent type)
+ </para>
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>[E] Expense</para>
+ </listitem>
+ <listitem>
+<para>[I] Income</para>
+ </listitem>
+ <listitem>
+<para>[A] Asset</para>
+ </listitem>
+ <listitem>
+<para>[L] Liability</para>
+ </listitem>
+ <listitem>
+<para>[Q] Equity</para>
+ </listitem>
+ <listitem>
+<para>[B] Bank accounts</para>
+ </listitem>
+ <listitem>
+<para>[C] Credit Cards</para>
+ </listitem>
+ <listitem>
+<para>[R] Accounts Receivable</para>
+ </listitem>
+ <listitem>
+<para>[P] Accounts Payable</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+
+<para>(Box n) refers to VAT form box number (I actually have these as
+descriptions to the account to remind me)</para>
+
+<para>Add all the (Box n -part)  together to get the whole (Box n)
+The VAT shows you liability - if its negative they owe you.</para>
+
+<para>Capital Equipment (Box 7 - part) and (Box 6 - part) is the value of all *additions* (purchases) made over the VAT return period - not the absolute value, nor the difference in value unless that difference is wholly due to new purchases. Depreciation, losses (e.g a write off of faulty item) and other reductions in capital value are not included. If you sell a capital item then that sale and its VAT is recorded under Income. The asset is <quote>converted to cash</quote>, so the <quote>net of VAT</quote> increase in your bank account, when the invoice is payed, is matched by a decrease in capital.</para>
+
+<literallayout>
+Bank Accounts [B]
+  |___ Main Account
+  |___  Reserve Account
+
+Cash [A]
+
+Assets [A]
+  |___ Capital Equipment    (Box 7 - Part) - additions only, not absolute value
+  |           |___ Computers      Can be depreciated to zero this year
+  |           |___ EEC reverse VAT purchase  (Box 6 - Part) create sub-accounts if needed
+  |___  Other
+
+Receivable [R] Customers to whom you give credit - (business section)
+
+
+Cards [C]
+  |___  Card 1
+
+Liabilities [L]
+  |___  Owed Corp Tax
+  |___  Owed Fees
+  |___  Owed Tax / NI
+  |___  Other
+
+VAT [L]   Net (Box 5)
+  |___ i/p [A]   purchases (Box4)
+  |___  o/p [L]     (Box3)
+             |___EEC   on reverse VAT purchases (Box 2)
+             |___Sales   all including zero rate UK/ EEC  and World (Box1)
+
+Payable [P]   Suppliers who give you credit (business section)
+
+Equity [Q]
+  |___  Corp Tax
+  |___  Director’s Loan
+  |___  Dividends
+  |             |___  Director1
+  |             |___  Director2
+  |             |___  Shareholder 1
+  |___ Grants (and stuff that does not count as income)
+  |___Opening Balances
+
+Income [I]   (Box 6 - part)
+   |___ Interest
+   |___ Misc
+   | ___ Sales
+                |___ EEC
+                |     |____ goods  (Box 8) (sub accounts as needed)
+                |     |____ services includes software (sub accounts as needed)
+                | ___ UK
+                |____ World
+
+Expenses [E]
+        |__Depreciation
+        |__ Emoluments
+        |            |___ Directors Fees
+        |            |___ NI Employer
+        |            |___ Employee 1
+        |                     |___NI
+        |                     |___Net Salary
+        |                     |___Stakeholder
+        |                     |___Tax
+        |___ Other Non VAT Expenses
+        |___ VAT Purchases    (Box 7 - part)
+                    |___  Accountancy
+                    |___  Bank Charges
+                    |___  Consumables
+                    |___  EEC  reverse VAT purchases  (Box 6 - Part)
+                    |         |___ goods (Box 9) (sub accounts as needed)
+                    |         |___ services   includes software (sub accounts as needed)
+                    |___  Office
+                    |___  Phone and Internet
+                    |___  Software
+                    |___  Subscriptions
+                    |___  Sundry
+                    |___  Travel / Accom
+
+</literallayout>
+
+ </sect1>
+ </appendix>
diff --git a/guide/ru/appendixd.xml b/guide/ru/appendixd.xml
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..f2d3d1f
--- /dev/null
+++ b/guide/ru/appendixd.xml
@@ -0,0 +1,441 @@
+<!--
+      (Do not remove this comment block.)
+  Version: 2.0.0
+  Last modified: March 18th, 2007
+  Maintainers:
+                Chris Lyttle <chris at wilddev.net>
+  Author:
+                David Hampton <hampton at employees.org>
+  Translators:
+               (translators put your name and email here)
+-->
+  <appendix id="appendixd">
+    <title>Auxiliary File Formats</title>
+    <para>These are the formats of some auxiliary files used by <application>&app;</application>.</para>
+    <sect1 id="check_format_info">
+      <title>Check Format Files (<filename>*.chk</filename>)</title>
+
+      <sect2 id="check_format_overview">
+        <title>Overview</title>
+        <para>The check format file is used to tell <application>&app;</application> how to print a check or checks onto a page of paper.  This file first describes the overall layout of a page (number of checks, orientation, etc) and then describes the layout of the specific items on a single check.  The file is organized as a typical Key/Value file used by many Linux applications.  Keys/values pairs are grouped into sections that begin with the group name enclosed in square brackets.</para>
+        <para><application>&app;</application> looks for check format files in two different locations when you bring up the check printing dialog.  The first location is typically <filename class="directory">/usr/share/gnucash/checks</filename>, where check files distributed with the application can be found.  The second location is the user private <filename class="directory">~/.gnucash/checks</filename> directory.  Users may add check formats at any time (even while <application>&app;</application> is running) simply by dropping a new <filename>*.chk</filename> file in this directory.  The next time the check printing dialog is opened the new check format will appear in the list of available check formats.</para>
+        <note>
+          <para>Printing functions differently depending on the version of GTK that is installed on your system.  When <application>&app;</application> is using a version of GTK prior to 2.10 all offsets are measured from the lower left corner of the page or check.  When using GTK 2.10 or later, all offsets are measured from the upper left corner of the page or check.</para>
+        </note>
+      </sect2>
+      <sect2>
+        <title>Example file</title>
+        <para>A typical <application>&app;</application> check file is presented below.  The contents of this file will be described in the next sections.</para>
+
+        <programlisting>
+[Top]
+Guid = 67b144d1-96a5-48d5-9337-0e1083bbf229
+Title = Quicken/QuickBooks (tm) US-Letter
+Rotation = 0.0
+Translation = 0.0;4.0
+Show_Grid = false
+Show_Boxes = false
+
+[Check Positions]
+Height = 252.0
+Names = Top;Middle;Bottom
+
+[Check Items]
+Type_1 = PAYEE
+Coords_1 = 90.0;102.0;400.0;20.0
+
+Type_2 = AMOUNT_WORDS
+Coords_2 = 90.0;132.0
+
+Type_3 = AMOUNT_NUMBER
+Blocking_Chars_3 = true
+Coords_3 = 500.0;102.0
+
+Type_4 = DATE
+Coords_4 = 500.0;67.0
+
+Type_5 = NOTES
+Coords_5 = 50.0;212.0
+        </programlisting>
+      </sect2>
+      <sect2>
+        <title>Field Descriptions</title>
+        <sect3>
+          <title>Top Group</title>
+          <para>This section of the check file describes the overall layout of a page of checks (or check) that goes into the printer.</para>
+          <table id="check_table_top">
+            <title>Overall Page Description Fields</title>
+            <tgroup cols="4">
+              <thead>
+                <row>
+                  <entry>Name</entry>
+                  <entry>Type</entry>
+                  <entry>Required</entry>
+                  <entry>Description</entry>
+                </row>
+              </thead>
+              <tbody>
+                <row>
+                  <entry>Guid</entry>
+                  <entry>string</entry>
+                  <entry>mandatory</entry>
+                  <entry>The guid is used to uniquely identify a check format to <application>&app;</application>.  It must be unique across the entire set of application supplied and user supplied check formats.  If you copy an application check file as the basis of your own check format, you must change this value.  The <emphasis>uuidgen</emphasis> program may be used to generate these identifiers.</entry>
+                </row>
+                <row>
+                  <entry>Title</entry>
+                  <entry>string</entry>
+                  <entry>mandatory</entry>
+                  <entry>The title is used to uniquely identify a check format to the user.  This value is presented verbatim in the check format list of the check printing dialog.  If you copy an application check file as the basis of your own check format, you should change this value.  The title may be any utf-8 string.</entry>
+                </row>
+                <row>
+                  <entry>Font</entry>
+                  <entry>string</entry>
+                  <entry>optional</entry>
+                  <entry>If supplied, this is the default font used to print all text items on this check.  This field can contain any string that is acceptable by gtk as a font specifier.  If this field is omitted, the default font is the font specified in the <application>&app;</application> preferences dialog.  A typical string would be <quote>sans 12</quote>.</entry>
+                </row>
+                <row>
+                  <entry>Blocking_Chars</entry>
+                  <entry>boolean</entry>
+                  <entry>optional</entry>
+                  <entry>If supplied, this is the default used when printing all <emphasis>TEXT</emphasis> items on this check.  When set to true, will print <emphasis>***</emphasis> before and after each text field on the check.  Blocking characters are printed to protect check fields from alteration.  For example, the amount field may be printed as <emphasis>***100.00***</emphasis></entry>
+                </row>
+                <row>
+                  <entry>DateFormat</entry>
+                  <entry>boolean</entry>
+                  <entry>optional</entry>
+                  <entry>If supplied, this is the default used when printing all <emphasis>DATE</emphasis> items on this check.  When set to true, will print the format of the DATE in 8 point type, centered and below the actual DATE.  For example DDMMYYYY.</entry>
+                </row>
+                <row>
+                  <entry>Rotation</entry>
+                  <entry>double</entry>
+                  <entry>optional</entry>
+                  <entry>This value specified the rotation of the entire page (in degrees) around the origin point. For gtk versions prior to 2.10, the origin point is in the lower left corner of the page and rotation values increase in the counter-clockwise direction.  For gtk version 2.10 and later, the origin point is in the upper left corner of the page and rotation values increase in the clockwise direction. Rotation of the page is applied before translation.</entry>
+                </row>
+                <row>
+                  <entry>Translation</entry>
+                  <entry>list of 2 doubles</entry>
+                  <entry>optional</entry>
+                  <entry>These values specify the x and y translation of the entire page (in points) relative to the origin point. For gtk versions prior to 2.10, the origin point is in the lower left corner of the page and translation values increase moving up and to the right.  For gtk version 2.10 and later, the origin point is in the upper left corner of the page and translation values increase moving down and to the right. Rotation of the page is applied before translation.</entry>
+                </row>
+                <row>
+                  <entry>Show_Grid</entry>
+                  <entry>boolean</entry>
+                  <entry>optional</entry>
+                  <entry>If this value is set to <emphasis>true</emphasis> then <application>&app;</application> will draw a grid on the page, starting at the origin with the lines spaced every 50 points. This can be helpful when creating a check format file.</entry>
+                </row>
+                <row>
+                  <entry>Show_Boxes</entry>
+                  <entry>boolean</entry>
+                  <entry>optional</entry>
+                  <entry>If this value is set to <emphasis>true</emphasis> then for each item where the width and height have been specified, <application>&app;</application> will draw a box showing location and maximum size of that item . This can be helpful when creating a check format file.</entry>
+                </row>
+              </tbody>
+            </tgroup>
+          </table>
+          <note><para>The Blocking_Chars and DateFormat options are defined for all check formats in Edit->Preferences->Printing.  It is recommened that these global options be set to false (the default), and that the options be set for individual Check Items as described below.</para></note>
+        </sect3>
+        <sect3>
+          <title>Check Positions Group</title>
+          <para>This group of items specifies how multiple checks are laid out on the same sheet of paper, and gives names to each of these check locations so that a user can specify which check location that <application>&app;</application> should print.  This entire group of key/value pairs is optional, and should be omitted if the format file only specifies a single check per page of paper.</para>
+          <table id="check_table_positions">
+            <title>Multiple Checks Per Page Fields</title>
+            <tgroup cols="4">
+              <thead>
+                <row>
+                  <entry>Name</entry>
+                  <entry>Type</entry>
+                  <entry>Required</entry>
+                  <entry>Description</entry>
+                </row>
+              </thead>
+              <tbody>
+                <row>
+                  <entry>Height</entry>
+                  <entry>double</entry>
+                  <entry>mandatory</entry>
+                  <entry>This field specifies the height of a single check on the page.  If there are multiple checks per page then this item is mandatory.  If there is only a single check per page, this entire section should be omitted.</entry>
+                </row>
+                <row>
+                  <entry>Names</entry>
+                  <entry>list of strings</entry>
+                  <entry>mandatory</entry>
+                  <entry>This field specifies the names of the check locations that can be printed on each page.  These names represent the check positions starting from the top of the page and moving downward.  The names are presented verbatim in the check position list of the check printing dialog.  A typical value for this field is "Top;Middle;Bottom", but it could also be "First;Second;Third" or any other set of strings that clearly identify the check locations.  If there are multiple checks per page then this item is mandatory.  If there is only a single check per page, this entire section should be omitted.</entry>
+                </row>
+              </tbody>
+            </tgroup>
+          </table>
+        </sect3>
+        <sect3>
+          <title>Check Items Group</title>
+          <para>This section specifies the individual items that are printed on the check.  There is no limit to the number of items that may be present in this section, and any given type of item can be repeated multiple times.  This allows for the printing of checks that have a side stub, or for the one-per-page business checks that have both the check and multiple check stubs on the same page.  For example, to print the payee name on a business check and on both stubs, simply specify three payee items with differing print coordinates.</para>
+          <para>Each key names in this section explicitly includes the item number to which it applies.  E.G. The key named <guilabel>Type_1</guilabel> applies to the first item to be printed, and the key <guilabel>Coords_3</guilabel> applies to the third item to be printed.  Item numbers start at one and increase sequentially.  Any gap in the numbering sequence is interpreted by <application>&app;</application> as the end of the item list.  Items are printed in the order of their item numbers, not in the order in which they appear in the file.</para>
+          <para>Each item specified must include a type declaration.  The rest of the parameters for that item depend upon the particular type of that item.  See <xref linkend="check_table_types"></xref> for a list of valid item types and their required parameters.</para>
+          <table id="check_table_items">
+            <title>Individual Check Item Fields</title>
+            <tgroup cols="4">
+              <thead>
+                <row>
+                  <entry>Name</entry>
+                  <entry>Type</entry>
+                  <entry>Required</entry>
+                  <entry>Description</entry>
+                </row>
+              </thead>
+              <tbody>
+                <row>
+                  <entry>Type_<emphasis>n</emphasis></entry>
+                  <entry>string</entry>
+                  <entry>mandatory</entry>
+                  <entry>This field specifies the type of a single item to be printed on a check.  See <xref linkend="check_table_types"></xref> for a list of valid item types.</entry>
+                </row>
+                <row>
+                  <entry>Coords_<emphasis>n</emphasis></entry>
+                  <entry>list of 2 or 4 doubles</entry>
+                  <entry>mandatory</entry>
+                  <entry>This field specifies the coordinates where the item should be placed on a check, and optionally also specifies the width and height of the item.  The numbers in order are the X and Y offset of the lower left corner of the item, and optionally the width and height of the item.  If the width is supplied then the height must also be supplied, so this field will always contain two or four numbers.  For gtk versions prior to 2.10, the origin point is in the lower left corner of the page and translation values increase moving up and to the right.  For gtk version 2.10 and later, the origin point is in the upper left corner of the page and translation values increase moving down and to the right.<note><para>Regardless of whether the origin is at the top or the bottom of the page, the coordinates always specify the lower left point of the item.</para></note></entry>
+                </row>
+                <row>
+                  <entry>Font_<emphasis>n</emphasis></entry>
+                  <entry>string</entry>
+                  <entry>optional</entry>
+                  <entry>If supplied, this is the font used to print this specific text item.  This field can contain any string that is acceptable by gtk as a font specifier.  If this field is omitted, the default font is the font specified in the <emphasis>Top</emphasis> section of the check description file, or if that was omitted the font specified in the <application>&app;</application> preferences dialog.  This field is only recognized when using gtk version 2.10 or later.</entry>
+                </row>
+                <row>
+                  <entry>Align_<emphasis>n</emphasis></entry>
+                  <entry>string</entry>
+                  <entry>optional</entry>
+                  <entry>If supplied, this is the alignment used to print this specific text item.  This field must contain one of the strings <quote>left</quote>, <quote>center</quote> or <quote>right</quote>.  If this field is omitted, the text will be left aligned.  This field is only recognized when using gtk version 2.10 or later.</entry>
+                </row>
+                <row>
+                  <entry>Text_<emphasis>n</emphasis></entry>
+                  <entry>string</entry>
+                  <entry>optional</entry>
+                  <entry>This field is only used when the item type is <emphasis>TEXT</emphasis>. It specifies the utf-8 text that should be printed on the check.</entry>
+                </row>
+                <row>
+                  <entry>Filename_<emphasis>n</emphasis></entry>
+                  <entry>string</entry>
+                  <entry>optional</entry>
+                  <entry>This field is only used when the item type is <emphasis>PICTURE</emphasis>. It specifies the filename of the image that should be printed on the check.  The string may specify either an absolute path name or as a relative path name.  If a relative path name is specified, <application>&app;</application> first looks in in the application check format folder (typically <filename class="directory">/usr/share/gnucash/checks</filename>) for the image file, and if it isn’t found there then it looks in the user private <filename class="directory">~/.gnucash/checks</filename> directory for the image.  This field is only recognized when using gtk version 2.10 or later.</entry>
+                </row>
+                <row>
+                  <entry>Blocking_Chars_<emphasis>n</emphasis></entry>
+                  <entry>boolean</entry>
+                  <entry>optional</entry>
+                  <entry>If supplied, this will set the print <emphasis>Blocking_Chars</emphasis> option for this item.</entry>
+                </row>
+                <row>
+                  <entry>DateFormat_<emphasis>n</emphasis></entry>
+                  <entry>boolean</entry>
+                  <entry>optional</entry>
+                  <entry>If supplied, this will set the print <emphasis>DateFormat</emphasis> option for this item.</entry>
+                </row>
+              </tbody>
+            </tgroup>
+          </table>
+          <para>These are the individual items that can be printed on a check.  All items require the coordinates on the page where the item should be printed.  The majority of these items result in text being printed on the page, and these items may have individual font and alignments specified.  For example, the numerical amount of a check could be printed right justified while everything else is printed left justified.  Other types may have unique parameters.</para>
+          <table id="check_table_types">
+            <title>Individual Check Item Types</title>
+            <tgroup cols="4">
+              <thead>
+                <row>
+                  <entry>Name</entry>
+                  <entry>Required Fields</entry>
+                  <entry>Optional Fields</entry>
+                  <entry>Description</entry>
+                </row>
+              </thead>
+              <tbody>
+                <row>
+                  <entry>PAYEE</entry>
+                  <entry>Coords</entry>
+                  <entry>
+                    <literallayout>Font
+Align
+Blocking_Chars
+                    </literallayout>
+                  </entry>
+                  <entry>This type value tells <application>&app;</application> to print the check payee name at the specified coordinates.</entry>
+                </row>
+                <row>
+                  <entry>DATE</entry>
+                  <entry>Coords</entry>
+                  <entry>
+                    <literallayout>Font
+Align
+Blocking_Chars
+DateFormat
+                    </literallayout>
+                  </entry>
+                  <entry>This type value tells <application>&app;</application> to print the check date at the specified coordinates.</entry>
+                </row>
+                <row>
+                  <entry>NOTES</entry>
+                  <entry>Coords</entry>
+                  <entry>
+                    <literallayout>Font
+Align
+Blocking_Chars
+                    </literallayout>
+                  </entry>
+                  <entry>This type value tells <application>&app;</application> to print the transaction notes field at the specified coordinates.</entry>
+                </row>
+                <row>
+                  <entry>CHECK_NUMBER</entry>
+                  <entry>Coords</entry>
+                  <entry>
+                    <literallayout>Font
+Align
+Blocking_Chars
+                    </literallayout>
+                  </entry>
+                  <entry>This type value tells <application>&app;</application>
+                    to print the check number at the specified coordinates. The
+                    check number reflects the book option selection under
+                    <menuchoice><guimenu>File</guimenu><guimenuitem>Properties
+                    </guimenuitem></menuchoice> for number source (transaction
+                    number or anchor-split action - see <ulink type="help"
+                    url="ghelp:gnucash-help?num-action-book-option">Use Split
+                    Action Field for Number</ulink> in the Book Options section
+                    of the <application>&app;</application> Help Manual).
+                  </entry>
+                </row>
+                <row>
+                  <entry>MEMO</entry>
+                  <entry>Coords</entry>
+                  <entry>
+                    <literallayout>Font
+Align
+Blocking_Chars
+                    </literallayout>
+                  </entry>
+                  <entry>This type value tells <application>&app;</application> to print the split memo field at the specified coordinates.</entry>
+                </row>
+                <row>
+                  <entry>ACTION</entry>
+                  <entry>Coords</entry>
+                  <entry>
+                    <literallayout>Font
+Align
+Blocking_Chars
+                    </literallayout>
+                  </entry>
+                  <entry>This type value tells <application>&app;</application>
+                    to print the split action field at the specified coordinates.
+                    However, the printed field reflects the book option selection
+                    under <menuchoice><guimenu>File</guimenu><guimenuitem>
+                    Properties</guimenuitem></menuchoice> for number source
+                    (transaction number or anchor-split action - see <ulink
+                    type="help" url="ghelp:gnucash-help?num-action-book-option">
+                    Use Split Action Field for Number</ulink> in the Book
+                    Options section of the <application>&app;</application> Help
+                    Manual). If number source for the book is specified as
+                    anchor-split action, this field will instead print the
+                    transaction number field.
+                  </entry>
+                </row>
+                <row>
+                  <entry>AMOUNT_WORDS</entry>
+                  <entry>Coords</entry>
+                  <entry>
+                    <literallayout>Font
+Align
+Blocking_Chars
+                    </literallayout>
+                  </entry>
+                  <entry>This type value tells <application>&app;</application> to print the check amount in words at the specified coordinates.  The amount will appear similar to the string "One thousand, two hundred thirty four and 56/100".</entry>
+                </row>
+                <row>
+                  <entry>AMOUNT_NUMBER</entry>
+                  <entry>Coords</entry>
+                  <entry>
+                    <literallayout>Font
+Align
+Blocking_Chars
+                    </literallayout>
+                  </entry>
+                  <entry>This type value tells <application>&app;</application> to print the check amount in numbers at the specified coordinates.  The amount will appear similar to the number "$1,234.56".</entry>
+                </row>
+                <row>
+                  <entry>ADDRESS</entry>
+                  <entry>Coords</entry>
+                  <entry>
+                    <literallayout>Font
+Align
+Blocking_Chars
+                    </literallayout>
+                  </entry>
+                  <entry>This type value tells <application>&app;</application> to print the address at the specified coordinates.</entry>
+                </row>
+                <row>
+                  <entry>SPLITS_ACCOUNT</entry>
+                  <entry>Coords</entry>
+                  <entry>
+                    <literallayout>Font
+Align
+Blocking_Chars
+                    </literallayout>
+                  </entry>
+                  <entry>This type value tells <application>&app;</application> to print the account names for each split entry stating at the specified coordinates. See the note on splits printing.</entry>
+                </row>
+                <row>
+                  <entry>SPLITS_AMOUNT</entry>
+                  <entry>Coords</entry>
+                  <entry>
+                    <literallayout>Font
+Align
+Blocking_Chars
+                    </literallayout>
+                  </entry>
+                  <entry>This type value tells <application>&app;</application> to print the amount for each split entry stating at the specified coordinates.  Amounts are printed with currency symbols. See the note on splits printing.</entry>
+                </row>
+                <row>
+                  <entry>SPLITS_MEMO</entry>
+                  <entry>Coords</entry>
+                  <entry>
+                    <literallayout>Font
+Align
+Blocking_Chars
+                    </literallayout>
+                  </entry>
+                  <entry>This type value tells <application>&app;</application> to print the memo text for each split entry stating at the specified coordinates. See the note on splits printing.</entry>
+                </row>
+                <row>
+                  <entry>TEXT</entry>
+                  <entry>Coords, Text</entry>
+                  <entry>
+                    <literallayout>Font
+Align
+Blocking_Chars
+                    </literallayout>
+                  </entry>
+                  <entry>This type value tells <application>&app;</application> to print an arbitrary string at the specified coordinates. The string to be printed is specified with the <emphasis>Text_n</emphasis> key.</entry>
+                </row>
+                <row>
+                  <entry>PICTURE</entry>
+                  <entry>Coords, Filename</entry>
+                  <entry>(none)</entry>
+                  <entry>This type value tells <application>&app;</application> to print an image at the specified coordinates. The image to be printed is specified with the <emphasis>Filename_n</emphasis> key.  This type is only recognized when using gtk version 2.10 or later.</entry>
+                </row>
+              </tbody>
+            </tgroup>
+          </table>
+          <note>
+           <para>SPLIT items include all split entries for the transaction
+            except for the split that applies to the current account register
+            (referred to as the anchor-split).  This is usually the last split
+            listed when splits are displayed in the register.  The coordinate
+            location defines the lower left location for the split information.
+           </para>
+          </note>
+        </sect3>
+      </sect2>
+      <sect2 id="check_format_notes">
+        <title>Creating Check Format Files</title>
+        <para>Creating your own check format file is a fairly simple task.  The easiest way to start is to copy an existing check format file from the application directory (typically <filename class="directory">/usr/share/gnucash/checks</filename>) to the directory <filename class="directory">~/.gnucash/checks</filename>.  Make sure to change the guid so the new file will be accepted by gnucash, and change the title to something descriptive.  Then change or add individual item fields as necessary.  You can also create a new check file by clicking the <guibutton>Save Format</guibutton> button on the <guilabel>Custom format</guilabel> page of the check printing dialog.</para>
+        <note>
+          <para>Key names are case sensitive.  If you’re having problems with a check format file, ensure that all key names have capital letters as documented above.</para>
+        </note>
+      </sect2>
+    </sect1>
+  </appendix>
diff --git a/guide/ru/ch_accts.xml b/guide/ru/ch_accts.xml
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..5cd4691
--- /dev/null
+++ b/guide/ru/ch_accts.xml
@@ -0,0 +1,689 @@
+<!--
+      (Do not remove this comment block.)
+  Version: 2.2.1
+  Last modified: September 26, 2010
+  Maintainers:
+                Tom Bullock  <tbullock at nd.edu>
+               Chris Lyttle  <chris at wilddev.net>
+  Authors:
+                 Jon Lapham  <lapham at extracta.com.br>
+  	Updated	Bengt Thuree <bengt at thuree.com>
+Originally written by
+             Carol Champagne
+Translators:
+       (translators put your name and email here)
+-->
+<chapter id="chapter_accts">
+  <title>Accounts</title>
+
+  <para>This chapter will discuss some useful concepts for organizing your
+  accounts. Since <application>&app;</application> does not impose any specific account tree layout,
+  you are free to design your account structure in any manner you wish.
+  However, there are a few basic accounting concepts which you will probably
+  want to follow when designing your accounts to maximize their
+  utility.</para>
+
+  <sect1 id="accts-concepts1">
+    <title>Basic Accounting Concepts</title>
+
+    <para>As we saw in the previous chapter, accounting is based on 5 basic
+    account types: <guilabel>Assets</guilabel>,
+    <guilabel>Liabilities</guilabel>, <guilabel>Equity</guilabel>,
+    <guilabel>Income</guilabel> and <guilabel>Expenses</guilabel>. We will now
+    expand on our understanding of these account types, and show how they are
+    represented in <application>&app;</application>. But first, let’s divide them into 2 groups, the
+    balance sheet accounts and the income and expense accounts.
+    As the name says the balance sheet accounts can be summarized in the
+    balance of what you own and owe <emphasis>at a point in the time</emphasis>,
+    while the income and expense accounts can be summarized in the Profit & Loss report,
+    which shows the <emphasis>change of values in a period of time</emphasis> like the economic year </para>
+
+    <para>Let’s have a quick look at the Accounting Equation (<emphasis>Assets
+    - Liabilities = Equity + (Income - Expenses)</emphasis>) again as a
+    reminder, before we go deeper into each account type.</para>
+
+    <screenshot id="accts-AccountRelationships">
+      <mediaobject>
+        <imageobject role="html">
+          <imagedata fileref="figures/basics_AccountRelationships.png"
+                     format="PNG" srccredit="Geert Janssens" ></imagedata>
+        </imageobject>
+
+        <imageobject role="fo">
+          <imagedata fileref="figures/basics_AccountRelationships.svg"
+                     format="SVG" srccredit="Geert Janssens"
+                     contentwidth="4in"></imagedata>
+          </imageobject>
+        <textobject>
+          <phrase>The basic accounts relationships</phrase>
+        </textobject>
+
+        <caption>
+          <para>A graphical view of the relationship between the 5 basic
+          accounts. Net worth (equity) increases through income and decreases
+          through expenses. The arrows represent the movement of value.</para>
+        </caption>
+      </mediaobject>
+    </screenshot>
+
+    <sect2 id="accts-bsa2">
+      <title>Balance Sheet Accounts</title>
+
+      <para>The three so-called <emphasis>Balance Sheet Accounts</emphasis>
+      are <guilabel>Assets</guilabel>, <guilabel>Liabilities</guilabel>, and
+      <guilabel>Equity</guilabel>. Balance Sheet Accounts are used to track
+      the things you own or owe.</para>
+
+      <para><guilabel>Assets</guilabel> is the group of things that you own.
+      Your assets could include a car, cash, a house, stocks, or anything else
+      that has convertible value. Convertible value means that theoretically
+      you could sell the item for cash.</para>
+
+      <para><guilabel>Liabilities</guilabel> is the group of things on which
+      you owe money. Your liabilities could include a car loan, a student
+      loan, a mortgage, your investment margin account, or anything else which
+      you must pay back at some time.</para>
+
+      <para><guilabel>Equity</guilabel> is the same as "net worth." It
+      represents what is left over after you subtract your liabilities from
+      your assets. It can be thought of as the portion of your assets that you
+      own outright, without any debt.</para>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="accts-ie2">
+      <title>Income and Expense Accounts</title>
+
+      <para>The two <guilabel>Income and Expense Accounts</guilabel> are used
+      to increase or decrease the value of your accounts. Thus, while the
+      balance sheet accounts simply <emphasis>track</emphasis> the value of
+      the things you own or owe, income and expense accounts allow you to
+      <emphasis>change</emphasis> the value of these accounts.</para>
+
+      <para><guilabel>Income</guilabel> is the payment you receive for your
+      time, services you provide, or the use of your money. When you receive a
+      paycheck, for example, that check is a payment for labor you provided to
+      an employer. Other examples of income include commissions, tips,
+      dividend income from stocks, and interest income from bank accounts.
+      Income will always increase the value of your Assets and thus your
+      Equity.</para>
+
+      <para><guilabel>Expense</guilabel> refers to money you spend to purchase
+      goods or services provided by someone else
+      <emphasis>for early consumption</emphasis>. Examples of expenses are a
+      meal at a restaurant, rent, groceries, gas for your car, or tickets to
+      see a play. Expenses will always decrease your Equity. If you pay for
+      the expense immediately, you will decrease your Assets, whereas if you
+      pay for the expense on credit you increase your Liabilities.</para>
+<!--
+  Translators:
+    Your language might have a generic term for 'income and expense'.
+    Then you should introduce it here in a separate paragraph
+    and replace 'income and expense' by it in the latter sections of this book.
+-->
+    </sect2>
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="accts-types1">
+    <title><application>&app;</application> Accounts</title>
+
+    <para>This section will show how the <application>&app;</application> definition of an account fits
+    into the view of the 5 basic accounting types.</para>
+
+    <para>But first, let’s begin with a definition of an
+    <guilabel>account</guilabel> in <application>&app;</application>. A <application>&app;</application>
+    <guilabel>account</guilabel> is an entity which contains other
+    sub-accounts, or that contains <guilabel>transactions</guilabel>. Since an
+    account can contain other accounts, you often see <guilabel>account
+    trees</guilabel> in <application>&app;</application>, in which logically associated accounts are grouped
+    together within a common parent account.</para>
+
+    <para>A <application>&app;</application> account must have a unique name (that you assign) and one
+    of the predefined <application>&app;</application> <quote>account types</quote>. There are a total of 12 account
+    types in <application>&app;</application>. These 12 account types are based on the 5 basic
+    accounting types; the reason there are more <application>&app;</application> account types than
+    basic accounting types is that this allows <application>&app;</application> to perform specialized
+    tracking and handling of certain accounts. There are 6 asset accounts
+    (<emphasis>Cash</emphasis>, <emphasis>Bank</emphasis>,
+    <emphasis>Stock</emphasis>, <emphasis>Mutual Fund</emphasis>,
+    <emphasis>Accounts Receivable</emphasis>, and <emphasis>Other Assets</emphasis>),
+    3 liability accounts (<emphasis>Credit Card</emphasis>,
+    <emphasis>Accounts Payable</emphasis>, and <emphasis>Liability</emphasis>),
+    1 equity account (<emphasis>Equity</emphasis>), 1 income account
+    (<emphasis>Income</emphasis>), and 1 expense account
+    (<emphasis>Expenses</emphasis>).</para>
+
+    <para>These <application>&app;</application> account types are presented in more detail
+    below.</para>
+
+    <sect2 id="accts-gc-bsa2">
+      <title>Balance Sheet Accounts</title>
+
+      <para>The first balance sheet account we will examine is
+      <emphasis>Assets</emphasis>, which, as you remember from the previous
+      section, refers to things you own.</para>
+
+      <para>To help you organize your asset accounts and to simplify
+      transaction entry, <application>&app;</application> supports several types of asset
+      accounts:</para>
+
+      <orderedlist>
+        <listitem>
+          <para><guilabel>Cash</guilabel> Use this account to track the money
+          you have on hand, in your wallet, in your piggy bank, under your
+          mattress, or wherever you choose to keep it handy. This is the most
+          <emphasis>liquid</emphasis>, or easily traded, type of asset.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><guilabel>Bank</guilabel> This account is used to track your
+          cash balance that you keep in institutions such as banks, credit
+          unions, savings and loan, or brokerage firms - wherever someone else
+          safeguards your money. This is the second most
+          <emphasis>liquid</emphasis> type of account, because you can easily
+          convert it to cash on hand.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><guilabel>Stock</guilabel> Track your individual stocks and
+          bonds using this type of account. The stock account’s register
+          provides extra columns for entering number of shares and price of
+          your investment. With these types of assets, you may not be able to
+          easily convert them to cash unless you can find a buyer, and you are
+          not guaranteed to get the same amount of cash you paid for
+          them.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><guilabel>Mutual Fund</guilabel> This is similar to the stock
+          account, except that it is used to track funds. Its account register
+          provides the same extra columns for entering share and price
+          information. Funds represent ownership shares of a variety of
+          investments, and like stocks they do not offer any guaranteed cash
+          value.</para>
+
+          <para><application>&app;</application> treats account types Stock and
+            Mutual Fund the same.
+          </para>
+
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><guilabel>Accounts Receivable</guilabel> (A/Receivable) This
+          is typically a business use only account in which you place
+          outstanding debts owed to you. It is considered an asset because you
+          should be able to count on these funds arriving.</para>
+
+          <para>Transactions involving an Accounts Receivable account should not be added,
+            changed or deleted in any way other than by using
+          </para>
+          <itemizedlist>
+            <listitem><para>post/unpost bill/invoice/voucher or</para>
+            </listitem>
+	    <listitem><para>process payment</para></listitem>
+	  </itemizedlist>
+	</listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><guilabel>Asset</guilabel> No matter how diverse they
+          are, <application>&app;</application> handles many other situations
+          easily. The account type <quote>Asset</quote>, covers all assets not
+          listed above.</para>
+
+          <para><application>&app;</application> treats account types Cash,
+            Bank and Asset the same.
+          </para>
+
+          <para>Accounts are repositories of information used to track or record
+          the kinds of actions that occur related to the purpose for which the
+          account is established.</para>
+
+          <para>For businesses, activities being tracked and reported are
+          frequently subdivided more finely than what has been considered thus
+          far. For a more developed treatment of the possibilities, please read
+          the descriptions presented in
+          <xref linkend="chapter_other_assets"/> of this Guide.</para>
+
+          <para>For personal finances a person can follow the business groupings
+          or not, as they seem useful to the activities the person is tracking
+          and to the kind of reporting that person needs to have to manage their
+          financial assets. For additional information, consult
+          <xref linkend="chapter_other_assets"/> of this Guide.</para>
+        </listitem>
+      </orderedlist>
+
+      <para>The second balance sheet account is
+      <emphasis>Liabilities</emphasis>, which as you recall, refers to what
+      you owe, money you have borrowed and are obligated to pay back some day.
+      These represent the rights of your lenders to obtain repayment from you.
+      Tracking the liability balances lets you know how much debt you have at
+      a given point in time.</para>
+
+      <para><application>&app;</application> offers three liability account types:</para>
+
+      <orderedlist>
+        <listitem>
+          <para><guilabel>Credit Card</guilabel> Use this to track your credit
+          card receipts and reconcile your credit card statements. Credit
+          cards represent a short-term loan that you are obligated to repay to
+          the credit card company. This type of account can also be used for
+          other short-term loans such as a line of credit from your
+          bank.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><guilabel>Accounts Payable</guilabel> (A/Payable) This is
+            typically a business use only account in which you place bills you
+            have yet to pay.
+          </para>
+
+          <para>Transactions involving an Accounts Payable account should not be added,
+            changed or deleted in any way other than by using
+            <itemizedlist>
+              <listitem><para>post/unpost bill/invoice/voucher or</para></listitem>
+	      <listitem><para>process payment</para></listitem>
+	    </itemizedlist>
+	  </para>
+          </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><guilabel>Liability</guilabel> Use this type of account for
+          all other loans, generally larger long-term loans such as a mortgage
+          or vehicle loan. This account can help you keep track of how much
+          you owe and how much you have already repaid.</para>
+
+          <para><application>&app;</application> treats account types Credit
+            Card and Liability the same.
+          </para>
+
+        </listitem>
+      </orderedlist>
+
+      <tip>
+        <para>Liabilities in accounting act in an opposite manner from assets:
+        <emphasis>credits</emphasis> (right-column value entries) increase
+        liability account balances and <emphasis>debits</emphasis>
+        (left-column value entries) decrease them. (See note later in this
+        chapter)</para>
+      </tip>
+
+      <para>The final balance sheet account is <emphasis>Equity</emphasis>,
+      which is synonymous with <quote>net worth</quote>. It represents what is left over
+      after you subtract your liabilities from your assets, so it is the
+      portion of your assets that you own outright, without any debt. In
+      <application>&app;</application>, use this type of account as the source of your opening bank
+      balances, because these balances represent your beginning net
+      worth.</para>
+
+      <para>There is usually only a single <application>&app;</application> equity account, called naturally
+      enough, <guilabel>Equity</guilabel>.
+      For companies, cooperatives etc. you can create a subaccount for each partner.</para>
+
+      <tip>
+        <para>In equity accounts, credits increase account balances and debits
+        decrease them. (See note later in this chapter)</para>
+      </tip>
+
+      <note>
+        <para>The accounting equation that links balance-sheet accounts is
+        Assets = Liabilities + Equity or rearranged Assets - Liabilities =
+        Equity. So, in common terms, the <emphasis>things you own</emphasis>
+        minus the <emphasis>things you owe</emphasis> equals your
+        <emphasis>net worth</emphasis>.</para>
+      </note>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="accts-gc-ie2">
+      <title>Income and Expense Accounts</title>
+
+      <para><emphasis>Income</emphasis> is the payment you receive for your
+      time, services you provide, or the use of your money. In <application>&app;</application>, use an
+      <guilabel>Income</guilabel> type account to track these.</para>
+
+      <tip>
+        <para>Credits increase income account balances and debits decrease
+        them. As described in <xref linkend="basics-accounting1"></xref>,
+        credits represent money transferred
+        <emphasis>from</emphasis> an account. So in these special income
+        accounts, when you transfer money <emphasis>from</emphasis> (credit)
+        the income account to another account, the balance of the income
+        account <emphasis>increases</emphasis>. For example, when you deposit
+        a paycheck and record the transaction as a transfer from an income
+        account to a bank account, the balances of both accounts
+        increase.</para>
+      </tip>
+
+      <para><emphasis>Expenses</emphasis> refer to money you spend to purchase
+      goods or services provided by someone else. In <application>&app;</application>, use an
+      <guilabel>Expense</guilabel> type account to track your expenses.</para>
+
+      <tip>
+        <para>Debits increase expense account balances and credits decrease
+        them. (See note later in this chapter.)</para>
+      </tip>
+
+      <note>
+        <para>When you subtract total expenses from total income for a time
+        period, you get net income. This net income is then added to the
+        balance sheet as retained earnings, which is a type of
+        <guilabel>Equity</guilabel> account.</para>
+      </note>
+
+      <para>Below are the standard <guilabel>Income</guilabel> and
+      <guilabel>Expense</guilabel> accounts after selecting <guilabel>Common
+      Accounts</guilabel> in the assistant for creating a new Account Hierarchy
+      (<menuchoice><guimenu>Actions</guimenu><guimenuitem>New Account
+      Hierarchy...</guimenuitem></menuchoice>).</para>
+
+      <screenshot id="accts-DefaultIncomeAccounts">
+          <mediaobject>
+            <imageobject>
+              <imagedata fileref="figures/accts_DefaultIncomeAccounts.png"
+                         format="PNG" srccredit="Cristian Marchi"></imagedata>
+            </imageobject>
+
+            <textobject>
+              <phrase>Default income accounts</phrase>
+            </textobject>
+
+            <caption>
+              <para>This image shows the standard <emphasis>Income</emphasis>
+              accounts</para>
+            </caption>
+          </mediaobject>
+        </screenshot>
+        <screenshot id="accts-DefaultExpenseAccounts">
+          <mediaobject>
+            <imageobject>
+              <imagedata fileref="figures/accts_DefaultExpenseAccounts.png"
+                         format="PNG" srccredit="Cristian Marchi" ></imagedata>
+            </imageobject>
+
+            <textobject>
+              <phrase>Some default expense accounts</phrase>
+            </textobject>
+
+            <caption>
+              <para>This image shows some standard <emphasis>Expenses</emphasis>
+              accounts</para>
+            </caption>
+          </mediaobject>
+        </screenshot>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="accts-other-types">
+      <title>Other Account Types</title>
+
+      <para>There are some special other account types.</para>
+
+      <para><emphasis>Trading</emphasis> Multiple currency transactions have
+        splits in <quote>Trading</quote> accounts to make the transaction
+        balance in each currency as well as in total value. See
+        <xref linkend="chapter_currency" /> for more information.
+      </para>
+
+      <para><emphasis>Money Market</emphasis> and <emphasis>Credit Line
+        </emphasis>are used only in the OFX importer, apparently for
+        completeness with the specification.
+      </para>
+    </sect2>
+
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="accts-examples1">
+    <title>Putting It All Together</title>
+
+    <para>Let’s go through the process of building a common personal finance
+    <emphasis>chart of accounts</emphasis> using the information we have
+    learned from this chapter. A chart of accounts is simply a new <application>&app;</application>
+    file in which you group your accounts to track your finances. In building
+    this chart of accounts, the first task is to divide the items you want to
+    track into the basic account types of accounting. This is fairly simple,
+    let’s go through an example.</para>
+
+    <sect2 id="accts-examples-situation2">
+      <title>Simple Example</title>
+
+      <para>Let us assume you have a checking and a savings account at a bank,
+      and are employed and thus receive a paycheck. You have a credit card
+      (Visa), and you pay monthly utilities in the form of rent, phone, and
+      electricity. Naturally, you also need to buy groceries. For now, we will
+      not worry about how much money you have in the bank, how much you owe on
+      the credit card, etc. We want to simply build the framework for this
+      chart of accounts.</para>
+
+      <para>Your <guilabel>assets</guilabel> would be the bank savings and
+      checking account. Your <guilabel>liabilities</guilabel> are the credit
+      card. Your <guilabel>Equity</guilabel> would be the starting values of
+      your bank accounts and credit card (we do not have those amounts yet,
+      but we know they exist). You have <guilabel>income</guilabel> in the
+      form of a salary, and <guilabel>expenses</guilabel> in the form of
+      groceries, rent, electricity, phone, and taxes (Federal, Social
+      Security, Medicare) on your salary.</para>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="accts-examples-toplevel2">
+      <title>The Basic Top Level Accounts</title>
+
+      <para>Now, you must decide how you want to group these accounts. Most
+      likely, you want your <emphasis>Assets</emphasis> grouped together, your <emphasis>Liabilities</emphasis> grouped
+      together, your <emphasis>Equity</emphasis> grouped together, your <emphasis>Income</emphasis> grouped together,
+      and your <emphasis>Expenses</emphasis> grouped together. This is the most common way of
+      building a <application>&app;</application> chart of accounts, and it is highly recommended that
+      you always begin this way.</para>
+
+      <para>Start with a clean <application>&app;</application> file by selecting
+      <menuchoice><guimenu>File</guimenu><guimenuitem>New File</guimenuitem></menuchoice> from the menu. The
+      <guilabel>New Account Hierarchy Setup</guilabel> assistant will start. Press <guibutton>Cancel</guibutton> to close
+      the assistant as we don’t want to use one of the predefined accounts structure; instead we will build a basic
+      starting account structure from scratch. In the empty <application>&app;</application> window select
+      <menuchoice><guimenu>View</guimenu><guimenuitem>New Accounts Page</guimenuitem></menuchoice> from the menu:
+      the <guilabel>Accounts</guilabel> tab will open. Finally select
+      <menuchoice><guimenu>Actions</guimenu><guimenuitem>New Account...</guimenuitem></menuchoice>.</para>
+
+      <para>Now you are ready to build this basic starting account structure</para>
+
+      <orderedlist>
+        <listitem>
+          <para>Account name <guilabel>Assets</guilabel> (account type
+          <guilabel>Asset</guilabel>, parent account <guilabel>New top level
+          account</guilabel>)</para>
+
+          <screenshot id="accts-CreateAssetsAccounts">
+              <mediaobject>
+                <imageobject>
+                  <imagedata fileref="figures/accts_CreateAssetsAccount.png"
+                             format="PNG" srccredit="Cristian Marchi"></imagedata>
+                </imageobject>
+
+                <textobject>
+                  <phrase>Creating an Assets account</phrase>
+                </textobject>
+
+                <caption>
+                  <para>This image shows the dialog to create an assets
+                  account</para>
+                </caption>
+              </mediaobject>
+            </screenshot>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para>Account name <guilabel>Liabilities</guilabel> (account type
+          <guilabel>Liability</guilabel>, parent account <guilabel>New top
+          level account</guilabel>)</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para>Account name <guilabel>Equity</guilabel> (account type
+          <guilabel>Equity</guilabel>, parent account <guilabel>New top level
+          account</guilabel>)</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para>Account name <guilabel>Income</guilabel> (account type
+          <guilabel>Income</guilabel>, parent account <guilabel>New top level
+          account</guilabel>)</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para>Account name <guilabel>Expenses</guilabel> (account type
+          <guilabel>Expenses</guilabel>, parent account <guilabel>New top
+          level account</guilabel>)</para>
+        </listitem>
+      </orderedlist>
+
+      <para>When you have created the top-level accounts, the main Account page
+      in <application>&app;</application> should look like below.</para>
+
+      <screenshot id="accts-toplevel">
+        <mediaobject>
+          <imageobject>
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/accts_toplevel.png" format="PNG"
+                       srccredit="Cristian Marchi"></imagedata>
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>The Basic Top-level Accounts</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption>
+            <para>This image shows the basic top-level accounts.</para>
+          </caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="accts-examples-organization2">
+      <title>Making Sub-Accounts</title>
+
+      <para>You can now add to this basic top-level tree structure by inserting
+      some real transaction-holding sub-accounts. Notice that the tax accounts
+      are placed within a sub-account named <emphasis>Taxes</emphasis>. You can make sub-accounts
+      within sub-accounts. This is typically done with a group of related
+      accounts (such as tax accounts in this example).</para>
+      <tip>
+        <para>Instead of selecting <menuchoice><guimenu>Actions</guimenu><guimenuitem>New Account...</guimenuitem></menuchoice>
+        from the menu, you can alternatively create a new sub-account of an account by right clicking
+        on the main account’s name and selecting the <guilabel>New Account...</guilabel> entry.
+        This will open a dialog similar to the one depicted in
+        <xref linkend="accts-examples-toplevel2" /> where the new sub-account will be already set as a
+        child of the main account.</para>
+      </tip>
+        <orderedlist>
+          <listitem>
+            <para>Account name <guilabel>Cash</guilabel> (account type
+              <guilabel>Cash</guilabel>, parent account
+              <emphasis>Assets</emphasis>)
+            </para>
+          </listitem>
+
+          <listitem>
+            <para>Account name <guilabel>Checking</guilabel> (account type
+            <guilabel>Bank</guilabel>, parent account
+            <emphasis>Assets</emphasis>)</para>
+          </listitem>
+
+          <listitem>
+            <para>Account name <guilabel>Savings</guilabel> (account type
+            <guilabel>Bank</guilabel>, parent account
+            <emphasis>Assets</emphasis>)</para>
+          </listitem>
+
+          <listitem>
+            <para>Account name <guilabel>Visa</guilabel> (account type
+            <guilabel>Credit Card</guilabel>, parent account
+            <emphasis>Liabilities</emphasis>)</para>
+          </listitem>
+
+          <listitem>
+            <para>Account name <guilabel>Salary</guilabel> (account type
+            <guilabel>Income</guilabel>, parent account
+            <emphasis>Income</emphasis>)</para>
+          </listitem>
+
+          <listitem>
+            <para>Account name <guilabel>Phone</guilabel> (account type
+            <guilabel>Expense</guilabel>, parent account
+            <emphasis>Expenses</emphasis>)</para>
+          </listitem>
+
+          <listitem>
+            <para>Account name <guilabel>Electricity</guilabel> (account type
+            <guilabel>Expense</guilabel>, parent account
+            <emphasis>Expenses</emphasis>)</para>
+          </listitem>
+
+          <listitem>
+            <para>Account name <guilabel>Rent</guilabel> (account type
+            <guilabel>Expense</guilabel>, parent account
+            <emphasis>Expenses</emphasis>)</para>
+          </listitem>
+
+          <listitem>
+            <para>Account name <guilabel>Groceries</guilabel> (account type
+            <guilabel>Expense</guilabel>, parent account
+            <emphasis>Expenses</emphasis>)</para>
+          </listitem>
+
+          <listitem>
+            <para>Account name <guilabel>Taxes</guilabel> (account type
+            <guilabel>Expense</guilabel>, parent account
+            <emphasis>Expenses</emphasis>)</para>
+          </listitem>
+
+          <listitem>
+            <para>Account name <guilabel>Federal</guilabel> (account type
+            <guilabel>Expense</guilabel>, parent account
+            <emphasis>Expenses:Taxes</emphasis>)</para>
+          </listitem>
+
+          <listitem>
+            <para>Account name <guilabel>Social Security</guilabel> (account
+            type <guilabel>Expense</guilabel>, parent account
+            <emphasis>Expenses:Taxes</emphasis>)</para>
+          </listitem>
+
+          <listitem>
+            <para>Account name <guilabel>Medicare</guilabel> (account type
+            <guilabel>Expense</guilabel>, parent account
+            <emphasis>Expenses:Taxes</emphasis>)</para>
+          </listitem>
+
+          <listitem>
+            <para>Account name <guilabel>Opening Balance</guilabel> (account
+            type <guilabel>Equity</guilabel>, parent account
+            <emphasis>Equity</emphasis>)</para>
+          </listitem>
+        </orderedlist>
+
+      <para>After you have created these additional sub-accounts, the end
+      result should look like below</para>
+
+      <screenshot id="accts-tree">
+        <mediaobject>
+          <imageobject>
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/accts_tree.png" format="PNG"
+                       srccredit="Cristian Marchi"></imagedata>
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>The Basic Chart of Accounts</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption>
+            <para>This image shows a simple chart of accounts.</para>
+          </caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+
+      <para>Save this chart of accounts with the name
+      <filename>gcashdata_3</filename>, as well as <filename>gcashdata_3emptyAccts</filename>,
+      as we will continue to use them in the later chapters.</para>
+
+      <para>You have now created a chart of accounts to track a simple
+      household budget. With this basic framework in place, we can now begin
+      to populate the accounts with transactions. The next chapter will cover
+      this subject in greater detail.</para>
+    </sect2>
+  </sect1>
+</chapter>
diff --git a/guide/ru/ch_basics.xml b/guide/ru/ch_basics.xml
new file mode 100644
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--- /dev/null
+++ b/guide/ru/ch_basics.xml
@@ -0,0 +1,1333 @@
+<!--
+      (Do not remove this comment block.)
+  Version: 2.0.0
+  Last modified: 2014-08-28 (fell)
+       modified: October 25th 2010
+       modified: January 12th 2007
+       modified: July 9th 2006
+  Maintainers:
+               Cristian Marchi <cri.penta at gmail.com>
+               Chris Lyttle <chris at wilddev.net>
+  Author:
+  		Jon Lapham <lapham at extracta.com.br>
+  	Updated	Bengt Thuree <bengt at thuree.com>
+  Originally written by Carol Champagne.
+  Translators:
+               (translators put your name and email here)
+-->
+<chapter id="chapter_basics">
+  <title>The Basics</title>
+
+  <para>This chapter will introduce some of the basics of using <application>&app;</application>. It is
+  recommended that you read through this chapter, before starting to do any
+  real work with <application>&app;</application>. Next chapters will begin to show
+  you hands on examples.</para>
+
+  <sect1 id="basics-accounting1">
+    <title>Accounting Concepts</title>
+
+    <para><application>&app;</application> is easy enough to use that you do not need to have a
+    complete understanding of accounting principles to find it useful.
+    However, you will find that some basic accounting knowledge will prove to
+    be invaluable as <application>&app;</application> was designed using these principles as a
+    template. It is highly recommended that you understand this section of the
+    guide before proceeding.</para>
+
+    <sect2 id="basics-accounting52">
+      <title>The 5 Basic Accounts</title>
+
+      <para>Basic accounting rules group all finance related things into 5
+      fundamental types of <quote>accounts</quote>. That is, everything that
+      accounting deals with can be placed into one of these 5 accounts:</para>
+
+      <variablelist>
+      <title>Account types</title>
+        <varlistentry>
+          <term><emphasis>Assets</emphasis></term>
+          <listitem>
+            <para>Things you own</para>
+          </listitem>
+        </varlistentry>
+
+        <varlistentry>
+          <term><emphasis>Liabilities</emphasis></term>
+          <listitem>
+            <para>Things you owe</para>
+          </listitem>
+        </varlistentry>
+
+        <varlistentry>
+          <term><emphasis>Equity</emphasis></term>
+          <listitem>
+            <para>Overall net worth</para>
+          </listitem>
+        </varlistentry>
+
+        <varlistentry>
+          <term><emphasis>Income</emphasis></term>
+          <listitem>
+            <para>Increases the value of your
+            accounts</para>
+          </listitem>
+        </varlistentry>
+
+        <varlistentry>
+          <term><emphasis>Expenses</emphasis></term>
+          <listitem>
+            <para>Decreases the value of your
+            accounts</para>
+          </listitem>
+        </varlistentry>
+      </variablelist>
+
+      <para>It is clear that it is possible to categorize your financial world
+      into these 5 groups. For example, the cash in your bank account is an
+      asset, your mortgage is a liability, your paycheck is income, and the
+      cost of dinner last night is an expense.</para>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="basics-accountingequation2">
+      <title>The Accounting Equation</title>
+
+      <para>With the 5 basic accounts defined, what is the relationship
+      between them? How does one type of account affect the others? Firstly,
+      equity is defined by assets and liability. That is, your net worth is
+      calculated by subtracting your liabilities from your assets:</para>
+
+      <para><emphasis>Assets - Liabilities = Equity</emphasis></para>
+
+      <para>Furthermore, you can increase your equity through income, and
+      decrease equity through expenses. This makes sense of course, when you
+      receive a paycheck you become <quote>richer</quote> and when you pay for dinner you
+      become <quote>poorer</quote>. This is expressed mathematically in what is known as
+      the Accounting Equation:</para>
+
+      <para><emphasis>Assets - Liabilities = Equity + (Income -
+      Expenses)</emphasis></para>
+
+      <para>This equation must always be balanced, a condition that can only
+      be satisfied if you enter values to multiple accounts. For example: if
+      you receive money in the form of income you must see an equal increase
+      in your assets. As another example, you could have an increase in assets
+      if you have a parallel increase in liabilities.</para>
+
+      <figure pgwide="1">
+        <title>The basic accounts relationships</title>
+        <screenshot id="basics-AccountRelationships">
+          <mediaobject>
+            <imageobject role="html">
+              <imagedata fileref="figures/basics_AccountRelationships.png"
+                         format="PNG" srccredit="Geert Janssens" ></imagedata>
+            </imageobject>
+            <imageobject role="fo">
+              <imagedata fileref="figures/basics_AccountRelationships.svg"
+                         format="SVG" srccredit="Geert Janssens"
+                         contentwidth="4in"></imagedata>
+            </imageobject>
+
+            <textobject>
+              <phrase>The basic accounts relationships</phrase>
+            </textobject>
+
+            <caption>
+              <para>A graphical view of the relationship between the 5 basic
+              accounts. Net worth (equity) increases through income and
+              decreases through expenses. The arrows represent the movement of
+              value.</para>
+            </caption>
+          </mediaobject>
+        </screenshot>
+      </figure>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="basics-accountingdouble2">
+      <title>Double Entry</title>
+
+      <para>The accounting equation is the very heart of a <firstterm>double entry
+      accounting system</firstterm>. For every change in value of one account in the
+      Accounting Equation, there must be a balancing change in another. This
+      concept is known as the <firstterm>Principle of Balance</firstterm>, and
+      is of fundamental importance for understanding <application>&app;</application> and other double
+      entry accounting systems. When you work with <application>&app;</application>, you will always be
+      concerned with at least 2 accounts, to keep the accounting equation
+      balanced.</para>
+
+      <para>Balancing changes (or transfers of money) among accounts are
+      done by debiting one account and simultaneously crediting another.
+      Accounting <firstterm>debits</firstterm> and
+      <firstterm>credits</firstterm> do not mean <quote>decrease</quote>
+      and <quote>increase</quote>. Debits and credits each increase certain
+      types of accounts and decrease others. In asset and expense accounts,
+      debits increase the balance and credits decrease the balance. In
+      liability, equity and income accounts, credits increase the balance
+      and debits decrease the balance.</para>
+
+      <para>In traditional double-entry accounting, the left column in the
+      register is used for debits, while the right column is used for credits.
+      Accountants record increases in asset and expense accounts on the
+      debit (left) side, and they record increases in liability, revenue, and equity
+      accounts on the credit (right) side. <application>&app;</application>
+      follows this convention in the register.</para>
+
+      <note>
+        <para>This accounting terminology can be confusing to new users,
+        which is why <application>&app;</application> allows you to use the
+        common terms <guilabel>Deposit</guilabel> and
+        <guilabel>Withdrawal</guilabel>. If you prefer the formal accounting
+        terms, you can change the account register column headings to use
+        them in the <guilabel>Accounts</guilabel> tab under
+        <guilabel>Preferences</guilabel> (see the
+        <application>&app;</application> Help Manual for more information on
+        setting preferences).</para>
+      </note>
+
+      <warning>
+        <para>Common use of the words <emphasis>debit</emphasis> and <emphasis>credit</emphasis>
+        does not match how accountants use these words. In common use,
+        <emphasis>credit</emphasis> generally has positive associations; in accounting,
+        <emphasis>credit</emphasis> means
+        <emphasis>affecting the right column</emphasis> of the ledger sheet of an account.
+        This is associated with a <emphasis>decrease</emphasis> in asset and expense,
+        but an <emphasis>increase</emphasis> of income, liability and equity accounts.</para>
+        <para>For more details see <ulink url="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Debits_and_credits"></ulink>.</para>
+      </warning>
+
+    </sect2>
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="basics-entry1">
+    <title>Data Entry Concepts</title>
+
+    <para>When entering data in <application>&app;</application>, you should be aware of the 3 levels
+    of organization in which <application>&app;</application> divides your data: files, accounts and
+    transactions. These levels are presented in their order of complexity, one
+    file contains many accounts and one account contains many transactions.
+    This division is fundamental to understanding how to use <application>&app;</application>.</para>
+
+    <sect2 id="basics-files2">
+      <title>Files</title>
+
+      <para><application>&app;</application> stores information at the
+      highest level in files. A file can be stored on your computer either
+      as a single <acronym>XML</acronym> file (in all versions of
+      <application>&app;</application>), or in a <acronym>SQL</acronym>
+      database (in <application>&app;</application> version 2.4 and higher).</para>
+
+      <note>
+        <para><acronym>SQL</acronym> is pronounced <quote>sequel</quote>,
+        so in spoken and written language we would say <quote>a SQL
+        database</quote>.</para>
+      </note>
+
+      <para>With the <acronym>XML</acronym> file format,
+      <application>&app;</application> stores your data in an
+      <acronym>XML</acronym> data file, usually in compressed format
+      (although this can be changed in the <guilabel>General</guilabel>
+      tab of the <application>&app;</application> <guilabel>Preferences</guilabel>).</para>
+
+      <para>With <acronym>SQL</acronym> storage,
+      <application>&app;</application> stores your data in a
+      <acronym>SQL</acronym> database under the database application you
+      select (SQLite3, MySQL or PostgreSQL).</para>
+
+      <para>You will need one main file or database for each set of
+      accounts you are maintaining. To learn how to create and manage
+      <application>&app;</application> files, see <xref
+      linkend="basics-files1"/>.</para>
+
+      <note>
+        <para>If you think you might need more than one set of accounts,
+        you might want to consult a professional accountant or bookkeeper
+        before proceeding. Most users will probably have only one data
+        file.</para>
+      </note>
+
+      <para>Backup files and log files are automatically generated by
+      <application>&app;</application> when appropriate. Backup and log
+      files are described in <xref linkend="basics-backup1"/>.</para>
+    </sect2> <!-- basics-files2 -->
+    <sect2 id="basics-accounts2">
+      <title>Accounts</title>
+
+      <para>An <firstterm>account</firstterm> keeps track of what you own,
+      owe, spend or receive. Each <application>&app;</application> file can
+      contain any number of accounts, and each account can contain many
+      sub-accounts up to an arbitrary number of levels. This simple feature
+      gives <application>&app;</application> much of its power in managing
+      your finances, as you will see in later chapters.</para>
+
+      <para>Examples of accounts include: checking accounts, savings
+      accounts, credit card accounts, mortgages, and loans. Each
+      <application>&app;</application> account tracks the activity for that
+      <quote>real</quote> account, and can inform you of its status.</para>
+
+      <para>In addition, accounts are also used to categorize the money you
+      receive or spend. For example, you can create expense accounts to
+      track the money you pay on utilities or groceries. Even though these
+      are not accounts that receive statements, they allow you to determine
+      how much money is being spent in each of these areas.</para>
+
+      <para>Accounts will be covered in more detail in <xref
+      linkend="chapter_accts"/>.</para>
+    </sect2> <!-- basics-accounts2 -->
+    <sect2 id="basics-transactions2">
+      <title>Transactions</title>
+
+      <para>A <firstterm>transaction</firstterm> represents the movement of
+      money among accounts. Whenever you spend or receive money, or
+      transfer money between accounts, that is a transaction.</para>
+
+      <para>Examples of transactions are: paying a phone bill, transferring
+      money from savings to checking, buying a pizza, withdrawing money,
+      and depositing a paycheck. <xref linkend="chapter_txns"/> goes more
+      in depth on how to enter transactions.</para>
+
+      <para>In <link linkend="basics-accountingdouble2">double entry accounting</link>,
+      transactions always involve at least two accounts–a source
+      account and a destination account.
+      <application>&app;</application> manages this by inserting a line
+      into the transaction for every account that is affected, and
+      recording the amounts involved in each line. A line within a
+      transaction that records the account and amount of money involved is
+      called a <firstterm>split</firstterm>. A transaction can contain an
+      arbitrary number of splits.</para>
+      <note>
+        <para>Splits in transactions will be covered in <xref
+        linkend="txns-registers-multiaccount2"/></para>
+      </note>
+    </sect2> <!-- basics-transactions2 -->
+  </sect1> <!-- basics-entry1 -->
+
+  <sect1 id="basics-interface1">
+    <title>Interface</title>
+
+    <para>The very first time you open <application>&app;</application>, you will see the
+    <guilabel>Welcome to &app;!</guilabel> screen. From there, <application>&app;</application>
+    provides other tools to help you easily find what you are looking for.
+    Let’s take a look at some of the common screens and screen boxes you will
+    see.</para>
+
+    <sect2 id="basics-tip2">
+      <title>Tip of the Day</title>
+
+      <para><application>&app;</application> provides a <guilabel>Tip of the Day</guilabel> screen to
+      give helpful hints for using the program:</para>
+
+      <screenshot id="basics-TipOfDay">
+        <mediaobject>
+          <imageobject>
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/basics_TipOfDay.png" format="PNG"
+                       srccredit="Cristian Marchi" ></imagedata>
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>The Tip of the Day</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption>
+            <para>This image shows the <guilabel>Tip of the
+            Day</guilabel>.</para>
+          </caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+
+      <para>These tips provide useful information for beginning users. To view
+      more of the tips, click <guibutton>Forward</guibutton> to continue. If you
+      do not wish to see this screen box on start-up, deselect the box next to
+      <guilabel>Show tips at startup</guilabel>. When you have
+      finished viewing the helpful tips, click <guibutton>Close</guibutton> to
+      close the <guilabel>Tip of the Day</guilabel> screen.</para>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="basics-main2">
+      <title>Account Tree Window</title>
+
+      <para>You should now see the <guilabel>Accounts</guilabel> window, which
+      appears as shown below. The exact layout of the account tree will depend
+      on which default accounts you selected during the New Account Hierarchy
+      Setup. In this example, the <guilabel>Common Accounts</guilabel> are shown.</para>
+
+      <screenshot id="basics-Accounts">
+        <mediaobject>
+          <imageobject>
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/basics_Accounts.png" format="PNG"
+                       srccredit="Cristian Marchi" ></imagedata>
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>The Account Tree Window</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption>
+            <para>This image shows the <guilabel>Accounts</guilabel>
+            window.</para>
+          </caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+
+      <para>The Account Tree window (also known as a Chart of Accounts, or CoA) provides an overview of the data contained
+      in the current file. It contains a list of account names and their
+      current balances.</para>
+      <para>From this window, you can open the register of any
+      account either by double-clicking the account name, right clicking the account name and selecting <guilabel>Open Account</guilabel> from the
+      menu, or by using the <guibutton>Open</guibutton> button on the toolbar. <application>&app;</application> allows you to have as many account registers open as you wish. For more information on using account registers, see <xref linkend="basics-register2" />.</para>
+
+      <tip>
+        <para>Clicking the small triangle to the left of an account that has children will expand the tree view showing child accounts.</para>
+      </tip>
+
+      <para>At the top of this window is the <emphasis>Titlebar</emphasis>, which displays the
+      file name for this set of accounts (once you have saved the file.) Below that is the <emphasis>Menubar</emphasis>.
+      You can access the menu options by either clicking on these menu
+      headings or by using shortcuts and access keys (see <xref linkend="basics-shortcut2" />).
+      Next is the <emphasis>Toolbar</emphasis>, which contains buttons
+      for the most common functions.</para>
+
+      <para>The account tree appears below the <emphasis>Toolbar</emphasis>. Once you have
+      started creating accounts, the account names will appear in the account
+      tree. You can customize which headings show up by using the
+      small <guiicon>down-arrow</guiicon> at the far right just above the account tree.</para>
+
+      <para>At the bottom is the <emphasis>Statusbar</emphasis>, which tells you
+      information about what you own (Net Assets) and how much money you have
+      made (Profits).</para>
+
+
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="basics-register2">
+      <title>Account Register Window</title>
+
+      <para>Account Register windows are used to enter and edit your
+      account data. As the name suggests, they look similar to a checkbook
+      register.</para>
+
+      <screenshot id="basics-CheckAccount">
+        <mediaobject>
+          <imageobject role="html">
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/basics_CheckAccount.png" format="PNG"
+                       srccredit="Bengt Thuree" width="510"></imagedata>
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <imageobject role="fo">
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/basics_CheckAccount.png" format="PNG"
+                       srccredit="Bengt Thuree" ></imagedata>
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>The Checking Account Register</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption>
+            <para>This image shows the <guilabel>Checking Account - Register
+            </guilabel> with several transactions.</para>
+          </caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+
+      <para><xref linkend="chapter_txns"></xref> explains more about account
+      register windows and how to
+      enter data into them. For now, note that the parts of an account
+      register window are similar to the parts of the account tree window
+      described earlier. The <emphasis>Titlebar</emphasis> at the top contains the account name.
+      Below that, the <emphasis>Menubar</emphasis> contains menu options related to the account
+      register. <emphasis>Toolbar</emphasis> buttons simplify common data entry functions. The
+      <emphasis>Statusbar</emphasis> at the bottom of the window, displays some account balances
+      covered in <xref linkend="chapter_txns"></xref>. At the bottom of the
+      account register window,
+      information appears about the current location of the cursor.</para>
+
+      <note>
+      <para>In the register windows, you can resize the various columns that
+        <application>&app;</application> displays, <emphasis>but keep in mind that
+        the Description and Balance columns behave differently from other columns</emphasis>.</para>
+      <para>The <guilabel>Description</guilabel> column is designed to expand
+          automatically to fill all unused horizontal screen space.
+          Therefore you should set the widths of all your other columns before
+         setting the Description column width.</para>
+      <para>The <guilabel>Balance</guilabel> column must be resized by
+          double-clicking on the column heading.</para>
+      </note>
+
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="basics-toolbar2">
+      <title>Toolbar Buttons</title>
+
+      <para>Both the account tree window and the account register window
+      contain <emphasis>Toolbar</emphasis> buttons. These buttons provide quick access to common
+      functions such as <guibutton>Save</guibutton> and
+      <guibutton>Open</guibutton> in the account tree window and
+      <guibutton>Record</guibutton> and <guibutton>Delete</guibutton> in the
+      account register window. If you are not sure what a button does, move
+      the mouse pointer over that button, and you should see a description of
+      the function appear.</para>
+
+      <para>Here is a summary of the account tree window buttons:</para>
+
+      <variablelist>
+      <title>Account tree window buttons</title>
+        <varlistentry>
+        <term><guibutton>Save</guibutton></term>
+        <listitem>
+          <para>Save the current file to disk</para>
+        </listitem>
+        </varlistentry>
+
+        <varlistentry>
+        <term><guibutton>Close</guibutton></term>
+        <listitem>
+          <para>Close the current notebook page</para>
+        </listitem>
+        </varlistentry>
+
+        <varlistentry>
+        <term><guibutton>Open</guibutton>, <guibutton>Edit</guibutton>,
+          <guibutton>New</guibutton> and <guibutton>Delete</guibutton></term>
+        <listitem>
+          <para>These are functions related to accounts. They are discussed in
+          <xref linkend="chapter_accts"></xref>.</para>
+        </listitem>
+        </varlistentry>
+      </variablelist>
+
+      <para>Register-specific buttons are discussed in <xref linkend="chapter_txns"></xref>.
+      </para>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="basics-tabbar">
+      <title>Tab Bar</title>
+
+      <para><application>&app;</application> uses a tabbed model that allows you to open multiple account registers and reports simultaneously. Each open window (which can include account registers, reports, or Scheduled Transactions windows) is given a tab on this bar that you can click to view that window. Tabs can be configured in Preferences to appear along any side of the <application>&app;</application> window.</para>
+
+    <para>To see the full name for a tab, hover the mouse pointer over an account window tab.</para>
+
+    <para>If more screens are open than can be displayed across the screen, some tabs
+        will not display.  You can move through all tabs by clicking the arrows on
+        either end of the tab bar. A complete list of tabs can be viewed by
+        right-clicking the Tab Bar and any tab can be selected by clicking it.</para>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="basics-options2">
+      <title>Menu Items</title>
+
+      <para>The account tree window and the account register window both
+      contain menu headings in a <emphasis>Menubar</emphasis>. Clicking on a menu heading brings
+      up the menu items for that heading.</para>
+
+      <para>You can click on the account tree menu headings and then move the
+      mouse pointer over the menu items to see what they do. As the pointer
+      moves over a menu item, a description of the item appears in the lower
+      left-hand corner of the window (inside the <emphasis>Statusbar</emphasis>). To select a menu item, click on
+      it.</para>
+
+      <para>You can also access the most common menu items in a window by
+      right-clicking the mouse anywhere in that window. In the account tree
+      window, this will bring up a list of account items. In the account
+      register window, this will bring up a list of transaction items.</para>
+
+      <para>Other ways of accessing menu items are through keyboard shortcuts
+      and access keys, described next.</para> </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="basics-shortcut2">
+      <title>Menu Shortcuts</title>
+
+      <para>All of the menu items have access keys which are
+      marked by underlined characters in the menu names. Pressing the
+      <keycap>Alt</keycap> key with the underlined character in the menu
+      heading will bring up the menu items for that heading. Once the menu
+      items are displayed, type the underlined character in the menu item to
+      activate it. For example, typing <keycombo><keycap>Alt</keycap>
+      <keycap>F</keycap></keycombo> in the main window brings up the <guimenu>File</guimenu>
+      menu, then typing <keycap>S</keycap> will save the file.  Access keys
+      are fixed and cannot be changed by users.</para>
+
+      <para>Some of the more commonly used menu items also have shortcut keys
+      that directly activate the command without having to traverse the menu
+      structure.  These shortcuts typically use the <keycap>Ctrl</keycap>
+      key, although they can use any key combination.  Menu shortcuts are
+      displayed at the end of each menu item.</para>
+    </sect2>
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="basics-help1">
+    <title>Getting Help</title>
+
+    <para><application>&app;</application> offers help in many ways. We have already covered the <link linkend="basics-tip2">
+    <guilabel>Tip of the Day</guilabel></link> screen that gives you helpful hints
+    upon start-up of your <application>&app;</application> session. <application>&app;</application> also offers an extensive
+    help manual.</para>
+
+    <sect2 id="basics-manual2">
+      <title>Help Manual</title>
+
+      <para>Once you have opened <application>&app;</application>, you will see the <guilabel>Account
+      Tree</guilabel> window <guilabel>Help</guilabel> menu heading, which
+      opens the Help manual. The Help manual is organized by topic, and
+      you can expand each topic into its subtopics.</para>
+
+      <para>Topics are listed on the left side. To select a topic or subtopic,
+      click on it, and you should see the text for that topic appear on the
+      right. Use the <guibutton>Back</guibutton> and
+      <guibutton>Forward</guibutton> buttons to navigate through your topic
+      choices, and print any text using the <guibutton>Print</guibutton>
+      button.</para>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="basics-web2">
+      <title>Web Access</title>
+
+      <para>The <guilabel>&app; Help</guilabel> window also acts as a simple
+      web browser, so you can pull up a web site for additional information.
+      You can open any web site under this window by clicking the
+      <guibutton>Open</guibutton> <emphasis>Toolbar</emphasis> button and then typing in the URL.
+      Use the <guibutton>Back</guibutton>, <guibutton>Forward</guibutton>,
+      <guibutton>Reload</guibutton>, <guibutton>Stop</guibutton>, and
+      <guibutton>Print</guibutton> buttons as you would in a standard
+      browser.</para>
+
+      <para>The <ulink
+      url="http://www.gnucash.org"><citetitle>&app;</citetitle></ulink> web
+      site contains helpful information about the program and about any
+      updates to it. It also contains links to the <application>&app;</application> mailing lists for
+      developers and users, and you can search the <ulink
+      url="https://lists.gnucash.org/cgi-bin/namazu.cgi"><citetitle>archives
+      of <application>&app;</application> mailing lists</citetitle></ulink> for discussions on a
+      particular topic. If you don’t find the answers you are looking for, you
+      can post your question to the <ulink
+      url="https://lists.gnucash.org/mailman/listinfo/gnucash-user"><citetitle>&app;
+      user list</citetitle></ulink>, and someone on the list will attempt to
+      answer you.</para>
+
+      <para>The most updated <guilabel>&app; FAQ</guilabel> is also located
+      on the <ulink url="http://wiki.gnucash.org/wiki/FAQ"><citetitle>&app;
+      FAQ website</citetitle></ulink>, and contains answers to the popular
+      questions.</para>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="basics-topic2">
+      <title>Topic Search</title>
+
+      <para>The online manual also provides a search function. To search for a
+      particular topic, click the <guilabel>Search</guilabel> tab at the
+      bottom of the help window and type in your topic in the field provided.
+      Click the <guibutton>Search</guibutton> button to complete your search.
+      A list of choices should appear in the box below, clicking a choice will
+      bring up its text on the right.</para>
+    </sect2>
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="basics-files1">
+    <title>Storing your financial data</title>
+
+    <para><application>&app;</application> is able to <link linkend="basics-store-data">store</link>
+    your financial data in files or <acronym>SQL</acronym> databases so that they can be
+    <link linkend="basics-open-data">opened</link> and modified at a later time.
+    But first you need to <link linkend="basics-create-data">create</link> a container for your data.</para>
+
+    <sect2 id="basics-create-data">
+    <title>Creating a file</title>
+    <para>To create a new <application>&app;</application> file do the following:</para>
+
+    <orderedlist>
+      <listitem>
+        <para>From the <application>&app;</application> <emphasis>Menubar</emphasis>, choose <menuchoice><guimenu>File</guimenu>
+        <guimenuitem>New File</guimenuitem></menuchoice>. The <guilabel>New Account Hierarchy setup</guilabel>
+        assistant will start.</para>
+        <note>
+          <para>If you are running <application>&app;</application> for the first time, you will be presented
+          with the <guilabel>Welcome to &app;!</guilabel> screen. This screen is described in detail in the
+          <application>&app;</application> manual.</para>
+        </note>
+      </listitem>
+
+      <listitem>
+        <para>Set your preferences in the assistant and move through the screens with the
+        <guibutton>Forward</guibutton>, <guibutton>Cancel</guibutton> and <guibutton>Previous</guibutton>
+        buttons.</para>
+      </listitem>
+    </orderedlist>
+
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="basics-store-data">
+    <title>Saving data</title>
+    <para>Follow these steps to save the file under your preferred name:</para>
+
+    <orderedlist>
+      <listitem>
+        <para>Choose <menuchoice><guimenu>File</guimenu> <guimenuitem>Save
+        As...</guimenuitem></menuchoice> from the <emphasis>Menubar</emphasis> or select the
+        <guibutton>Save</guibutton> <emphasis>Toolbar</emphasis> button. <application>&app;</application> will bring
+        up the save window.</para>
+      </listitem>
+
+      <listitem>
+        <para>Select the <guilabel>Data Format</guilabel> of the file you are saving from the
+        drop down list. The default selection is <acronym>XML</acronym> but if you have set up a
+        database back end you can change to that format.</para>
+        <para>Depending on the selected <guilabel>Data Format</guilabel> the window can change as
+        described in the following.</para>
+      </listitem>
+
+      <listitem>
+      <para></para>
+        <itemizedlist>
+          <listitem>
+            <para>If you selected <acronym>XML</acronym> or <acronym>sqlite3</acronym> you will see a screen like this:</para>
+
+        <figure>
+        <title>Save screen when <acronym>XML</acronym> or <acronym>sqlite3</acronym> is selected.</title>
+        <screenshot id="basics-SaveXML">
+          <mediaobject>
+            <imageobject role="html">
+              <imagedata fileref="figures/basics_SaveXML.png" format="PNG"
+                         srccredit="Cristian Marchi" width="510px"></imagedata>
+            </imageobject>
+
+            <imageobject role="fo">
+              <imagedata fileref="figures/basics_SaveXML.png" format="PNG"
+                         srccredit="Cristian Marchi"></imagedata>
+            </imageobject>
+
+            <textobject>
+              <phrase>The Save screen</phrase>
+            </textobject>
+
+            <caption>
+              <para>This image shows the <guilabel>Save</guilabel> screen when the selected
+              <guilabel>Data Format</guilabel> is <acronym>XML</acronym> or <acronym>sqlite3</acronym>.</para>
+            </caption>
+          </mediaobject>
+        </screenshot>
+        </figure>
+
+            <para>Type your chosen filename in the <guilabel>Name</guilabel> field. It is not necessary to specify an
+            extension when you write the file name. <application>&app;</application> will automatically add the extension
+            <filename>.gnucash</filename> to the file.</para>
+            <note>
+              <para>The <filename>.gnucash</filename> extension was introduced in the 2.3 series of <application>&app;</application>.
+              For already existing files, the extension will never be changed. So if you open an existing file named
+              <filename>Myoldfile</filename>, that name won’t be changed if the file is saved. You might use the
+              <guimenuitem>Save As...</guimenuitem> command and give the file a new name in order to have it saved with the
+              extension <filename>.gnucash</filename>.</para>
+            </note>
+            <para>Select the path where the file will be saved by browsing the tree in the lower panes.</para>
+            <tip>
+              <para>Click on the <guibutton>Create Folder</guibutton> button to create a new folder with a
+              custom name in the selected path.</para>
+            </tip>
+          </listitem>
+
+          <listitem>
+            <para>If you selected <acronym>mysql</acronym> or <acronym>postgres</acronym>
+            <guilabel>Data Format</guilabel> you will see a screen like this:</para>
+
+            <figure>
+            <title>Save screen when <acronym>mysql</acronym> or <acronym>postgres</acronym> is selected.</title>
+            <screenshot id="basics-SaveSQL">
+              <mediaobject>
+                <imageobject role="html">
+                  <imagedata fileref="figures/basics_SaveSQL.png" format="PNG"
+                             srccredit="Marchi Cristian" width="510px"></imagedata>
+                </imageobject>
+
+                <imageobject role="fo">
+                  <imagedata fileref="figures/basics_SaveSQL.png" format="PNG"
+                             srccredit="Cristian Marchi"></imagedata>
+                </imageobject>
+
+                <textobject>
+                  <phrase>The Save screen</phrase>
+                </textobject>
+
+                <caption>
+                  <para>This image shows the <guilabel>Save</guilabel> screen when the selected
+                  <guilabel>Data Format</guilabel> is <acronym>mysql</acronym> or <acronym>postgres</acronym>.</para>
+                </caption>
+              </mediaobject>
+            </screenshot>
+            </figure>
+
+            <para>Enter in this window the <guilabel>Database Connection</guilabel> information:
+            <guilabel>Host</guilabel>, <guilabel>Database</guilabel>, <guilabel>Username</guilabel>
+            and <guilabel>Password</guilabel>.</para>
+            <warning>
+              <para>Saving to <acronym>mysql</acronym> or <acronym>postgres</acronym> requires the proper permissions in that
+              database, that is you need to have the permissions to create a new database with the given database name, or
+              you need to have write access to an existing database with the given database name.</para>
+            </warning>
+          </listitem>
+        </itemizedlist>
+      </listitem>
+
+      <listitem>
+        <para>Click the <guibutton>Save As</guibutton> button to save the
+        file.</para>
+      </listitem>
+    </orderedlist>
+
+    <para>If you are keeping track of finances for a single household, you
+    need only one file. But if you are also tracking business finances or want
+    to keep data separate for some reason, then you will need more than one
+    file.</para>
+
+    <para>Before ending each <application>&app;</application> session, be sure to save your data
+    changes using <menuchoice><guimenu>File</guimenu>
+    <guimenuitem>Save</guimenuitem></menuchoice> or the <guibutton>Save</guibutton> <emphasis>Toolbar</emphasis>
+    button.
+    <note>
+        <para>As it is very important to save your data frequently to avoid losing them for whatever reason,
+        <application>&app;</application> is able to automatically save the opened file every a certain amount of time.
+        This interval can be set in the <guilabel>General</guilabel> tab under
+        <menuchoice><guimenu>Edit</guimenu><guimenuitem>Preferences</guimenuitem></menuchoice>
+        (<menuchoice><guimenu>GnuCash</guimenu><guimenuitem>Preferences</guimenuitem></menuchoice> on Mac OS X).
+        Keep in mind that this option is relevant only if you are saving in <acronym>XML</acronym> format.
+        If you are working with a database, the <guibutton>Save</guibutton> button and the <guimenuitem>Save</guimenuitem>
+        menu entry will be grayed out because changes are stored right away.</para>
+    </note>
+    </para>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="basics-open-data">
+    <title>Opening data</title>
+    <para>To open an existing file or database, select <menuchoice><guimenu>File</guimenu>
+    <guimenuitem>Open</guimenuitem></menuchoice> from the menu. In the window that will open,
+    select the <guilabel>Data Format</guilabel>. If you selected <guilabel>File</guilabel> choose the file you want to open
+    by browsing the folders in the lower panes. Else, enter the required <guilabel>Database Connection</guilabel>
+    information.</para>
+    <tip>
+      <para><application>&app;</application> keeps a list of the recently opened files. Open the <guilabel>File</guilabel>
+      menu and you will see listed the names of recently opened files. Click on the one you want to load to open it.</para>
+    </tip>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="basics-expt-acct">
+    <title>Duplicating an Account Hierarchy</title>
+    <para>In some cases, it might be useful to duplicate the structure of an existing data file in a new file.
+    For example, you might want to try out new accounting techniques without corrupting your actual
+    accounting data, or you might need to follow accounting guidelines that require you to close your books at the end
+    of the year and begin each year with a fresh set of books.</para>
+
+    <para><application>&app;</application> allows you to create an empty copy of your Chart of Accounts simply by selecting
+    <menuchoice><guimenu>File</guimenu><guisubmenu>Export</guisubmenu><guimenuitem>Export Accounts</guimenuitem></menuchoice>.
+    When you select this command, you are asked to provide the name for the new empty file, and <application>&app;</application>
+    creates a new data file that contains only your account hierarchy (that is, there is no transaction data).
+    Once saved, the new file can be opened like any other <application>&app;</application> data file as described above.</para>
+    </sect2>
+
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="basics-backup1">
+    <title>Backing Up and Recovering Data</title>
+
+    <para><application>&app;</application> creates several types of files to help ensure that your data
+    is not lost. If you look in the folder where your saved file resides, you may see other
+    files generated by <application>&app;</application> with the following extensions: <filename>.gnucash</filename>,
+    <filename>.log</filename>, <filename>.LCK</filename>, <filename>.LNK</filename> in the same directory
+    as your primary data file. What each of these files does is presented below.</para>
+
+    <note>
+    <para>The following sections are relevant only if you are saving your financial data in the <acronym>XML</acronym> format</para>
+    </note>
+
+    <programlisting>
+      $ ls
+      myfile.gnucash
+      myfile.gnucash.20100414185747.gnucash
+      myfile.gnucash.20100414223248.log
+      myfile.gnucash.20100415114340.gnucash
+      myfile.gnucash.20100415154508.log
+      myfile.gnucash.20100415173322.gnucash
+      myfile.gnucash.20100415194251.log
+      myfile.gnucash.7f0982.12093.LNK
+      myfile.gnucash.LCK
+    </programlisting>
+
+    <sect2 id="basics-backupxac2">
+      <title>Backup file (.gnucash)</title>
+
+      <para>Each time you save your data file, a backup copy will also be
+      saved with the extension <filename>.YYYYMMDDHHMMSS.gnucash</filename>. This backup file is a complete copy of
+      your previous data file, and the filename format refers to the data
+      file, year, month, day and time of the backup. For example, the filename
+      <filename>myfile.gnucash.20100414185747.gnucash</filename> indicates this is a
+      backup copy of the file <filename>myfile</filename> saved in the year
+      2010, April 14, at 6:57:47 p.m.</para>
+
+      <para>To restore an old backup file, simply open the <filename>.YYYYMMDDHHMMSS.gnucash</filename> file with the
+      date to which you wish to return. Be sure to save this file under a
+      different name.</para>
+
+      <note>
+       <para>
+         <filename>.YYYYMMDDHHMMSS.xac</filename> instead of the actual extension <filename>.YYYYMMDDHHMMSS.gnucash</filename>.
+         So if you upgrade from the 2.2 series to the 2.4 series, you may end up with both <filename>.YYYYMMDDHHMMSS.xac</filename>
+         and <filename>.YYYYMMDDHHMMSS.gnucash</filename> backup files in your directory.</para>
+      </note>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="basics-backuplog2">
+      <title>Log file (.log)</title>
+
+      <para>Each time you open and edit a file in <application>&app;</application>,
+      <application>&app;</application> creates a log file of changes you have made to your data file.
+      The log file uses a similar naming format as the backup files:
+      <filename>.YYYYMMDDHHMMSS.log</filename>. Log files
+      are not a full backup of your data file - they simply record changes you
+      have made to the data file in the current <application>&app;</application> session.</para>
+
+      <para>In case you exit <application>&app;</application> inadvertently, possibly due to a power
+      outage or a system wide crash, it is possible to recover most of your
+      work since the last time you saved your <application>&app;</application> file using this log
+      file. This is the procedure:</para>
+
+      <orderedlist>
+        <listitem>
+          <para>Open the last saved <application>&app;</application> file.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para>Go to <menuchoice><guimenu>File</guimenu><guisubmenu>Import</guisubmenu>
+          <guimenuitem>Replay &app; .log file</guimenuitem></menuchoice>
+          and select the one .log file with the same date as the saved file
+          you just opened. Make sure that you picked the right .log file, or
+          you will possibly wreak havoc in your accounts.</para>
+        </listitem>
+      </orderedlist>
+
+      <para>Log replaying will recover any transaction affecting the balance
+      entered since the last save, including those created from scheduled
+      transactions and business features (invoices, bills, etc.).</para>
+
+      <warning>
+        <para>Changes to the scheduled transactions, invoices or
+        bills themselves are NOT recovered, and their transactions that were
+        recovered may not be properly associated with them, and should thus be
+        double-checked. Especially for business transactions, you may have to
+        delete and re-create some of them. If you do not, although the balance
+        will be correct, some reports may not.</para>
+      </warning>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="basics-backuplock2">
+      <title>Lock files (.LNK and .LCK)</title>
+
+      <para>You may occasionally see <filename>.LNK</filename> and <filename>.LCK</filename> files appear. These do not
+      store any data, but they are created to prevent more than one user from
+      opening the same file at the same time. These files are automatically
+      created when you open the file, to lock it so no one else can access it.
+      When you close your <application>&app;</application> session or open another file, <application>&app;</application>
+      unlocks the first data file by deleting the <filename>.LCK</filename> and <filename>.LNK</filename> files.</para>
+
+      <para>If <application>&app;</application> crashes while you have a data file open, the <filename>.LCK</filename> and
+      <filename>.LNK</filename> files are not deleted. The next time you try to open <application>&app;</application>, you
+      will get a warning message that the file is locked. The warning message
+      appears because the <filename>.LNK</filename> and <filename>.LCK</filename> files are still in your directory. It is
+      safe to choose <guibutton>Yes</guibutton> to open the file, but you should delete the <filename>.LNK</filename> and
+      <filename>.LCK</filename> files (using a terminal window or your file manager). Once those
+      files are deleted, you will not get the warning message again unless
+      <application>&app;</application> crashes.</para>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="basics-backupmanage2">
+      <title>File Management</title>
+
+      <para>So which files should you keep around? Keep your main data file,
+      of course. It’s a
+      good idea to keep some of the more recent <filename>.YYYYMMDDHHMMSS.gnucash</filename> backup files, but you can safely
+      delete the <filename>.log</filename> files since they are not complete copies of your data.</para>
+
+      <note>
+        <para>If you upgraded from a <application>&app;</application> version prior to 2.4, you may also have backup files
+        in the old <filename>.xac</filename> format. For these files you can apply the same principle described above for
+        <filename>.YYYYMMDDHHMMSS.gnucash</filename> backup files.</para>
+      </note>
+
+      <para>You should also delete any <filename>.LCK</filename> and <filename>.LNK</filename> files that you see after
+      closing <application>&app;</application>. If you decide to back up your data file to another
+      disk manually, it’s enough to back up the main data file - not the <filename>.YYYYMMDDHHMMSS.gnucash</filename>
+      backup files.</para>
+
+      <note>
+        <para>By default <application>&app;</application> will automatically delete any <filename>.log</filename> and <filename>.YYYYMMDDHHMMSS.gnucash</filename>
+        backup files that are older than 30 days. You can change this behavior in the <application>&app;</application>
+        preferences in the <guilabel>General</guilabel> tab under <menuchoice><guimenu>Edit</guimenu>
+        <guimenuitem>Preferences</guimenuitem></menuchoice>
+        (<menuchoice><guimenu>GnuCash</guimenu><guimenuitem>Preferences</guimenuitem></menuchoice> on Mac OS X).</para>
+      </note>
+
+    </sect2>
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="basics-migrate-settings">
+    <title>Migrating <application>&app;</application> data</title>
+      <para>Sometimes you may need to move your financial data and <application>&app;</application> settings to another machine.
+      Typical use cases are when you buy a new computer or if you want to use the same settings over two different operating
+      systems in a dual boot configuration.</para>
+
+   <sect2 id="migrate-financial">
+     <title>Migrating financial data</title>
+     <para>Migrating <application>&app;</application> financial data is a as simple as copying  <filename>.gnucash</filename>
+     files with a file manager if you know where they are saved. If you can’t remember where a file is stored
+     but you can open it directly within <application>&app;</application>, save it in the desired path from within
+     <application>&app;</application>.</para>
+
+     <para>All other files in the folder are either backups or log files. It won’t do any harm to copy them too, but it’s not likely
+     to do any good, either.</para>
+   </sect2>
+
+   <sect2 id="migrate-prefs">
+     <title>Migrating preferences data</title>
+     <para>Preferences are stored in three different locations: one for <application>&app;</application> preferences,
+     one for reports, and one for online banking settings. Preferences are managed by
+     <application>gsettings</application>, reports are managed by <application>&app;</application>
+     itself, and online banking is managed by <application>aqbanking</application>. If you do not use online banking,
+     then you will not have this folder on your machine.</para>
+     <para>Where the <application>&app;</application> preferences are stored varies
+     depending on your operating system (see <xref linkend="App-sett-loc" />, <xref linkend="Report-loc" />, and
+     <xref linkend="OB-sett-loc" />). To back up and transfer your entire installation, you must copy
+     these preferences as well.</para>
+
+
+	<table id="App-sett-loc"><title>Application Settings Locations</title>
+	<tgroup cols="2" align="left">
+  	  <thead>
+	    <row>
+  		<entry>Operating system</entry>
+		<entry>folder</entry>
+	    </row>
+	  </thead>
+	  <tbody>
+            <row>
+     	      <entry>Unix</entry>
+     	      <entry><application>&app;</application> preferences are stored in <application>dconf</application>.
+                  You can use the commands <code>dconf dump /org/gnucash/</code> on the old machine
+                  and <code>dconf load /org/gnucash/</code> on the new machine to migrate your preferences.</entry>
+            </row>
+            <row>
+              <entry>Mac OSX</entry>
+              <entry><filename class="directory">~/Library/Preferences/gnucash.plist</filename></entry>
+            </row>
+            <row>
+              <entry>Windows</entry>
+              <entry>The preferences are stored in the Windows registry<filename class="directory">HKEY_CURRENT_USER/software/GSettings</filename></entry>
+            </row>
+	  </tbody>
+	</tgroup>
+	</table>
+
+        <table id="Report-loc"><title>Saved Reports Locations</title>
+	<tgroup cols="2" align="left">
+  	  <thead>
+	    <row>
+  		<entry>Operating system</entry>
+		<entry>folder</entry>
+	    </row>
+	  </thead>
+	  <tbody>
+            <row>
+     	      <entry>Unix</entry>
+              <entry><filename class="directory">~/.gnucash</filename></entry>
+            </row>
+            <row>
+              <entry>Mac OSX</entry>
+              <entry><filename class="directory">~/Library/Application Support/gnucash</filename></entry>
+            </row>
+            <row>
+              <entry>Windows</entry>
+              <entry><filename class="directory">Documents and Settings/Username/.gnucash</filename> or
+                     <filename class="directory">Users/Username/.gnucash</filename></entry>
+            </row>
+	  </tbody>
+	</tgroup>
+	</table>
+
+
+	<table id="OB-sett-loc"><title>Online Banking Settings Locations</title>
+	<tgroup cols="2" align="left">
+  	  <thead>
+	    <row>
+  		<entry>Operating system</entry>
+		<entry>folder</entry>
+	    </row>
+	  </thead>
+	  <tbody>
+            <row>
+     	      <entry>Unix</entry>
+              <entry><filename class="directory">~/.aqbanking</filename></entry>
+            </row>
+            <row>
+              <entry>Mac OSX</entry>
+              <entry><filename class="directory">~/.aqbanking</filename></entry>
+            </row>
+            <row>
+              <entry>Windows</entry>
+              <entry><filename class="directory">Documents and Settings/Username/.aqbanking</filename></entry>
+            </row>
+	  </tbody>
+	</tgroup>
+	</table>
+
+     <note>
+       <para>On Unix and Mac OSX, these folders will generally not
+       display in the file manager. You must set the file manager to show hidden files
+       and folders to see them.</para>
+     </note>
+
+     <tip>
+       <para>On Unix and Mac OSX, the <keycap>~</keycap> symbol means the
+       <filename class="directory">home</filename> folder.</para>
+     </tip>
+
+   </sect2>
+
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="basics-together1">
+    <title>Putting It All Together</title>
+
+    <note>
+      <para>This section begins a tutorial that will continue throughout this
+      book. At the end of each chapter, you will see a <guilabel>Putting It
+      All Together</guilabel> section that walks you through examples to
+      illustrate concepts discussed in that section. Each <guilabel>Putting It
+      All Together</guilabel> section builds on the previous one, so be sure
+      to save your file for easy access.</para>
+    </note>
+
+    <para>Let’s get started!</para>
+
+    <orderedlist>
+      <listitem>
+        <para>First, let’s create a file to store your real data. Open <application>&app;</application>
+        and select <menuchoice><guimenu>File</guimenu><guimenuitem>New File</guimenuitem></menuchoice>
+        from the <emphasis>Menubar</emphasis>. This will start the <guilabel>New Account Hierarchy Setup</guilabel> assistant that allows
+        you to create several accounts at once.</para>
+        <note>
+          <para>If you are running <application>&app;</application> for the first time, you will be presented with the
+          <guilabel>Cannot find default values</guilabel> screen which is described in details in the
+          <application>&app;</application> manual.</para>
+        </note>
+
+      <screenshot id="basics-NewAccountHierarchySetup">
+        <mediaobject>
+          <imageobject role="html">
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/basics_NewAccountHierarchySetup.png"
+                       format="PNG" srccredit="Cristian Marchi" width="510"></imagedata>
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <imageobject role="fo">
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/basics_NewAccountHierarchySetup.png"
+                       format="PNG" srccredit="Cristian Marchi" ></imagedata>
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>The New Account Hierarchy Setup assistant</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption>
+            <para>This image shows the first screen of the <guilabel>New
+            Account Hierarchy Setup</guilabel> assistant.</para>
+          </caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+
+      <para>The first screen of the assistant gives you a description of what the assistant does.
+      Click the <guibutton>Forward</guibutton> button to proceed to the next screen.</para>
+    </listitem>
+
+    <listitem>
+      <para>In the second screen, select the currency to use for the new accounts from the dropdown list.
+      Then press the <guibutton>Forward</guibutton> button.</para>
+      <note>
+        <para>The currency you select here, will be assigned to all the
+        <guilabel>accounts</guilabel> created in this assistant.</para>
+      </note>
+
+      <screenshot id="basics-NewAccountHierarchySetup-currency">
+        <mediaobject>
+          <imageobject role="html">
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/basics_NewAccountHierarchySetup_currency.png"
+                       format="PNG" srccredit="Cristian Marchi" width="510"></imagedata>
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <imageobject role="fo">
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/basics_NewAccountHierarchySetup_currency.png"
+                       format="PNG" srccredit="Cristian Marchi" ></imagedata>
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>The New Account Hierarchy Setup assistant - Currency</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption>
+            <para>This image shows the second screen of the <guilabel>New
+            Account Hierarchy Setup</guilabel> assistant where you select the
+            currency.</para>
+          </caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+    </listitem>
+
+    <listitem>
+      <para>In the third screen, set the <guilabel>New Book Options</guilabel>,
+        then press the <guibutton>Forward</guibutton> button.
+        You can also update these options later using <menuchoice><guimenu>File
+        </guimenu><guimenuitem>Properties</guimenuitem></menuchoice>.
+        For details of these options, see the <application>&app;</application>
+        Help manual, chapter Customizing GnuCash, Book Options.
+      </para>
+
+      <screenshot id="basics-NewBookOptions">
+        <mediaobject>
+          <imageobject role="html">
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/basics_NewBookOpts.png"
+                       format="PNG" srccredit="Chris Good" width="510"></imagedata>
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <imageobject role="fo">
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/basics_NewBookOpts.png"
+                       format="PNG" srccredit="Chris Good" ></imagedata>
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>The New Book Options assistant</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption>
+            <para>This image shows the third screen of the <guilabel>New
+            Account Hierarchy Setup</guilabel> assistant where you select the
+            book options.</para>
+          </caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+    </listitem>
+
+    <listitem>
+      <para>In the fourth screen select the <guilabel>Common Accounts</guilabel> group in the
+      <guilabel>Categories</guilabel> pane. Then press the <guibutton>Forward</guibutton> button to
+      proceed.</para>
+      <note>
+        <para>If you want, you can select one or more of the predefined account-groups here. For more
+        information on account types, see <xref linkend="accts-types1"></xref>.</para>
+      </note>
+
+      <screenshot id="basics-NewAccountHierarchySetup-Accounts">
+        <mediaobject>
+          <imageobject role="html">
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/basics_NewAccountHierarchySetup_Accounts.png"
+                       format="PNG" srccredit="Cristian Marchi" width="510"></imagedata>
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <imageobject role="fo">
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/basics_NewAccountHierarchySetup_Accounts.png"
+                       format="PNG" srccredit="Cristian Marchi" ></imagedata>
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>The New Account Hierarchy Setup assistant - Choose
+            accounts</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption>
+            <para>This image shows the fourth screen of the <guilabel>New
+            Account Hierarchy Setup</guilabel> assistant where you choose the
+            various accounts.</para>
+          </caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+    </listitem>
+
+    <listitem>
+      <para>In the fifth screen you will be able to set an <guilabel>Opening
+      Balance</guilabel> on each of the accounts, as well as indicate if
+      the account should be a <guilabel>Placeholder</guilabel>. As these features will be
+      described in next chapters, leave all as configured by <application>&app;</application>
+      and click <guibutton>Forward</guibutton> to open the last screen of the assistant.</para>
+
+      <screenshot id="basics-NewAccountHierarchySetup-Setup.png">
+        <mediaobject>
+          <imageobject role="html">
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/basics_NewAccountHierarchySetup_Setup.png"
+                       format="PNG" srccredit="Cristian Marchi" width="510"></imagedata>
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <imageobject role="fo">
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/basics_NewAccountHierarchySetup_Setup.png"
+                       format="PNG" srccredit="Cristian Marchi" ></imagedata>
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>The New Account Hierarchy Setup assistant - Configure</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption>
+            <para>This image shows the fifth screen of the <guilabel>New
+            Account Hierarchy Setup</guilabel> assistant where you can set
+            <guilabel>Opening Balance</guilabel>.</para>
+          </caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+    </listitem>
+
+    <listitem>
+      <para>In the last screen of the assistant, click <guibutton>Apply</guibutton> to create all the accounts and
+      leave the assistant.</para>
+
+      <screenshot id="basics-NewAccountHierarchySetup-Finish">
+        <mediaobject>
+          <imageobject role="html">
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/basics_NewAccountHierarchySetup_Finish.png"
+                       format="PNG" srccredit="Cristian Marchi" width="510"></imagedata>
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <imageobject role="fo">
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/basics_NewAccountHierarchySetup_Finish.png"
+                       format="PNG" srccredit="Cristian Marchi" ></imagedata>
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>The New Account Hierarchy Setup assistant - Finish</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption>
+            <para>This image shows the last screen of the <guilabel>New
+            Account Hierarchy Setup</guilabel> assistant.</para>
+          </caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+    </listitem>
+
+    <listitem>
+      <para>After pressing <guibutton>Apply</guibutton> in the previous window, you will be
+      presented with the save dialog. Select the <acronym>XML</acronym> <guilabel>Data Format</guilabel>,
+      <guilabel>Name</guilabel> the file as <filename>gcashdata_1</filename>, select the folder where to
+      save the file (remember it as the data file will be used in the tutorials throughout this manual),
+      and finally press the <guibutton>Save as</guibutton> button.</para>
+
+        <para>Your main window should now look something like this:</para>
+
+          <screenshot id="basics-EmptyAccounts">
+            <mediaobject>
+              <imageobject role="html">
+                <imagedata fileref="figures/basics_EmptyAccounts.png"
+                           format="PNG" srccredit="Cristian Marchi" width="510"></imagedata>
+              </imageobject>
+
+              <imageobject role="fo">
+                <imagedata fileref="figures/basics_EmptyAccounts.png"
+                           format="PNG" srccredit="Cristian Marchi" ></imagedata>
+              </imageobject>
+
+              <textobject>
+                <phrase>The Main window showing the test file</phrase>
+              </textobject>
+            </mediaobject>
+          </screenshot>
+    </listitem>
+
+  </orderedlist>
+
+  </sect1>
+</chapter>
diff --git a/guide/ru/ch_budgets.xml b/guide/ru/ch_budgets.xml
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..d109cfa
--- /dev/null
+++ b/guide/ru/ch_budgets.xml
@@ -0,0 +1,203 @@
+<!--
+      (Do not remove this comment block.)
+  Version: 2.0.0
+  Last modified: July 9th 2006
+  Maintainers:
+               Chris Shoemaker <c.shoemaker at cox.net>
+  Author:
+               Chris Shoemaker <c.shoemaker at cox.net>
+  Translators:
+               (translators put your name and email here)
+-->
+ <chapter id="chapter_budgets">
+ <title>Budgets</title>
+ <para>
+ This chapter explains how to create and use budgets with <application>&app;</application>.
+  </para>
+ <sect1 id="budget_concepts1">
+ <title>Basic Concepts</title>
+
+ <para>A budget is a tool for estimating expected income and expenses.
+ You can use it to help you plan how you intend for your finances to
+ change over a period of time, and to examine how your actual
+ financial transactions for the period compare to your planned
+ transactions.</para>
+
+ <para>The budgeting concept is quite general, so <application>&app;</application> offers a
+budgeting tool that is both simple and flexible.  You, the user, have
+to decide how complex or simple you want to make your budget.  This
+guide will help you make some of those decisions.</para>
+
+ <sect2 id="budget_conceptsterms2">
+ <title>Terminology</title> <para>There are a few helpful terms listed
+  below that will be used to discuss budgeting.</para>
+
+  <itemizedlist>
+  <listitem>
+    <para><emphasis>Budget</emphasis> - A financial plan describing
+    the expected revenues and/or disbursements for a particular time
+    period</para>
+  </listitem>
+  <listitem>
+    <para><emphasis>Cash Budget</emphasis> - A budget planning for
+    expected cash receipts and cash disbursements.  This type of
+    budget tracks cash flow -- where your money comes from, where it
+    goes, and, of course, how much.</para>
+  </listitem>
+  <listitem>
+
+    <para><emphasis>Expense Budget</emphasis> - A budget chiefly for
+    planning what you spend your money on.  This type of budget tracks
+    your expenses.  It is typically not concerned with things like
+    appreciation or repayment of liabilities.  However, it would
+    account for interest charges.  For example, if you buy $100 worth
+    of groceries with your credit card, you incur an $100 expense for
+    groceries, and a $100 liability to your credit card company.  When
+    you pay the credit card bill for $110, you are incurring an
+    additional interest expense of $10.  An expense budget plans for
+    the transaction of buying the groceries and paying the interest,
+    but not the transaction of repaying the credit card
+    company.</para>
+
+  </listitem>
+  <listitem>
+    <para><emphasis>Capital Budget</emphasis> - A budget that
+    describes a plan for paying for a large future expense, often
+    through a combination of saving and borrowing money.  Note:
+    Capital budgets can sometimes get quite complex because they can
+    try to answer the question "Can we afford to do such-and-such?" by
+    exploring various hypothetical scenarios that can involve
+    hypothetical accounts.  </para>
+
+  </listitem>
+  <listitem>
+    <para><emphasis>Budget Period</emphasis> - The period of time
+    during which the plan is expected to take place.  The most common
+    budget periods are annual and monthly.  Sometimes, you may budget
+    for several consecutive periods at once, for convenience or for
+    finer-grained planning.  For example, an annual budget may include
+    12 monthly budget periods.</para> </listitem>
+
+  </itemizedlist>
+
+  </sect2>
+ </sect1>
+
+ <sect1 id="budget_creation1">
+   <title>Creating a Budget</title>
+   <para>Even before you begin to make a budget, it’s important to
+   have given some thought to your account hierarchy.  For example, if
+   you want to budget a certain amount for your electric bill and a
+   certain amount for your water bill, you can’t have only an
+   <emphasis>Expenses:Utilities</emphasis> account.  Your accounts must be at least as
+   specific as your budget.  </para>
+
+
+   <sect2 id="budget_creation2">
+     <title>Choose Which Accounts To Budget For</title>
+     <para>The first step in creating a budget is to decide what it is
+     you want to plan for.  This decision will affect which accounts
+     you include in your budget.  For example, if you are only
+     interested in tracking your expenses, you may create an expense
+     budget by only entering amounts for expense accounts.  On the
+     other hand, if you want to track all of your cash flow, you may
+     create a cash flow budget by entering amounts for asset,
+     liability, income and expense accounts.</para>
+
+     <para>Before you begin to create your budget, you need to make
+     two decisions: What accounts do I want to budget for?  and When
+     do I want my budget to be for?  You can always change your mind
+     later, after you’ve created a budget, but you need to start with
+     something.</para>
+
+     <tip><para>As a rule of thumb, if you mostly care about
+     <emphasis>what</emphasis> you spend your money on, you may want
+     to make an expense report.  If you’re also concerned about having
+     enough money in the right places at the right times, you may want
+     to use a cash-flow budget.</para></tip>
+
+  </sect2>
+  <sect2>
+    <title>Choosing a Budget Period</title>
+    <para>Before creating a budget you must also decide what period of
+    time you want to plan for.  The most common budget periods are
+    monthly and annual.  If you want your budget to plan for changes
+    in financial patterns over time, then you should include multiple
+    budget periods in your budget.  For example, if you want to plan
+    on having higher utility expenses in the winter than in the
+    summer, then you might break your annual budget into 4 quarters or
+    even 12 months, and budget a higher value for the winter periods
+    than for the summer periods.</para>
+  </sect2>
+
+  <sect2>
+    <title>Getting Started</title>
+    <para>To create your first budget click on <menuchoice><guimenu>Actions</guimenu>
+    <guisubmenu>Budget</guisubmenu><guimenuitem>New Budget</guimenuitem></menuchoice>.  You will
+    immediately see a new budget with the default settings and no entries.
+    Then click on the <guibutton>Options</guibutton> button.  The most important options are
+    the budget period and the number of periods.  For the budget period,
+    choose the beginning date and the smallest period of time that you
+    want to plan for.  Then, for the number of periods, choose how many
+    periods you want to plan for.</para>
+
+    <para>The budget page now shows a list of accounts with a column
+    for each budget period.  The date shown in the title of each
+    column is the beginning of that budget period.</para>
+
+  </sect2>
+  <sect2>
+    <title>Entering Budget Values</title>
+    <para>Now, you must enter the budget values - the amounts that you
+    expect the account balances to change during the budget period.
+    There are two ways to enter budget values.  The first way is to
+    simply click on the cell and enter an amount.</para>
+
+    <para>If you have past transactions recorded in <application>&app;</application>, the
+    second way is to let <application>&app;</application> estimate the budget values by looking
+    at those transactions.  First, select the accounts you want
+    <application>&app;</application> to estimate.  Then click on the <guibutton>Estimate</guibutton> <emphasis>Toolbar</emphasis> button.
+    In the <guilabel>Estimate Budget Values</guilabel> dialog, select the date past which
+    <application>&app;</application> should look for past transactions.  <application>&app;</application> will start at
+    that date and look forward for the duration of your budget.  For
+    example, if you are making an annual budget, and you select
+    Jan. 1, 2005, <application>&app;</application> will look at all the transactions in that
+    account from Jan. 1, 2005 through Dec. 31, 2005.</para>
+  </sect2>
+ </sect1>
+
+ <sect1 id="budget_reporting1">
+   <title>Budget Reporting</title>
+   <para>You’ve already done the hardest part - creating your budget.
+   But now you want to know how your actual financial transactions
+   compare to your plan.  You need to run the Budget Report.</para>
+   <para>Click on <menuchoice><guimenu>Reports</guimenu><guisubmenu>Budget</guisubmenu>
+   <guimenuitem>Budget Report</guimenuitem></menuchoice>.  For each
+   account, the Budget Report will show the budgeted and the actual
+   amounts in two adjacent columns for each period in the budget.  If
+   you have created multiple budgets, you can use the Budget Report
+   Options to select which budget to use in the report.
+   </para>
+   <para>Two other types of budget reports are commonly used in the
+   small business setting. They are the <emphasis>Budgeted Income
+   Statement</emphasis> and the <emphasis>Budgeted Balance
+   Sheet</emphasis>.</para>
+   <sect2>
+      <title>Budgeted Income Statement</title>
+      <para>The budgeted income statement is similar to the income
+      statement. Both show the revenues and expenses for a given period
+      as well as the profit, which is the difference revenue - expenses.
+      The income statement is based on historical data, but the
+      <emphasis>budgeted</emphasis> income statement is based on the
+      predictions made in the budget.</para>
+   </sect2>
+   <sect2>
+       <title>Budgeted Balance Sheet</title>
+       <para>The budgeted balance sheet is similar to the balance sheet.
+       Both show the assets, liabilities, and equity. The difference is
+       that the balance sheet is based on historical data, and the
+       <emphasis>budgeted</emphasis> balance sheet is based on the
+       predictions made in the budget.</para>
+   </sect2>
+ </sect1>
+ </chapter>
diff --git a/guide/ru/ch_bus_features.xml b/guide/ru/ch_bus_features.xml
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..ff54042
--- /dev/null
+++ b/guide/ru/ch_bus_features.xml
@@ -0,0 +1,1497 @@
+<!--
+      (Do not remove this comment block.)
+  Version: 1.0.0
+  Last modified: Sep 19th 2015
+  Maintainers:
+               Chris Good <chris.good at ozemail.com.au>
+  Author:
+  		Chris Good <chris.good at ozemail.com.au>
+	updated [FirstName LastName] <name at company.com>
+  Translators:
+               (translators put your name and email here)
+-->
+
+<chapter id="chapter_bus_features">
+  <title>Business Features</title>
+  <sect1 id="bus-intro">
+      <title>Introduction to Business Features</title>
+      <para>The accounting needs of a business are quite different from that of
+      a person. Businesses have customers that owe money, vendors which are owed
+      money, employee payroll, more complex tax laws, etc. <application>&app;</application> offers
+      business oriented features to facilitate these needs.</para>
+
+      <para><emphasis>Accounts Receivable</emphasis> (A/R) are used by businesses to record sales for
+        which they are not immediately paid. This is represented on the balance sheet as an asset,
+        because the expectation is that you will receive payment soon.
+      </para>
+
+      <para><emphasis>Accounts Payable</emphasis> (A/P) record bills that businesses have received, but may not pay until later.
+        This is represented on the balance sheet as a liability because you will have to pay for them.
+      </para>
+
+      <para>A/R and A/P accounts are used primarily when you have a lot of bills and receipts
+        flowing in and out, and do not want to lose track of them just because you
+        do not pay or get paid right away. For most home users, A/R and A/P are
+        too complicated to be worthwhile.
+      </para>
+    </sect1>
+  <sect1 id="bus_setup">
+    <title>Business Setup</title>
+
+    <para>To set up <application>&app;</application> to handle accounts receivable or accounts payable
+      for a company, these preliminary steps must be done.
+      <itemizedlist>
+        <listitem><para>Build an appropriate Account Hierarchy.</para></listitem>
+        <listitem><para>Set up Tax Tables.</para></listitem>
+        <listitem><para>Enter the company information in <application>&app;</application>.</para></listitem>
+        <listitem><para>Set Business Preferences.</para></listitem>
+        <listitem><para>Set up Billing Terms.</para></listitem>
+      </itemizedlist>
+    </para>
+  
+    <sect2 id="bus-setupacct">
+      <title>Account Setup</title>
+
+      <para>There are many different ways to set up a business account
+      hierarchy. You can start with the Business Accounts setup which is
+      available from the New Account Hierarchy assistant, or you could build one
+      manually. To access the prebuilt Business Accounts, start <application>&app;</application> and
+      click on <menuchoice><guimenu>File</guimenu><guimenuitem>New File</guimenuitem></menuchoice> and
+      proceed until you see the list of available accounts, select Business
+      Accounts.</para>
+
+      <para>The prebuilt Business Account hierarchy will not meet your needs
+      exactly. You will need make adjustments to the hierarchy so that it will
+      meet your particular needs. It should be close enough, however, that it
+      is recommended you begin with it.</para>
+
+      <para>To use <application>&app;</application>’s integrated accounts
+        receivable system, you must first set up a special account (usually a
+        sub-account under Assets) to hold transactions for receivables. This account
+        must be defined with account type <emphasis>A/Receivable</emphasis>.
+        <application>&app;</application> will use this account to place transactions
+        related to the integrated accounts receivable system.
+      </para>
+
+      <para>To use <application>&app;</application>’s integrated accounts
+        payable system, you must first set up an account (usually a
+        sub-account under Liabilities) to hold transactions for payables.
+        This account must be defined with account type <emphasis>A/Payable</emphasis>.
+        <application>&app;</application> will use this account to place transactions
+        related to the integrated accounts payable system.
+      </para>
+
+      <literallayout>
+Basic A/R and A/P Account Hierarchy:
+
+-Assets
+   -Accounts Receivable
+   -Checking
+-Expenses
+  ...(as required)
+-Income
+   -Sales
+-Liabilities
+  -Accounts Payable
+  -Tax
+      -Tax on Purchases
+      -Tax on Sales
+  </literallayout>
+
+      <para>You need to add additional accounts to this hierarchy for it to be useful.</para>
+
+      <note>
+        <para>You do not need to create an individual A/R account for each
+          customer. <application>&app;</application> keeps track of customers internally and provides
+          per-customer reports based on the internal tracking. The same applies to A/P and vendors.
+        </para>
+      </note>
+      <note>
+        <para>
+          If you deal with customers in more than one currency you will need a separate
+          <emphasis>Accounts Receivable</emphasis> account for each currency.
+        </para>
+
+        <para>
+          If you deal with vendors in more than one currency you will need a separate
+          <emphasis>Accounts Payable</emphasis> account for each currency.
+        </para>
+      </note>
+      <note>
+        <para>Transactions involving an Accounts Receivable or Accounts Payable account should not be
+          added, changed or deleted in any way other than by using Post/Unpost 
+          Bill/Invoice/Voucher or Process Payment!
+        </para>
+      </note>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="bus-setuptaxtables">
+      <title>Setting up Tax Tables</title>
+
+      <para>Tax Tables can used to determine the tax for customer invoices (or vendor bills).
+      </para>
+
+      <para> A tax table can be assigned to an invoice line or bill line.</para>
+
+      <para>Set up distinct tax tables for customers and vendors.</para>
+
+      <para> The default invoice line tax table can be assigned to each customer and the default bill
+        line tax table can be assigned to each vendor.
+      </para>
+
+      <para>The default tax table for new customers or new vendors can  be specified in the <emphasis>Book Options </emphasis>
+        window which can be accessed by
+        <menuchoice><guimenu>File</guimenu>
+          <guisubmenu>Properties</guisubmenu>
+          <guimenuitem>Business tab.</guimenuitem>
+        </menuchoice>
+      </para>
+
+      <para>Tax Tables are maintained using the <emphasis>Sales Tax Table</emphasis> editor which is accessed via menu
+        <menuchoice><guimenu>Business</guimenu><guimenuitem>Sales Tax Table</guimenuitem></menuchoice>.
+      </para>
+
+      <figure pgwide="1">
+        <title>Tax Tables</title>
+        <screenshot id="bus-taxmain">
+          <mediaobject>
+            <imageobject role="html">
+              <imagedata fileref="figures/bus_tax_main.png" format="PNG"
+                         srccredit="Chris Good" width="510px" />
+            </imageobject>
+            <imageobject role="fo">
+              <imagedata fileref="figures/bus_tax_main.png" format="PNG"
+                        srccredit="Chris Good" />
+            </imageobject>
+
+            <textobject>
+              <phrase>Sales Tax Tables Editor</phrase>
+            </textobject>
+
+          </mediaobject>
+        </screenshot>
+      </figure>
+
+      <figure pgwide="1">
+        <title>New Sales Tax Table</title>
+        <screenshot id="bus-taxnew">
+          <mediaobject>
+            <imageobject role="html">
+              <imagedata fileref="figures/bus_tax_new.png" format="PNG"
+                         srccredit="Chris Good" />
+            </imageobject>
+            <imageobject role="fo">
+              <imagedata fileref="figures/bus_tax_new.png" format="PNG"
+                         srccredit="Chris Good" />
+            </imageobject>
+
+            <textobject>
+              <phrase>New Sales Tax Table</phrase>
+            </textobject>
+
+          </mediaobject>
+        </screenshot>
+      </figure>
+
+      <itemizedlist>
+        <listitem>
+          <para><guilabel>Name</guilabel> This is the tax table name.</para>
+        </listitem>
+        <listitem>
+          <para><guilabel>Type</guilabel> Either <guilabel>Percent %</guilabel> or <guilabel>Value $</guilabel>.</para>
+        </listitem>
+        <listitem>
+          <para><guilabel>Value</guilabel> This is the percentage or value depending on <guilabel>Type</guilabel>.</para>
+        </listitem>
+        <listitem>
+          <para><guilabel>Account</guilabel> This is the account to which tax will be posted.
+            For tax collected from customers, this should probably be a Liability account as it must be payed to the government.
+            For tax paid to vendors, if tax laws allow tax paid to vendors to offset tax collected from customers, this should probably
+            also be a Liability account (even though it will usually have a debit balance)
+            so that the net tax owed to the government can be easily observed.
+          </para>
+          <para>If you set up Tax on Purchases and Tax on Sales as subaccounts of Liabilities:Tax then the net tax will be rolled up
+            and can be seen in the  <application>&app;</application> Accounts tab.
+          </para>
+          <para><emphasis>If unsure about tax law requirements, get professional advice. </emphasis></para>
+        </listitem>
+      </itemizedlist>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="bus-setupcname">
+      <title>Enter Company Information</title>
+
+      <para>After you have built the account structure and defined your tax tables, designate your
+      company in the <application>&app;</application> file. To do this, select the <guilabel>Business</guilabel> tab
+      in the <guilabel>Book Options</guilabel> window, which can be accessed from 
+      <menuchoice><guimenu>File</guimenu><guimenuitem>Properties</guimenuitem>
+      </menuchoice>.
+      </para>
+
+      <figure pgwide="1">
+        <title>Entering Company Information</title>
+        <screenshot id="bus-co-reg">
+          <mediaobject>
+            <imageobject role="html">
+              <imagedata fileref="figures/bus_co_reg.png" format="PNG"
+                         srccredit="Chris Good" width="510px" />
+            </imageobject>
+            <imageobject role="fo">
+              <imagedata fileref="figures/bus_co_reg.png" format="PNG"
+                        srccredit="Chris Good" />
+            </imageobject>
+
+            <textobject>
+              <phrase>Company Information</phrase>
+            </textobject>
+
+          </mediaobject>
+        </screenshot>
+      </figure>
+
+      <para>Here you can:</para>
+
+      <itemizedlist>
+        <listitem>
+          <para>Enter the name of your company along with contact information
+          such as your phone number, fax number, e-mail address and website
+          URL.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para>Enter your company’s tax payer id number in the
+          <guilabel>Company ID</guilabel> field.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para>Select default tax tables applicable to your most common
+          customers and vendors.</para>
+        </listitem>
+      </itemizedlist>
+
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="bus_setup_pref">
+      <title>Setting Business Preferences</title>
+      <para>Set options on the Business tab of the <application>&app;</application> preferences, which is
+        accessed via <menuchoice><guimenu>Edit</guimenu><guimenuitem>Preferences</guimenuitem></menuchoice>
+    (<menuchoice><guimenu>GnuCash</guimenu><guimenuitem>Preferences</guimenuitem></menuchoice> on Mac OS X).
+        See Help manual chapter 10.3.3 Business Book Options Tab.
+      </para>
+
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="bus-setupterms">
+      <title>Setting Billing Terms</title>
+
+      <para>Billing Terms can be used to determine the payment due date  and be a
+        guide for determining discount for early payment of invoices (or vendor bills).
+      </para>
+
+        <note>
+        <para>As of <application>&app;</application> 2.6.7, Billing Terms are only
+          partially supported. Date due is calculated using the Billing Terms
+          but discount amount is not.
+        </para>
+        <para>
+          Discount for early invoice payment is not implemented. There are 2 ways this may be done, although neither is recommended, and
+          professional advice should be used to confirm that regulations are being complied with:
+          <itemizedlist>
+            <listitem>
+              <para>After creating and posting a payment which pays the invoice in full, manually edit the payment transaction (usually strongly discouraged)
+                and split the payment to reduce it by the amount of the discount and create a compensating split in an income (discount) account.
+              </para>
+            </listitem>
+
+            <listitem>
+              <para>Alternatively, after creating and posting a payment for the discounted amount, create a credit note for the discount using a specific negative
+                sales income (discount) account for the transfer account.
+              </para>
+            </listitem>
+            </itemizedlist>
+        </para>
+      </note>
+
+      <para>You can specify the billing terms on each invoice/bill.
+        Invoice billing terms will default from the customer billing terms.
+        Bill billing terms will default from the vendor billing terms.
+      </para>
+
+      <para>Billing Terms are maintained using the Billing Terms Editor which is accessed via menu
+        <menuchoice><guimenu>Business</guimenu><guimenuitem>Billing Terms Editor</guimenuitem></menuchoice>.
+      </para>
+
+      <figure pgwide="1">
+        <title>Billing Terms Editor</title>
+        <screenshot id="bus-termsmain">
+          <mediaobject>
+            <imageobject role="html">
+              <imagedata fileref="figures/bus_terms_main.png" format="PNG"
+                         srccredit="Chris Good" width="510px" />
+            </imageobject>
+            <imageobject role="fo">
+              <imagedata fileref="figures/bus_terms_main.png" format="PNG"
+                        srccredit="Chris Good" />
+            </imageobject>
+
+            <textobject>
+              <phrase>Billing Terms Editor</phrase>
+            </textobject>
+
+          </mediaobject>
+        </screenshot>
+      </figure>
+
+      <figure pgwide="1">
+        <title>New Billing Term</title>
+        <screenshot id="bus-termsnew">
+          <mediaobject>
+            <imageobject role="html">
+              <imagedata fileref="figures/bus_terms_new.png" format="PNG"
+                         srccredit="Chris Good" />
+            </imageobject>
+            <imageobject role="fo">
+              <imagedata fileref="figures/bus_terms_new.png" format="PNG"
+                         srccredit="Chris Good" />
+            </imageobject>
+
+            <textobject>
+              <phrase>New Billing Term</phrase>
+            </textobject>
+
+          </mediaobject>
+        </screenshot>
+      </figure>
+
+      <itemizedlist>
+        <listitem>
+          <para><guilabel>Name</guilabel> The internal name of the billing term. For some examples of billing term names and descriptions see
+             <ulink url="http://wiki.gnucash.org/wiki/Terms" />.
+          </para>
+        </listitem>
+        <listitem>
+          <para><guilabel>Description</guilabel> The description of the billing term, printed on invoices</para>
+        </listitem>
+        <listitem>
+          <para>There are 2 types of billing terms, with different information to be entered</para>
+          <itemizedlist>
+            <listitem>
+              <para>Type Days</para>
+              <itemizedlist>
+                <listitem>
+                  <para><guilabel>Due Days</guilabel> The invoice or bill is due to be paid within this number of days after the post date</para>
+                </listitem>
+                <listitem>
+                  <para><guilabel>Discount Days</guilabel> The number of days after the post date during which a discount will
+                    be applied for early payment
+                  </para>
+                </listitem>
+                <listitem>
+                  <para><guilabel>Discount %</guilabel> The percentage discount applied for early payment</para>
+                </listitem>
+              </itemizedlist>
+            </listitem>
+            <listitem>
+              <para>Type Proximo</para>
+              <itemizedlist>
+                <listitem>
+                  <para><guilabel>Due Day</guilabel> The day of the month bills are due</para>
+                </listitem>
+                <listitem>
+                  <para><guilabel>Discount Day</guilabel> The last day of the month for the early payment discount</para>
+                </listitem>
+                <listitem>
+                  <para><guilabel>Discount %</guilabel> The discount percentage applied if paid early</para>
+                </listitem>
+                <listitem>
+                  <para><guilabel>Cutoff Day</guilabel> The cutoff day for applying bills to the next month. After the
+                    cutoff, bills are applied to the following month. Negative values
+                    count backwards from the end of the month.
+                  </para>
+                </listitem>
+              </itemizedlist>
+            </listitem>
+          </itemizedlist>
+        </listitem>
+      </itemizedlist>
+    </sect2>
+  </sect1>
+  <sect1 id="bus_ar">
+    <title>Accounts Receivable</title>
+    <para>Accounts Receivable (or A/R) refers to products or services provided
+       by your company for which payment has not yet been received.</para>
+        
+        <sect2 id="bus-ar-components1">
+            <title>System Components</title>
+            
+            <para>Transactions generated by the A/R system are recorded within the Accounts
+                Receivable account. <emphasis>You should not work directly with this account.</emphasis>
+                Instead, you will work with the four integrated <application>&app;</application> A/R application
+                components available through the <menuchoice><guimenu>Business</guimenu>
+                    <guisubmenu>Customer</guisubmenu></menuchoice> sub-menu. These four components are:</para>
+            
+            <itemizedlist>
+                <listitem>
+                    <para><guilabel>Customers</guilabel> are people or companies to whom
+                        you sell products or services on credit.</para>
+                </listitem>
+                
+                <listitem>
+                    <para><guilabel>Invoices</guilabel> represent the physical invoice you
+                        send to a customer to request payment. This invoice contains an
+                        itemized list of things you sold.</para>
+                    <para>In addition, GnuCash also has support for <guilabel>Credit Notes</guilabel>
+                        which represent the inverse of Invoices. A credit note is usually handed to
+                        a customer to correct items that were incorrectly invoiced or returned.</para>
+                    <para>Both document types will be set up using the same menu items. Credit notes were introduced starting with
+                        <application>&app;</application> stable release 2.6.0.
+                    </para>
+                </listitem>
+                
+                <listitem>
+                    <para><guilabel>Jobs</guilabel> (optional) is where you register
+                        Customer Jobs. Jobs are a mechanism by which you can group multiple
+                        invoices to a particular customer.</para>
+                </listitem>
+                
+                <listitem>
+                    <para><guilabel>Process Payments</guilabel> is used to register
+                        payments you received from a customer.</para>
+                </listitem>
+            </itemizedlist>
+        </sect2>
+        
+        <sect2 id="bus-ar-customers1">
+            <title>Customers</title>
+            
+            <para>Customers are people or companies to whom you sell goods or
+                services. They must be registered within the A/R system.</para>
+            
+            <sect3 id="bus-ar-custnew2">
+                <title>New</title>
+                
+                <para>To register a new customer, enter the menu <menuchoice>
+                    <guimenu>Business</guimenu><guisubmenu>Customer</guisubmenu>
+                    <guimenuitem>New Customer</guimenuitem></menuchoice>. Fill in customer information, such as
+                Company Name, Address, Phone, Fax, etc.</para>
+                
+                <screenshot id="bus-ar-custnew">
+                    <mediaobject>
+                        <imageobject>
+                            <imagedata fileref="figures/bus_ar_custnew.png" format="PNG"
+                            srccredit="Patrick Schweiger" />
+                        </imageobject>
+                        
+                        <textobject>
+                            <phrase>New Customer Registration Window</phrase>
+                        </textobject>
+                        
+                        <caption><para>New Customer Registration Window</para></caption>
+                    </mediaobject>
+                </screenshot>
+                
+            </sect3>
+            
+            <sect3 id="bus-ar-custfind2">
+                <title>Find and Edit</title>
+                
+                <para>To search for an existing customer, use the <menuchoice>
+                    <guimenu>Business</guimenu><guisubmenu>Customer</guisubmenu>
+                    <guimenuitem>Find Customer</guimenuitem></menuchoice> window. You select a customer to
+                <guilabel>View/Edit</guilabel> from the results of the search. This
+                window is also used to look up customers when creating invoices and
+                    processing payments.</para>
+                
+                <screenshot id="bus-ar-custfind">
+                    <mediaobject>
+                        <imageobject>
+                            <imagedata fileref="figures/bus_ar_custfind.png" format="PNG"
+                            srccredit="Patrick Schweiger" />
+                        </imageobject>
+                        
+                        <textobject>
+                            <phrase>Find Customer Window</phrase>
+                        </textobject>
+                        
+                        <caption><para>Find Customer Window </para></caption>
+                    </mediaobject>
+                </screenshot>
+                
+                <para>If many customers match the search criteria you provide, the
+                    search can be refined by running an additional search within the current
+                    results. The current result set is searched when the <guilabel>Refine
+                        Current Search</guilabel> radio button is selected. In fact, <application>&app;</application>
+                    selects this option for you after you run the initial search.</para>
+                
+                <para>If the customer you are searching for does not match the supplied
+                    search criteria, change the search criteria, click the <guilabel>New
+                        Search</guilabel> radio button and then the <guilabel>Find</guilabel>
+                    button. The relevant step is the <guilabel>New Search</guilabel>
+                    selection. If the customer is not in the result of the original search,
+                    and you only search within this set, the customer cannot be found,
+                    regardless of new search criteria.</para>
+                
+                <note>
+                    <para>To return a list of all registered active customers, set the
+                        search criterion to <guilabel>matches regex</guilabel>, and place a
+                        single dot "." in the text field area. Make sure <guilabel>Search only
+                            active data</guilabel> is checked, then click
+                        <guibutton>Find</guibutton>. The regular expression "." means to match
+                        anything.</para>
+                </note>
+            </sect3>
+        </sect2>
+        
+        <sect2 id="bus-ar-invoices1">
+            <title>Invoices</title>
+            
+            <para>An invoice is the paperwork you send to a customer to request
+                payment for products or services rendered. <application>&app;</application> can generate and track
+                invoices.</para>
+            
+            <para>A credit note is the paperwork you send to a customer to correct
+                products or services rendered that were incorrectly invoiced. <application>&app;</application> can generate and track
+                credit notes via the same menu entries as invoices.</para>
+            
+            <note>
+                <para>This section applies to both invoices and
+                    credit notes. In order to avoid repeating everything twice and to keep
+                    the text easier to read it will refer only to invoices. You can apply
+                    it equally to credit notes. Only where the behavior of credit notes
+                    differs from invoices this will be explicitly mentioned.</para>
+            </note>
+            
+            <sect3 id="bus-ar-invoicenew2">
+                <title>New</title>
+                
+                <para>To send an invoice to a customer you must first create the new
+                    document. To create an invoice use <menuchoice><guimenu>Business</guimenu>
+                        <guisubmenu>Customer</guisubmenu><guimenuitem>New Invoice</guimenuitem></menuchoice>. The
+                    New Invoice window must be filled in appropriately.</para>
+                
+                <screenshot id="bus-ar-invoicenew">
+                    <mediaobject>
+                        <imageobject>
+                            <imagedata fileref="figures/bus_ar_invoicenew.png" format="PNG"
+                            srccredit="Patrick Schweiger" />
+                        </imageobject>
+                        
+                        <textobject>
+                            <phrase>Creating a New Invoice</phrase>
+                        </textobject>
+                        
+                        <caption><para>Creating a New Invoice</para></caption>
+                    </mediaobject>
+                </screenshot>
+                
+                <para>When you click the <guibutton>OK</guibutton> button, the
+                    <guilabel>Edit Invoice</guilabel> window opens.</para>
+            </sect3>
+            
+            <sect3 id="bus-ar-invoiceedit2">
+                <title>Edit</title>
+                
+                <para>From the Edit Invoice window you can enter an itemized list of
+                    goods and services you sold on this invoice in a manner similar to how the account
+                    register works. For credit notes you enter an itemized list of goods and
+                    services you refunded instead.</para>
+                
+                <screenshot id="bus-ar-invoiceedit">
+                    <mediaobject>
+                        <imageobject>
+                            <imagedata fileref="figures/bus_ar_invoiceedit.png" format="PNG"
+                            srccredit="Patrick Schweiger" />
+                        </imageobject>
+                        
+                        <textobject>
+                            <phrase>Edit Invoice Window</phrase>
+                        </textobject>
+                        
+                        <caption><para>Edit Invoice Window </para></caption>
+                    </mediaobject>
+                </screenshot>
+                
+                <para>When you have finished entering all the items, you can
+                    <guilabel>Post</guilabel> and print the invoice.</para>
+            </sect3>
+            
+            <sect3 id="bus-ar-invoicepost2">
+                <title>Post</title>
+                
+                <para>When you finish editing an invoice and are ready to print, you
+                    must <guilabel>Post</guilabel> the invoice. The invoice does not have to
+                    be posted immediately. In fact, you should only post an invoice when you
+                    are ready to print it. Posting an invoice places the transactions in an
+                    accounts receivable account.</para>
+                
+                <screenshot id="bus-ar-invoicepost">
+                    <mediaobject>
+                        <imageobject>
+                            <imagedata fileref="figures/bus_ar_invoicepost.png" format="PNG"
+                            srccredit="Patrick Schweiger" />
+                        </imageobject>
+                        
+                        <textobject>
+                            <phrase>Post Invoice Window</phrase>
+                        </textobject>
+                        
+                        <caption><para>Post Invoice Window </para></caption>
+                    </mediaobject>
+                </screenshot>
+                
+            </sect3>
+            
+            <sect3 id="bus-ar-invoicefind2">
+                <title>Find</title>
+                
+                <para>To find an existing invoice, use the <menuchoice><guimenu>Business</guimenu>
+                    <guisubmenu>Customer</guisubmenu><guimenuitem>Find Invoice</guimenuitem></menuchoice>
+                menu item. From the results of the search, you can select an invoice
+                    to edit or view.</para>
+                
+                <note>
+                    <para>Before you can edit a posted invoice, you will need to
+                        <guilabel>Unpost</guilabel> it.</para>
+                </note>
+                
+                <para>One of the design goals in <application>&app;</application>’s Account Receivable system was
+                    to allow different processes to get to the same state, so you can reach
+                    an invoice from different directions based on the way you think about
+                    the problem:</para>
+                
+                <itemizedlist>
+                    <listitem>
+                        <para>You can search for the customer first, then list their
+                            invoices.</para>
+                    </listitem>
+                    
+                    <listitem>
+                        <para>You can search for invoices by number or by company
+                            name.</para>
+                    </listitem>
+                    
+                    <listitem>
+                        <para>You can list invoices associated with a customer job.</para>
+                    </listitem>
+                </itemizedlist>
+            </sect3>
+            
+            <sect3 id="bus-ar-invoiceprint2">
+                <title>Print</title>
+                
+                <para>After you post an invoice, you should print it and send it to your
+                    customer. To print an invoice use <menuchoice><guimenu>File</guimenu>
+                        <guimenuitem>Print Invoice</guimenuitem></menuchoice> menu item.</para>
+                
+                <screenshot id="bus-ar-invoiceprint">
+                    <mediaobject>
+                        <imageobject>
+                            <imagedata fileref="figures/bus_ar_invoiceprint.png" format="PNG"
+                            srccredit="Patrick Schweiger" />
+                        </imageobject>
+                        
+                        <textobject>
+                            <phrase>Invoice Print Output</phrase>
+                        </textobject>
+                        
+                        <caption><para>Invoice Print Output </para></caption>
+                    </mediaobject>
+                </screenshot>
+                
+                <note>
+                    <para>You can modify the appearance of the invoice, IE: add a company
+                        logo, etc. To do so, see the <xref
+                        linkend="bus-ar-invoicechange" />.</para>
+                </note>
+                
+                <para>Invoices can also be printed from the main window by selecting
+                    <menuchoice><guimenu>Reports</guimenu><guisubmenu>Business Reports</guisubmenu>
+                        <guimenuitem>Printable Invoice</guimenuitem></menuchoice> from the main menu. The
+                    resulting report window states that no valid invoice is selected. To
+                    select the invoice to print:</para>
+                
+                <orderedlist>
+                    <listitem>
+                        <para>Use the <guibutton>Options</guibutton> <emphasis>Toolbar</emphasis> button or select
+                            <menuchoice><guimenu>Edit</guimenu><guimenuitem>Report Options</guimenuitem></menuchoice> from
+                            the main menu.</para>
+                    </listitem>
+                    
+                    <listitem>
+                        <para>Select the <guilabel>General</guilabel> tab of the report
+                            options dialog.</para>
+                    </listitem>
+                    
+                    <listitem>
+                        <para>Click the <guibutton>Select</guibutton> button next to the
+                            <guilabel>Invoice Number</guilabel> field.</para>
+                    </listitem>
+                    
+                    <listitem>
+                        <para>Search for the invoice as usual.</para>
+                    </listitem>
+                </orderedlist>
+                
+                <para>You can also print invoices from within the Process Payment
+                    dialog. See the <xref linkend="bus-ar-payment1" /> for instructions on
+                    how to do so.</para>
+            </sect3>
+            
+            <sect3 id="bus-ar-invoicestarting2">
+                <title>Assign Starting Invoice Number</title>
+                
+                <para>By default, <application>&app;</application> starts with invoice number 1 and increments from there. You can
+                    manually type an invoice number into the text box each time you create
+                    an invoice, but this gets tiring and sooner or later leads to duplicate
+                    numbers.</para>
+                
+                <para>You can change the starting invoice number if it is important you.
+                    Use <menuchoice><guimenu>File</guimenu><guimenuitem>Properties</guimenuitem></menuchoice>, access
+                    the <guilabel>Counters</guilabel> tab, change the <guilabel>Invoice number</guilabel> value to be
+                    one less than your desired starting invoice number and click the <guibutton>OK</guibutton> button or the
+                    <guibutton>Apply</guibutton> button.</para>
+            </sect3>
+        </sect2>
+        
+        <sect2 id="bus-ar-jobs1">
+            <title>Customer Jobs</title>
+            
+            <para>Customer Jobs are used to group multiple invoices and credit notes to the same
+                customer. Use of the Customer Jobs feature is optional. The feature is
+                useful when you have multiple <guilabel>jobs</guilabel> for the same customer, and would like
+                to view all the invoices and credit notes related to a single job.</para>
+            
+            <screenshot id="bus-ar-jobnew">
+                <mediaobject>
+                    <imageobject>
+                        <imagedata fileref="figures/bus_ar_jobnew.png" format="PNG"
+                        srccredit="Patrick Schweiger" />
+                    </imageobject>
+                    
+                    <textobject>
+                        <phrase>New Customer Job</phrase>
+                    </textobject>
+                    
+                    <caption><para>New Customer Job </para></caption>
+                </mediaobject>
+            </screenshot>
+            
+            <para>To use customer jobs, you must create them using the <menuchoice>
+                <guimenu>Business</guimenu><guisubmenu>Customer</guisubmenu>
+                <guimenuitem>New Job</guimenuitem></menuchoice> menu item. You will see the <guilabel>New
+                    Job</guilabel> window.</para>
+            
+            <para>To edit an existing customer job, use the <menuchoice>
+                <guimenu>Business</guimenu><guisubmenu>Customer</guisubmenu>
+                <guimenuitem>Find Job</guimenuitem></menuchoice> menu item. Select the desired job in the
+            search results, and click the <guilabel>View/Edit Job</guilabel>
+                button.</para>
+            
+            <para>To select from the invoices and credit notes associated with a given job, use <menuchoice>
+                <guimenu>Business</guimenu><guisubmenu>Customer</guisubmenu><guimenuitem>Find
+                    Job</guimenuitem></menuchoice> menu item. Select the desired job in the
+            search results and click the <guilabel>View Invoices</guilabel> button. A
+            window listing invoices and credit notes associated with this job appears. Select an
+            invoice or credit note and click the <guilabel>View Invoice</guilabel> button to open an
+                invoice editor in the main application window.</para>
+        </sect2>
+        
+        <sect2 id="bus-ar-payment1">
+            <title>Process Payment</title>
+            
+            <para>Eventually, you will receive payment from your customers for
+                outstanding invoices. To register these payments, use the Process Payment
+                application found in <menuchoice><guimenu>Business</guimenu>
+                    <guisubmenu>Customer</guisubmenu><guimenuitem>Process
+                        Payment</guimenuitem></menuchoice>.</para>
+            
+            <screenshot id="bus-ar-payment">
+                <mediaobject>
+                    <imageobject>
+                        <imagedata fileref="figures/bus_ar_payment.png" format="PNG"
+                        srccredit="Patrick Schweiger" />
+                    </imageobject>
+                    
+                    <textobject>
+                        <phrase>Process Payment</phrase>
+                    </textobject>
+                    
+                    <caption><para>Process Payment Window </para></caption>
+                </mediaobject>
+            </screenshot>
+            
+        </sect2>
+        
+        <sect2 id="bus-ar-invoicechange">
+            <title>Changing the Invoice Appearance</title>
+            
+            <para>The default Invoice style, as shown in <xref
+                linkend="bus-ar-invoiceprint2" />, is fairly barren. The default invoice
+                style leaves the top part of the form blank, so you can print on company
+                letterhead paper. There are some things you can do to change invoice
+                appearance.</para>
+            
+            <para>Use <menuchoice><guimenu>File</guimenu><guimenuitem>Properties</guimenuitem></menuchoice> to
+                enter your Company information in the <guilabel>Business</guilabel> tab of the <guilabel>Book Options</guilabel> window.
+                Some of the entered information is printed on the right side of invoices.</para>
+            
+            <para>To add a customized background, heading banner or logo to invoices,
+                modify the invoice style sheets. To do this, go to <menuchoice><guimenu>Edit</guimenu>
+                    <guimenuitem>Style Sheets</guimenuitem></menuchoice> and select the <guibutton>New</guibutton>
+                button in the <guilabel>Select HTML Style Sheet</guilabel> window that will appear.
+                You will then see a window like this:</para>
+            
+            <screenshot id="bus-ar-invoicechange1">
+                <mediaobject>
+                    <imageobject>
+                        <imagedata fileref="figures/bus_ar_invoicechange1.png" format="PNG"
+                        srccredit="Cristian Marchi" />
+                    </imageobject>
+                    
+                    <textobject>
+                        <phrase>New Style Sheet Window</phrase>
+                    </textobject>
+                    
+                    <caption><para>The New Style Sheet window.</para></caption>
+                </mediaobject>
+            </screenshot>
+            
+            <para>Give a <guilabel>Name</guilabel> to the new style sheet (e.g. <guilabel>Custom Invoice</guilabel>) and select the
+                <guilabel>Fancy</guilabel> <guilabel>Template</guilabel>. When you click the
+                <guibutton>OK</guibutton> button, the <guilabel>HTML Style Sheet Properties</guilabel> window is
+                displayed. This window presents you five sections listed in the left pane: <guilabel>Colors</guilabel>, <guilabel>Fonts</guilabel>,
+                <guilabel>General</guilabel>, <guilabel>Images</guilabel>, and <guilabel>Tables</guilabel>. The <guilabel>Colors</guilabel>
+                section allows you to change the colors of various items of the invoice. The <guilabel>Fonts</guilabel> section lets you
+                set fonts type and dimensions. The <guilabel>General</guilabel> section allows you to set the <guilabel>Preparer</guilabel> and
+                <guilabel>Prepared for</guilabel> information, and to <guilabel>Enable Links</guilabel>. The <guilabel>Images</guilabel> section allows you
+                to import graphics into the style sheet. The <guilabel>Tables</guilabel> section allows you to
+                adjust the spacing around the tables which make up the invoice.</para>
+            
+            <para>To include a company logo, banner heading and background image, use
+                your favorite graphics application such as <application>The Gimp</application> or <application>OpenOffice Draw</application> to
+                save the images in either <acronym>GIF</acronym> or <acronym>PNG</acronym> format. Then import them into the
+                style sheet using the <guilabel>Images</guilabel> section described above.</para>
+            
+            <para>Below is an example that imports all three types of images.</para>
+            
+            <screenshot id="bus-ar-invoicechange2">
+                <mediaobject>
+                    <imageobject role="html">
+                        <imagedata fileref="figures/bus_ar_invoicechange2.png" format="PNG"
+                        srccredit="Cristian Marchi" width="510"/>
+                    </imageobject>
+                    
+                    <imageobject role="fo">
+                        <imagedata fileref="figures/bus_ar_invoicechange2.png" format="PNG"
+                        srccredit="Cristian Marchi"/>
+                    </imageobject>
+                    
+                    <textobject>
+                        <phrase>HTML Style Sheets example</phrase>
+                    </textobject>
+                    
+                    <caption><para>The <acronym>HTML</acronym> Style Sheets window with an example Background
+                        Tile, Heading Banner, and Logo.</para></caption>
+                </mediaobject>
+            </screenshot>
+            
+            <note>
+                <para>The images are placed in the invoice as follows. The
+                    <guilabel>Background Tile</guilabel> is tiled to become the background
+                    image, the <guilabel>Heading Banner</guilabel> goes to above the invoice
+                    text, and the <guilabel>Logo</guilabel> is placed in the upper left corner
+                    of the invoice to the left of the Heading Banner. You will probably have
+                    to try a few different sized images until you get the invoices to print
+                    nicely. Some sizing suggestions are that the Logo should be 1 square cm
+                    (~0.5 inch), and the Heading Banner should be 15 cm (~6 inches) wide and 1
+                    cm (~0.5 inch) tall.</para>
+            </note>
+            
+            <para>With the style sheet configured, when you print the invoice, you
+                select the style sheet to use from the <guimenu>Options</guimenu> menu.
+                Below is the resultant invoice after applying the style sheet demonstrated
+                above.</para>
+            
+            <screenshot id="bus-ar-invoicechange3">
+                <mediaobject>
+                    <imageobject>
+                        <imagedata fileref="figures/bus_ar_invoicechange3.png" format="PNG"
+                        srccredit="Patrick Schweiger" />
+                    </imageobject>
+                    
+                    <textobject>
+                        <phrase>HTML Style Sheets example</phrase>
+                    </textobject>
+                    
+                    <caption><para>The hideous invoice which results from the graphics
+                        selected in the style sheet.</para></caption>
+                </mediaobject>
+            </screenshot>
+        </sect2>
+    </sect1>
+  <sect1 id="bus_ap">
+     <title>Accounts Payable</title>
+     <para>Accounts Payable (or A/P) refers to the accounting of products or services which a company has
+        bought and needs to pay for.</para>
+     
+     <sect2 id="bus-ap-components1">
+        <title>System Components</title>
+        <para><application>&app;</application> has an integrated accounts payable system. The transactions generated by the A/P system are placed within the Accounts Payable account,
+           as a record of what occurs. Generally you do not directly work with this account but use the four integrated <application>&app;</application> A/P application components.
+           The A/P components are available from the <menuchoice><guimenu>Business</guimenu><guisubmenu>Vendor</guisubmenu></menuchoice> sub-menu. These A/P components are:
+        </para>
+        
+        <itemizedlist>
+           <listitem>
+              <para><guilabel>Vendors</guilabel> are people or companies from which you buy products or services on credit.</para>
+           </listitem>
+           
+           <listitem>
+              <para><guilabel>Bills</guilabel> represent the physical bills vendors send to request payment from you. A bill contains an itemized list of things you purchased.</para>
+              <para>In addition, GnuCash also has support for <guilabel>Credit Notes</guilabel>
+                 which represent the inverse of Bills. A credit note is usually received from
+                 a vendor to correct items that were erroneously billed or returned.
+              </para>
+              <para>Both document types will be set up using the same menu items.</para>
+           </listitem>
+           
+           <listitem>
+              <para><guilabel>Jobs</guilabel> (optional) is where you register Vendor Jobs. Jobs are mechanism by which you can group multiple bills from a particular vendor.
+              </para>
+           </listitem>
+           
+           <listitem>
+              <para><guilabel>Process Payments</guilabel> is where you register payments to a vendor to whom you owe money.</para>
+           </listitem>
+        </itemizedlist>
+        
+        <para>The following sections introduce the individual Accounts Payable application components.</para>
+     </sect2>
+     
+     <sect2 id="bus-ap-vendors1">
+        <title>Vendors</title>
+        <para>A vendor is a company or person from whom you purchase goods or services. Vendors must be registered within the A/P system.</para>
+        
+        <sect3 id="bus-ap-vendornew2">
+           <title>New</title>
+           <para>To register a new vendor, select the <menuchoice><guimenu>Business</guimenu><guisubmenu>Vendor</guisubmenu><guimenuitem>
+              New Vendor</guimenuitem></menuchoice> menu item. Fill in general information about the vendor, such as Company Name, Address, Phone,
+           Fax, etc. Below is a list of the other options: </para>   <para>This is what the New Vendor registration window looks like:
+           </para>
+           <screenshot id="bus-ap-vendornew">
+              <mediaobject>
+                 <imageobject>
+                    <imagedata fileref="figures/bus_ap_vendornew.png" srccredit="Patrick Schweiger" format="PNG"/>
+                 </imageobject>
+                 <textobject>
+                    <phrase>New Vendor Registration Window</phrase>
+                 </textobject>
+                 <caption>
+                    <para>New Vendor Registration Window</para>
+                 </caption>
+              </mediaobject>
+           </screenshot>
+        </sect3>
+        
+        <sect3 id="bus-ap-vendorfind2">
+           <title>Find and Edit</title>
+           
+           <para>To search for an existing vendor, use the <menuchoice><guimenu>Business</guimenu><guisubmenu>Vendor</guisubmenu><guimenuitem>
+              Find Vendor</guimenuitem></menuchoice> window. You select a vendor to <guibutton>View/Edit</guibutton> from the results of the search.
+           This window is also used to look up a vendor when entering bills and processing payments.
+           </para>
+           <screenshot id="bus-ar-vendorfind">
+              <mediaobject>
+                 <imageobject>
+                    <imagedata fileref="figures/bus_ap_vendorfind.png" srccredit="Patrick Schweiger" format="PNG"/>
+                 </imageobject>
+                 <textobject>
+                    <phrase>Find Vendor Window</phrase>
+                 </textobject>
+                 <caption>
+                    <para>Find Vendor Window</para>
+                 </caption>
+              </mediaobject>
+           </screenshot>
+           
+           <para>If many vendors match the search criteria you provide, the
+              search can be refined by running an additional search within the current
+              results. The current result set is searched when the <guilabel>Refine
+                 Current Search</guilabel> radio button is selected. In fact, <application>&app;</application>
+              selects this option for you after you run the initial search.</para>
+           
+           <para>If the vendor you are searching for does not match the supplied
+              search criteria, change the search criteria, click the <guilabel>New
+                 Search</guilabel> radio button and then the <guibutton>Find</guibutton>
+              button. The relevant step is the <guilabel>New Search</guilabel>
+              selection. If the vendor is not in the result of the original search,
+              and you only search within this set, the vendor cannot be found,
+              regardless of new search criteria.
+           </para>
+           
+           <note>
+              <para>To return a list of all registered active vendors, set the search criterion to <guilabel>matches regex</guilabel>, and place a single dot <quote>.</quote> in the text field area. Make sure <guilabel>Search only active data</guilabel> is checked, then click <guibutton>Find</guibutton>. The regular expression <quote>.</quote> means to match anything.
+              </para>
+           </note>
+        </sect3>
+     </sect2>
+     
+     <sect2 id="bus-ap-bills1">
+        <title>Bills</title>
+        <para>A bill is a request for payment you receive from a vendor. <application>&app;</application> can track bills.</para>
+        
+        <para>A credit note is the document you receive from a vendor to correct
+           products or services rendered that you were incorrectly charged for on a bill. <application>&app;</application> can generate and track
+           credit notes via the same menu entries as bills.</para>
+        
+        <note>
+           <para>This section applies to both bills and
+              credit notes. In order to avoid repeating everything twice and to keep
+              the text easier to read it will refer only to bills. You can apply
+              it equally to credit notes. Only where the behaviour of credit notes
+              differs from bills this will be explicitly mentioned.</para>
+        </note>
+        
+        <sect3 id="bus-ap-billnew2">
+           <title>New</title>
+           <para>When you receive a bill from a vendor and want to enter it into <application>&app;</application>, you must create a new bill. To create a new bill use the <menuchoice><guimenu>Business</guimenu><guisubmenu>Vendor</guisubmenu><guimenuitem>New Bill</guimenuitem></menuchoice> menu item, and fill in the resulting window appropriately.</para>
+           <screenshot id="bus-ap-billnew">
+              <mediaobject>
+                 <imageobject>
+                    <imagedata fileref="figures/bus_ap_billnew.png" srccredit="Patrick Schweiger" format="PNG"/>
+                 </imageobject>
+                 <textobject>
+                    <phrase>New Bill Registration Window</phrase>
+                 </textobject>
+                 <caption>
+                    <para>New Bill Registration Window
+                    </para>
+                 </caption>
+              </mediaobject>
+           </screenshot>
+           
+           <para>When you click the <guibutton>OK</guibutton> button the <guilabel>Edit Bill</guilabel> window opens.</para>
+        </sect3>
+        
+        <sect3 id="bus-ap-billedit2">
+           <title>Edit</title>
+           <para>From the Edit Bill window you can enter an itemized list of
+              goods and services you purchased, in a manner similar to how the account
+              register works. For credit notes you enter an itemized list of goods and
+              services the vendor refunded instead.
+           </para>
+           <screenshot id="bus-ap-billedit">
+              <mediaobject>
+                 <imageobject>
+                    <imagedata fileref="figures/bus_ap_billedit.png" srccredit="Patrick Schweiger" format="PNG"/>
+                 </imageobject>
+                 <textobject>
+                    <phrase>Edit Bill Window</phrase>
+                 </textobject>
+                 <caption>
+                    <para>Edit Bill Window</para>
+                 </caption>
+              </mediaobject>
+           </screenshot>
+           
+           <para>When you have finished entering all the items, <guilabel>Post</guilabel> the bill. </para>
+        </sect3>
+        
+        <sect3 id="bus-ap-billpost2">
+           <title>Post</title>
+           <para>When you finish editing a bill, you should <guilabel>Post</guilabel> the bill. You do not have to post the bill,
+              you can close it and return to it later. You have to post the bill eventually. Posting a bill places its transactions into an accounts payable account.
+              The Post Bill window appears and asks you to enter information:
+           </para>
+           
+           <screenshot id="bus-ap-billpost">
+              <mediaobject>
+                 <imageobject>
+                    <imagedata fileref="figures/bus_ap_billpost.png" srccredit="Patrick Schweiger" format="PNG"/>
+                 </imageobject>
+                 <textobject>
+                    <phrase>Post Bill Window</phrase>
+                 </textobject>
+                 <caption>
+                    <para>Post Bill Window</para>
+                 </caption>
+              </mediaobject>
+           </screenshot>
+        </sect3>
+        
+        <sect3 id="bus-ap-billfind2">
+           <title>Find</title>
+           <para>To find an existing bill, use the <menuchoice><guimenu>Business</guimenu><guisubmenu>Vendor</guisubmenu><guimenuitem>Find Bill</guimenuitem></menuchoice> menu item. From the results of the search, you can select a bill to edit, or view.</para>
+           <note>
+              <para>Before you can edit a posted bill, you will need to <guilabel>Unpost</guilabel> it.</para>
+           </note>
+           
+           <note>
+              <para>There are other ways to access an existing bill. These are similar to accessing invoices for your customers. See <xref linkend="bus-ar-invoicefind2" /> for more information.</para>
+           </note>
+        </sect3>
+     </sect2>
+     
+     <sect2 id="bus-ap-jobs1">
+        <title>Vendor Jobs</title>
+        <para>Vendor Jobs are used to group multiple bills and credit notes from a single vendor. Use of the vendor jobs feature is optional.
+           The feature is useful when you have multiple <guilabel>jobs</guilabel> for the same vendor, and would like to view all the bills and
+           credit notes for a single job.
+        </para>
+        <para>To use vendor jobs, you must create them using the
+           <menuchoice><guimenu>Business</guimenu><guisubmenu>Vendor</guisubmenu><guimenuitem>New Job</guimenuitem>
+           </menuchoice> menu item. You will see the <guilabel>New Job</guilabel> window.
+        </para>
+        
+        <screenshot id="bus-ap-jobnew">
+           <mediaobject>
+              <imageobject>
+                 <imagedata fileref="figures/bus_ap_jobnew.png" srccredit="Jon Lapham" format="PNG"/>
+              </imageobject>
+              <textobject>
+                 <phrase>New Vendor Job</phrase>
+              </textobject>
+              <caption>
+                 <para>New Vendor Job</para>
+              </caption>
+           </mediaobject>
+        </screenshot>
+        
+        <para>To edit an existing vendor job, use the <menuchoice>
+           <guimenu>Business</guimenu><guisubmenu>Vendor</guisubmenu>
+           <guimenuitem>Find Job</guimenuitem></menuchoice> menu item. Select the desired job in the
+        search results, and click the <guilabel>View/Edit Job</guilabel>
+           button.</para>
+        
+        <para>To select from the bills associated with a given job, use <menuchoice>
+           <guimenu>Business</guimenu><guisubmenu>Vendor</guisubmenu>
+           <guimenuitem>Find Job</guimenuitem></menuchoice> menu item. Select the desired job in the
+        search results and click the <guilabel>View Invoices</guilabel> button. A
+        window listing bills and credit notes associated with this job appears. Select a
+        bill or credit note and click the <guilabel>View Invoice</guilabel> button to open a
+           bill editor in the main application window.</para>
+     </sect2>
+     
+     <sect2 id="bus-ap-payment1">
+        <title>Process Payment</title>
+        <para>Eventually, you need to pay your bills. To do so, use the Process Payment application found in
+           <menuchoice><guimenu>Business</guimenu><guisubmenu>Vendor</guisubmenu><guimenuitem>Process Payment</guimenuitem>
+           </menuchoice>.
+        </para>
+        
+        <para>Below is the <application>&app;</application> Accounts Receivable payment window.</para>
+        <screenshot id="bus-ap-payment">
+           <mediaobject>
+              <imageobject>
+                 <imagedata fileref="figures/bus_ap_payment.png" srccredit="Patrick Schweiger" format="PNG"/>
+              </imageobject>
+              <textobject>
+                 <phrase>Process Payment</phrase>
+              </textobject>
+              <caption>
+                 <para>Process Payment Window
+                 </para>
+              </caption>
+           </mediaobject>
+        </screenshot>
+     </sect2>
+  </sect1>
+  <sect1 id="bus_payroll">
+     <title>Payroll</title>
+     <para>Payroll is a financial record of wages, net pay, paid vacations, and deductions for an employee. This section demonstrates how to track payroll using <application>&app;</application>.</para>
+     <sect2 id="bus-payroll-concepts">
+        <title>Basic Concepts</title>
+        <para>Payroll is a financial record of wages, net pay, paid vacations, and deductions for an employee. Basically, anything that relates to giving money or benefits to an employee. Payroll is one of the more complex tasks in accounting, because there are many different accounts, people, and agencies involved in paying salaries.</para>
+        <para>Payroll is typically accounted for as an expense. Sometimes accountants <quote>store</quote> some payroll expenses in a short term liability account. This is useful for things such as payroll taxes, which may be paid at a different time than the employee. The employee might get paid biweekly, while taxes are paid quarterly. This chapter presents a methodology which expenses payroll immediately for salaries, but stores taxes in liability accounts.</para>
+        <note>
+           <para><application>&app;</application> does not have an integrated payroll system. While you can track payroll expenses in <application>&app;</application>, the calculation of taxes and deductions has to be done outside of <application>&app;</application>.</para>
+        </note>
+     </sect2>
+     
+     <sect2 id="bus-payroll-acct">
+        <title>Account Setup</title>
+        
+        <para>Local tax law must be considered when setting up accounts. Because there are many different ways payroll taxes are handled throughout the world, this section presents a very simple structure. From this, you should be able to adapt your particular payroll deductions setup.</para>
+        <para>Assume that you must pay 2 taxes, Tax1 and Tax2, and that each has an employee contribution and an employer contribution.</para>
+        <para>The employee’s salary and these two taxes are expense accounts. The tax components are liability accounts. The tax liability accounts are where you accumulate the taxes withheld for all of your employees. The taxes are later paid to the appropriate government agency.</para>
+        <para>
+           <literallayout>
+              Simple Payroll Account Layout:
+              
+              -Assets
+              --Checking
+              -Liabilities
+              --Tax1  (short term <quote>storage</quote> account)
+              --Tax2  (short term <quote>storage</quote> account)
+              -Expenses
+              --Salaries
+              --Tax1
+              --Tax2
+           </literallayout>
+           
+           <note>
+              <para>Resist the temptation to create per-employee sub-accounts to track
+                 individual salaries. Creating a sub-account for each employee leads to
+                 unmanageably large lists of accounts. Imagine the account structure after
+                 a few years of employees coming and going. It is much simpler to keep all
+                 of your employees’ payroll records within a single account
+                 (<emphasis>Expenses:Salaries</emphasis> for example) and use reports to
+                 view per-employee information.
+              </para>
+              
+              <para>The Transaction report can be used to sort and total by description or
+                 memo (but not by part of them).
+              </para>
+              
+              <para>To report salary transactions for a specific employee where the
+                 employee name or code is entered in the transaction description or memo,
+                 use the <guilabel>Find Transaction</guilabel> assistant
+                 (<menuchoice><guimenu>Edit</guimenu><guimenuitem>Find</guimenuitem>
+                 </menuchoice>) to select the transactions, and then report on them
+                 using <menuchoice><guimenu>Reports</guimenu><guimenuitem>Account Report
+                 </guimenuitem></menuchoice>. Further formatting or analysis may be done
+                 by copying and pasting the report into a spreadsheet. See
+                 <ulink type="help" url="ghelp:gnucash-help?tool-find-txn">Find
+                    Transaction</ulink> in the <application>&app;</application> Help Manual.</para>
+           </note>
+        </para>
+     </sect2>
+     
+     <sect2 id="bus-payroll-protocol">
+        <title>Payroll Protocol Sample</title>
+        <para><application>&app;</application> does not have an integrated payroll system. <application>&app;</application> can track your payroll expenses, but you need to develop a payroll protocol and perform the calculations outside of <application>&app;</application>, in a spreadsheet for example. In this section, one such protocol is presented. You can use the sample protocol as a model.</para>
+        
+        <sect3 id="bus-pay-protocol-1">
+           <title>Step 1: Deductions list</title>
+           <para>The first step to the payroll protocol is to create a list of all the possible taxes and deductions for each employee. Each entry should include definitions and formulas for calculating each value. Once the protocol is established it needs to be changed only when payroll laws or tax rates change.</para>
+           
+           <para>In the proposed scenario, such a list would look like this:</para>
+           <itemizedlist spacing="compact">
+              <listitem>
+                 <para><emphasis>E_GROSS_SALARY</emphasis> - Employee gross salary</para>
+              </listitem>
+              <listitem>
+                 <para><emphasis>E_TAX1</emphasis> - Employee contribution to tax1 (X% of E_GROSS_SALARY)</para>
+              </listitem>
+              <listitem>
+                 <para><emphasis>E_TAX2</emphasis> - Employee contribution to tax2 (X% of E_GROSS_SALARY)</para>
+              </listitem>
+              <listitem>
+                 <para><emphasis>C_TAX1</emphasis> - Company contribution to tax1 (X% of E_GROSS_SALARY)</para>
+              </listitem>
+              <listitem>
+                 <para><emphasis>C_TAX2</emphasis> - Company contribution to tax2 (X% of E_GROSS_SALARY)</para>
+              </listitem>
+           </itemizedlist>
+           <note>
+              <para>The employee’s net salary (E_NET_SALARY) is defined as E_GROSS_SALARY - E_TAX1 - E_TAX2 and need not be placed in this list since it is composed of items that already exist.</para>
+           </note>
+           <para>Place the actual formulas for calculating each deduction in this list. Sometimes these formulas are quite complex, and sometimes they simply say "look it up in table XYZ of the tax codes".</para>
+           <para>Notice that you can calculate some interesting values using the above definitions. One such value is the total cost to the company: E_GROSS_SALARY + C_TAX1 + C_TAX2.</para>
+        </sect3>
+        
+        <sect3 id="bus-pay-protocol-2">
+           <title>Step 2: Create the Transaction Map</title>
+           <para>When you record payroll in <application>&app;</application>, do so with a single split transaction. This split transaction populates the appropriate expense and liability accounts. If you need to look the payroll details at a later time, open the split transaction.</para>
+           <para>With the deductions list from above, an employee split transaction map can be generated. Each of the items in the list is mapped to a <application>&app;</application> account.</para>
+           
+           <para>
+              <table>
+                 <title>Transaction Map</title>
+                 <tgroup cols="3">
+                    <thead>
+                       <row>
+                          <entry>Account</entry><entry>Increase</entry><entry>Decrease</entry>
+                       </row>
+                    </thead>
+                    <tbody>
+                       <row>
+                          <entry>Assets:Checking</entry><entry></entry><entry>E_NET_SALARY</entry>
+                       </row>
+                       <row>
+                          <entry>Expenses:Salaries</entry><entry>E_GROSS_SALARY</entry><entry></entry>
+                       </row>
+                       <row>
+                          <entry>Liabilities:Tax1</entry><entry></entry><entry>E_TAX1</entry>
+                       </row>
+                       <row>
+                          <entry>Liabilities:Tax2</entry><entry></entry><entry>E_TAX2</entry>
+                       </row>
+                       <row>
+                          <entry>Expenses:Tax1</entry><entry>C_TAX1</entry><entry></entry>
+                       </row>
+                       <row>
+                          <entry>Liabilities:Tax1</entry><entry></entry><entry>C_TAX1</entry>
+                       </row>
+                       <row>
+                          <entry>Expenses:Tax2</entry><entry>C_TAX2</entry><entry></entry>
+                       </row>
+                       <row>
+                          <entry>Liabilities:Tax2</entry><entry></entry><entry>C_TAX2</entry>
+                       </row>
+                    </tbody>
+                 </tgroup>
+              </table>
+           </para>
+           
+           <para>Note that the C_TAX1 and C_TAX2 components have entries in the both the liability and expense accounts. The company component of each tax is expensed at the time of payroll, but remains a liability until taxes are due.</para>
+        </sect3>
+        
+        <sect3 id="bus-pay-protocol-3">
+           <title>Step 3: Pay the Employee</title>
+           <para>Go to the account from which the employee will be paid, for example your <emphasis>Assets:Checking</emphasis> account. Open a split transaction and enter the real values using the Transaction Map above as a guide. Repeat this for all employees.</para>
+           <tip>
+              <para>This manual process is tedious, especially if you have a large number of employees.</para>
+              <para>One <application>&app;</application> tool you certainly want use when entering employee payroll is duplicate transaction (use the <guibutton>Duplicate</guibutton> <emphasis>Toolbar</emphasis> button). This saves you from having to enter all the transaction splits for each employee. You still need to change the amounts of money to match each employee’s real payroll values, but you will not have to build the split for each employee.</para>
+              <para>If payroll transactions do not change significantly every pay period, you can also use the duplicate transaction feature to duplicate each employee’s most recent payroll transaction for the current pay period. If you find you are doing so all the time, read about the Schedule Transactions feature and save even more time!</para>
+           </tip>
+        </sect3>
+        
+        <sect3 id="bus-pay-protocol-4">
+           <title>Step 4: Pay the Government</title>
+           <para>The final thing to do is to pay the taxes to the government. The liability accounts have been collecting the taxes for various government agencies, and periodically you need to send a check to the government to pay this charge. To do so, you simply enter a 2 account transaction in (for example) your checking account to pay off the tax liability. The transaction is between the checking account and the liability account, no expense account is involved. The expense accounts are charged at the time the tax liability is recorded.</para>
+        </sect3>
+        
+     </sect2>
+     
+     <sect2 id="bus-payroll-example">
+        <title>Business Payroll Example</title>
+        <para>Using the account setup seen previously, let’s go through an example. Assume that there are 2 employees (E1 and E2) who each earn $1000 per month gross salary. The employee contribution to Tax1 and Tax2 are 10% and 5% respectively. The company contribution to Tax1 and Tax2 are 15% and 10% each on top of the employee’s gross salary.</para>
+        <para>Starting with $50k in the bank, and before doing any payroll, the account hierarchy looks like this:</para>
+        <screenshot id="bus-pay-ex1">
+           <mediaobject>
+              <imageobject>
+                 <imagedata fileref="figures/bus_pay_ex1.png"
+                 srccredit="Patrick Schweiger" format="PNG"/>
+              </imageobject>
+              <textobject>
+                 <phrase>Payroll Example 1</phrase>
+              </textobject>
+              <caption>
+                 <para>Payroll Initial Setup
+                 </para>
+              </caption>
+           </mediaobject>
+        </screenshot>
+        
+        <para>The deductions list for employee 1 are:</para>
+           <itemizedlist>
+              <listitem>
+                 <para><emphasis>E_GROSS_SALARY</emphasis> - Employee gross salary - <emphasis>$1000</emphasis></para>
+              </listitem>
+              <listitem>
+                 <para><emphasis>E_TAX1</emphasis> - Employee contribution to tax1 - <emphasis>$100</emphasis> (10% of E_GROSS_SALARY)</para>
+              </listitem>
+              <listitem>
+                 <para><emphasis>E_TAX2</emphasis> - Employee contribution to tax2 - <emphasis>$50</emphasis> (5% of E_GROSS_SALARY)</para>
+              </listitem>
+              <listitem>
+                 <para><emphasis>C_TAX1</emphasis> - Company contribution to tax1 - <emphasis>$150</emphasis> (15% of E_GROSS_SALARY)</para>
+              </listitem>
+              <listitem>
+                 <para><emphasis>C_TAX2</emphasis> - Company contribution to tax2 - <emphasis>$100</emphasis> (10% of E_GROSS_SALARY)</para>
+              </listitem>
+           </itemizedlist>
+           
+           <para>
+              <table>
+                 <title>Transaction Map for Employee 1</title>
+                 <tgroup cols="3">
+                    <thead>
+                       <row>
+                          <entry>Account</entry><entry>Increase</entry><entry>Decrease</entry>
+                       </row>
+                    </thead>
+                    <tbody>
+                       <row>
+                          <entry>Assets:Checking</entry><entry></entry><entry>$850 (E_NET_SALARY)</entry>
+                       </row>
+                       <row>
+                          <entry>Expenses:Salaries</entry><entry>$1000 (E_GROSS_SALARY)</entry><entry></entry>
+                       </row>
+                       <row>
+                          <entry>Liabilities:Tax1</entry><entry></entry><entry>$100 (E_TAX1)</entry>
+                       </row>
+                       <row>
+                          <entry>Liabilities:Tax2</entry><entry></entry><entry>$50 (E_TAX2)</entry>
+                       </row>
+                       <row>
+                          <entry>Expenses:Tax1</entry><entry>$150 (C_TAX1)</entry><entry></entry>
+                       </row>
+                       <row>
+                          <entry>Liabilities:Tax1</entry><entry></entry><entry>$150 (C_TAX1)</entry>
+                       </row>
+                       <row>
+                          <entry>Expenses:Tax2</entry><entry>$100 (C_TAX2)</entry><entry></entry>
+                       </row>
+                       <row>
+                          <entry>Liabilities:Tax2</entry><entry></entry><entry>$100 (C_TAX2)</entry>
+                       </row>
+                    </tbody>
+                 </tgroup>
+              </table>
+           </para>
+           
+           <para>From the checking account, enter the split transaction for employee 1. It should look like this:</para>
+           
+           <screenshot id="bus-pay-ex2">
+              <mediaobject>
+                 <imageobject>
+                    <imagedata fileref="figures/bus_pay_ex2.png"
+                    srccredit="Patrick Schweiger" format="PNG"/>
+                 </imageobject>
+                 <textobject>
+                    <phrase>Payroll Example 2</phrase>
+                 </textobject>
+                 <caption>
+                    <para>Employee 1 Split Transaction
+                    </para>
+                 </caption>
+              </mediaobject>
+           </screenshot>
+           
+           <tip>
+              <para>When paying employees, enter only the employee name in the Description area. If you decide to use <application>&app;</application>’s check printing capabilities, the check is automatically made out to the correct employee. If you want to record other information in the transaction besides the employee name, use the Notes area, available when viewing the Register in double-line mode.</para>
+           </tip>
+           <para>Repeat this for the second employee, which leaves the account hierarchy looking like this:</para>
+           
+           <screenshot id="bus-pay-ex3">
+              <mediaobject>
+                 <imageobject>
+                    <imagedata fileref="figures/bus_pay_ex3.png"
+                    srccredit="Patrick Schweiger" format="PNG"/>
+                 </imageobject>
+                 <textobject>
+                    <phrase>Payroll Example 3</phrase>
+                 </textobject>
+                 <caption>
+                    <para>Account Tree After Salaries Paid
+                    </para>
+                 </caption>
+              </mediaobject>
+           </screenshot>
+        
+          <para>Now, you will enter the company contributions. The <emphasis>Liabilities:Tax1</emphasis> and
+            <emphasis>Liabilities:Tax2</emphasis> accounts track how much you must pay to the
+            government for each tax type. When it is time to pay these agencies, you will
+            make a transaction from the checking account to these liability accounts.
+            No expense accounts are involved. The main account will then appear like this:</para>
+           
+           <screenshot id="bus-pay-ex4">
+              <mediaobject>
+                 <imageobject>
+                    <imagedata fileref="figures/bus_pay_ex4.png"
+                    srccredit="Patrick Schweiger" format="PNG"/>
+                 </imageobject>
+                 <textobject>
+                    <phrase>Payroll Example 4</phrase>
+                 </textobject>
+                 <caption>
+                    <para>Accounts After Paying Government
+                    </para>
+                 </caption>
+              </mediaobject>
+           </screenshot>
+        </sect2>
+     </sect1>
+</chapter>
diff --git a/guide/ru/ch_capgain.xml b/guide/ru/ch_capgain.xml
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..2fa8e8c
--- /dev/null
+++ b/guide/ru/ch_capgain.xml
@@ -0,0 +1,496 @@
+<!--
+      (Do not remove this comment block.)
+  Version: 2.0.0
+  Last modified: July 9th 2006
+  Maintainers:
+               Chris Lyttle <chris at wilddev.net>
+  Author:
+  		Jon Lapham <lapham at extracta.com.br>
+  	Updated	Bengt Thuree <bengt at thuree.com>
+  Originally designed by Carol Champagne.
+  Translators:
+               (translators put your name and email here)
+-->
+<chapter id="chapter_capgain">
+  <title>Capital Gains</title>
+
+  <para>This chapter will present some of the techniques used to keep track of
+  the unrealized and realized gains and losses, better known as capital gains
+  and losses.</para>
+
+  <sect1 id="capgain_concepts1">
+    <title>Basic Concepts</title>
+
+    <para>This chapter will present some of the techniques used to keep track
+    of the unrealized and realized gains and losses, better known as capital
+    gains and losses.</para>
+
+    <para>Certain resellable assets can change value over time, such as
+    stocks, bonds, houses, or cars. Some assets (eg: a stock) could increase
+    in value, some (eg: a car) could decrease in value. It is important to be
+    able to track some of these time-dependent asset valuations, this chapter
+    will show you how.</para>
+
+    <para>Probably everything you own will increase or decrease in value over
+    time. So, the question is for which of these assets should you track this
+    changing value? The simple answer is that you only need to track this for
+    items which could be sold for cash in the future or which relate to
+    taxation.</para>
+
+    <para>Consumable and disposable items (eg: food, gas for your car, or
+    printer paper) are obviously not involved. Thus, even though the new
+    clothes you recently bought will certainly depreciate, you would not want
+    to track this depreciation since you have no intention of reselling the
+    clothes and there is no tax implications to the depreciation on clothing.
+    So, for this example, the purchase of new clothes should be recorded as a
+    pure expense... you spent the money, and it is gone.</para>
+
+    <para>Asset appreciation occurs when something you own increases in value
+    over time. When you own an asset which has increased in value, the
+    difference between the original purchase price and the new value is known
+    as <emphasis>unrealized gains</emphasis>. When you sell the asset, the
+    profit you earn is known as <emphasis>realized gains</emphasis> or
+    <emphasis>capital gains</emphasis>. An example of an asset from which you
+    could have unrealized gains, and eventually capital gains, is stock in a
+    publicly traded company.</para>
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="capgain_value1">
+    <title>Estimating Valuation</title>
+
+    <para>As mentioned in the introduction to this chapter, capital gains are
+    the profits received from the sale of an asset. This section will describe
+    how to record capital gains in <application>&app;</application>.</para>
+
+    <para>The accounting methods for handling asset appreciation differs
+    somewhat from depreciation because typically you are only concerned with
+    the moment you sell the asset and realize the capital gains. This is
+    opposed to the continuous nature of tracking depreciation. Capital gains
+    are an important subject in the world of taxation, because governments
+    tend to be quite interested in taxing capital gains in one manner or
+    another.</para>
+
+    <note>
+      <para>As always, there are exceptions. If you hold a bond that pays all
+      of its interest at maturity, tax authorities often require that you
+      recognize interest each year, and refuse this to be treated as a capital
+      gain. Consult the appropriate tax codes to determine the preferred
+      treatment for each type of asset you have which may be affected by
+      capital gains taxes.</para>
+    </note>
+
+    <para>Estimating the increasing value of assets is generally not simple,
+    because often it is difficult to know its exact value until the moment it
+    is sold.</para>
+
+    <para>Securities traded daily on open markets such as stock exchanges are
+    possibly the easiest type of asset to predict the value of, and selling
+    the asset at market prices may be as simple as calling a broker and
+    issuing a Market Order. On the other hand, estimating the value of a house
+    is more difficult. Homes are sold less often than stocks, and the sales
+    tend to involve expending considerable effort and negotiations, which
+    means that estimates are likely to be less precise. Similarly, selling a
+    used automobile involves a negotiation process that makes pricing a bit
+    less predictable.</para>
+
+    <para>Values of collectible objects such as jewelry, works of art,
+    baseball cards, and <quote>Beanie Babies</quote> are even harder to estimate. The
+    markets for such objects are much less open than the securities markets
+    and less open than the housing market. Worse still are one-of-a-kind
+    assets. Factories often contain presses and dies customized to build a
+    very specific product that cost tens or hundreds of thousands of dollars;
+    this equipment may be worthless outside of that very specific context. In
+    such cases, several conflicting values might be attached to the asset,
+    none of them unambiguously correct.</para>
+
+    <para>The general rule of thumb in accounting for estimating unrealized
+    gains (or loses) is that you should only revalue assets such as stocks
+    which are readily sellable and for which there are very good estimates of
+    the value. For all other assets, it is better to simply wait until you
+    sell them, at which time you can exactly determine the capital gains. Of
+    course, there is no hard rule on this, and in fact different accountants
+    may prefer to do this differently.</para>
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="capgain_accounts1">
+    <title>Account Setup</title>
+
+    <para>As with most accounting practices, there are a number of different
+    ways to setup capital gains accounts. We will present here a general
+    method which should be flexible enough to handle most situations. The
+    first account you will need is an <emphasis>Asset Cost</emphasis> account
+    (<application>&app;</application> account type <guilabel>Asset</guilabel>), which is simply a place where you record
+    the original purchase of the asset. Usually this purchase is accomplished
+    by a transaction from your bank account.</para>
+
+    <para>In order to keep track of the appreciation of the asset, you will
+    need three accounts. The first is an <emphasis>Unrealized Gains</emphasis>
+    asset account in which to collect the sum of all of the appreciation
+    amounts. The <emphasis>Unrealized Gains</emphasis> asset account is balanced by a
+    <emphasis>Unrealized Gains</emphasis> income account, in which all
+    periodic appreciation income is recorded. Finally, another income account
+    is necessary, called a <emphasis>Realized Gains</emphasis> in which you
+    record the actual capital gains upon selling the asset.</para>
+
+    <para>Below is a generic account hierarchy for tracking the appreciation
+    of 2 assets, <emphasis>ITEM1</emphasis> and <emphasis>ITEM2</emphasis>. The <emphasis>Assets:Fixed Assets:ITEM1:Cost</emphasis> accounts are
+    balanced by the <emphasis>Assets:Current Assets:Savings Account</emphasis> account,
+    the <emphasis>Assets:Fixed Assets:ITEM1:Unrealized Gains</emphasis>
+    accounts are balanced by the <emphasis>Income:Unrealized Gains</emphasis> account (similar for <emphasis>ITEM2</emphasis>).</para>
+
+    <literallayout>
+-Assets
+    -Current Assets
+        -Savings Account
+    -Fixed Assets
+        -ITEM1
+            -Cost
+            -Unrealized Gain
+        -ITEM2
+            -Cost
+            -Unrealized Gain
+-Income
+    -Realized Gains
+    -Unrealized Gains
+  </literallayout>
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="capgain_example1">
+    <title>Example</title>
+
+    <para>Let’s suppose you buy an asset expected to increase in value, say a
+    Degas painting, and want to track this. (The insurance company will care
+    about this, even if nobody else does.)</para>
+
+    <para>Start with an account hierarchy similar to that shown in <xref
+    linkend="capgain_accounts1" />, but replace <quote>ITEM1</quote> with <quote>Degas</quote> and you
+    can remove the <quote>ITEM2</quote> accounts. We will assume that the Degas painting
+    had an initial value of one hundred thousand dollars. Begin by giving your
+    self $100,000 in the bank and then transferring that from your bank
+    account to your <emphasis>Assets:Fixed Assets:Degas:Cost</emphasis> account (the asset
+    purchase transaction). You should now have a main account window which
+    appears like this:</para>
+
+    <screenshot id="capgain_appmain">
+      <mediaobject>
+        <imageobject>
+          <imagedata fileref="figures/capgain_appmain.png" format="PNG"
+                     srccredit="Bengt Thuree" />
+        </imageobject>
+
+        <textobject>
+          <phrase>Asset Appreciation Main Window</phrase>
+        </textobject>
+
+        <caption><para>The asset appreciation example main window
+        </para></caption>
+      </mediaobject>
+    </screenshot>
+
+    <sect2 id="capgain_exampleunrealized2">
+      <title>Unrealized Gains</title>
+
+      <para>A month later, you have reason to suspect that the value of your
+      painting has increased by $10,000 (an unrealized gain). In order to
+      record this you transfer $10,000 from your <emphasis>Accrued Gains</emphasis> income account
+      (<emphasis>Income:Unrealized Gains</emphasis>) to your asset Unrealized Gains account
+      (<emphasis>Assets:Fixed Assets:Degas:Unrealized Gain</emphasis>). Your main window will
+      resemble this:</para>
+
+      <screenshot id="capgain_app2main">
+        <mediaobject>
+          <imageobject>
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/capgain_app2main.png" format="PNG"
+                       srccredit="Bengt Thuree" />
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>Asset Appreciation Main Window</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption><para>Chart of Accounts after unrealized
+          gain</para></caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="capgain_examplesell2">
+      <title>Selling</title>
+
+      <para>Let’s suppose another month later prices for Degas paintings have
+      gone up some more, in this case about $20,000, you estimate. You duly
+      record the $20,000 as an unrealized income like above, then decide to
+      sell the painting.</para>
+
+      <para>Three possibilities arise. You may have <emphasis>accurately
+      estimated</emphasis> the unrealized gain,
+      <emphasis>underestimated</emphasis> the unrealized gain, or
+      <emphasis>overestimated</emphasis> the unrealized gain.</para>
+
+      <orderedlist>
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>Accurate estimation</emphasis> of unrealized
+          gain.</para>
+
+          <para>Your optimistic estimate of the painting’s value was correct.
+          First you must record that the profits made are now realized gains,
+          not unrealized gains. Do this by transferring the income from the
+          <emphasis>Income:Unrealized Gains</emphasis> to the
+          <emphasis>Income:Realized Gains</emphasis> account.</para>
+
+          <para>Secondly, you must credit your bank account with the selling
+          price of the painting. This money comes directly from your
+          <emphasis>Assets:Fixed Assets:Degas</emphasis> sub-accounts. Transfer the full
+          <emphasis>Assets:Fixed Assets:Degas:Cost</emphasis> value into
+          <emphasis>Assets:Current Assets:Savings Account</emphasis>, and the full
+          <emphasis>Assets:Fixed Assets:Degas:Unrealized Gain</emphasis> into
+          <emphasis>Assets:Current Assets:Savings Account</emphasis>.</para>
+
+          <para>These transactions should now appear as follows:</para>
+
+          <para><table>
+              <title>Turning an Accrued Gain into a Realized Gain</title>
+
+              <tgroup cols="4">
+                <tbody>
+                  <row>
+                    <entry><emphasis>Account</emphasis></entry>
+
+                    <entry><emphasis>Transfer to</emphasis></entry>
+
+                    <entry><emphasis>Transaction Amount</emphasis></entry>
+
+                    <entry><emphasis>Account Total</emphasis></entry>
+                  </row>
+
+                  <row>
+                    <entry>Income:Unrealized Gains</entry>
+
+                    <entry>Income:Realized Gains</entry>
+
+                    <entry>$30,000</entry>
+
+                    <entry>$0</entry>
+                  </row>
+
+                  <row>
+                    <entry>Assets:Fixed Assets:Degas:Cost</entry>
+
+                    <entry>Assets:Current Assets:Savings Account</entry>
+
+                    <entry>$100,000</entry>
+
+                    <entry>$0</entry>
+                  </row>
+
+                  <row>
+                    <entry>Assets:Fixed Assets:Degas:Unrealized Gains</entry>
+
+                    <entry>Assets:Current Assets:Savings Account</entry>
+
+                    <entry>$30,000</entry>
+
+                    <entry>$0</entry>
+                  </row>
+                </tbody>
+              </tgroup>
+            </table></para>
+
+          <para>This leaves the <emphasis>Assets:Current Assets:Savings Account</emphasis> account
+          with a total of $130000 and <emphasis>Income:Realized Gains</emphasis> with a total of
+          $30000.</para>
+
+          <screenshot id="capgain_app3main">
+            <mediaobject>
+              <imageobject>
+                <imagedata fileref="figures/capgain_app3main.png" format="PNG"
+                           srccredit="Bengt Thuree" />
+              </imageobject>
+
+              <textobject>
+                <phrase>Asset Appreciation Main Window</phrase>
+              </textobject>
+
+              <caption><para>Chart of Accounts after realized
+              gain</para></caption>
+            </mediaobject>
+          </screenshot>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>Under estimation</emphasis> of unrealized
+          gain.</para>
+
+          <para>You were over-optimistic about the value of the painting.
+          Instead of the $130000 you thought the painting was worth you are only
+          offered $120000. But you still decide to sell, because you value
+          $120000 more than you value the painting. The numbers change a
+          little bit, but not too dramatically.</para>
+
+          <para>The transactions should now appear as follows (observe the
+          last transaction which balances the <emphasis>Unrealized Gains</emphasis>
+          accounts):</para>
+
+          <para><table>
+              <title>Turning an Accrued Gain into a Realized Gain</title>
+
+              <tgroup cols="4">
+                <tbody>
+                  <row>
+                    <entry><emphasis>Account</emphasis></entry>
+
+                    <entry><emphasis>Transfer to</emphasis></entry>
+
+                    <entry><emphasis>Transaction Amount</emphasis></entry>
+
+                    <entry><emphasis>Account Total</emphasis></entry>
+                  </row>
+
+                  <row>
+                    <entry>Income:Unrealized Gains</entry>
+
+                    <entry>Income:Realized Gains</entry>
+
+                    <entry>$20,000</entry>
+
+                    <entry>$10,000</entry>
+                  </row>
+
+                  <row>
+                    <entry>Assets:Fixed Assets:Degas:Cost</entry>
+
+                    <entry>Assets:Current Assets:Savings Account</entry>
+
+                    <entry>$100,000</entry>
+
+                    <entry>$0</entry>
+                  </row>
+
+                  <row>
+                    <entry>Assets:Fixed Assets:Degas:Unrealized Gains</entry>
+
+                    <entry>Assets:Current Assets:Savings Account</entry>
+
+                    <entry>$20,000</entry>
+
+                    <entry>$10,000</entry>
+                  </row>
+
+                  <row>
+                    <entry>Assets:Fixed Assets:Degas:Unrealized Gains</entry>
+
+                    <entry>Income:Unrealized Gains</entry>
+
+                    <entry>$10,000</entry>
+
+                    <entry>$0</entry>
+                  </row>
+                </tbody>
+              </tgroup>
+            </table></para>
+
+          <para>This leaves the <emphasis>Assets:Current Assets:Savings Account</emphasis> account
+          with a total of $120000 and <emphasis>Income:Realized Gains</emphasis> with a total of
+          $20000.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>Over estimation</emphasis> of unrealized
+          gain.</para>
+
+          <para>You manage to sell your painting for more than you thought in
+          your wildest dreams ($150,000). The extra value is, again, recorded
+          as a gain, i.e. an income.</para>
+
+          <para>The transactions should now appear as follows (observe the
+          last transaction which balances the Unrealized Gains
+          accounts):</para>
+
+          <para><table>
+              <title>Turning an Accrued Gain into a Realized Gain</title>
+
+              <tgroup cols="4">
+                <tbody>
+                  <row>
+                    <entry><emphasis>Account</emphasis></entry>
+
+                    <entry><emphasis>Transfer to</emphasis></entry>
+
+                    <entry><emphasis>Transaction Amount</emphasis></entry>
+
+                    <entry><emphasis>Account Total</emphasis></entry>
+                  </row>
+
+                  <row>
+                    <entry>Income:Unrealized Gains</entry>
+
+                    <entry>Income:Realized Gains</entry>
+
+                    <entry>$50,000</entry>
+
+                    <entry>$-20,000</entry>
+                  </row>
+
+                  <row>
+                    <entry>Assets:Fixed Assets:Degas:Cost</entry>
+
+                    <entry>Assets:Current Assets:Savings Account</entry>
+
+                    <entry>$100,000</entry>
+
+                    <entry>$0</entry>
+                  </row>
+
+                  <row>
+                    <entry>Assets:Fixed Assets:Degas:Unrealized Gains</entry>
+
+                    <entry>Assets:Current Assets:Savings Account</entry>
+
+                    <entry>$50,000</entry>
+
+                    <entry>$-20,000</entry>
+                  </row>
+
+                  <row>
+                    <entry>Income:Unrealized Gains</entry>
+
+                    <entry>Assets:Fixed Assets:Degas:Unrealized Gains</entry>
+
+                    <entry>$20,000</entry>
+
+                    <entry>$0</entry>
+                  </row>
+                </tbody>
+              </tgroup>
+            </table></para>
+
+          <para>This leaves the <emphasis>Assets:Current Assets:Savings Account</emphasis> account
+          with a total of $150,000 and <emphasis>Income:Realized Gains</emphasis> with a total of
+          $50,000.</para>
+        </listitem>
+      </orderedlist>
+    </sect2>
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="capgain_tax1">
+    <title>Taxation</title>
+
+    <para>Taxation policies vary considerably between countries, so it is
+    virtually impossible to say anything that will be universally useful.
+    However, it is common for income generated by capital gains to not be
+    subject to taxation until the date that the asset is actually sold, and
+    sometimes not even then. North American home owners usually find that when
+    they sell personal residences, capital gains that occur are exempt from
+    taxation. It appears that other countries treat sale of homes differently,
+    taxing people on such gains. German authorities, for example, tax those
+    gains only if you owned the property for less than ten years.</para>
+
+    <para>Chris Browne has a story from his professional tax preparation days
+    where a family sold a farm, and expected a considerable tax bill that
+    turned out to be virtually nil due to having owned the property before
+    1971 (wherein lies a critical <quote>Valuation Day</quote> date in Canada) and due to
+    it being a dairy farm, with some really peculiar resulting deductions. The
+    point of this story is that while the presentation here is fairly simple,
+    taxation often gets terribly complicated...</para>
+  </sect1>
+</chapter>
diff --git a/guide/ru/ch_cbook.xml b/guide/ru/ch_cbook.xml
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..bd2c28d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/guide/ru/ch_cbook.xml
@@ -0,0 +1,564 @@
+<!--
+      (Do not remove this comment block.)
+  Version: 2.0.0
+  Last modified: December 7th 2009
+       modified: July 9th 2006
+  Maintainers:
+               Alex Aycinena <alex.aycinena at gmail.com>
+               Chris Lyttle <chris at wilddev.net>
+  Author:
+  		Jon Lapham <lapham at extracta.com.br>
+   	Updated	Bengt Thuree <bengt at thuree.com>
+ Originally written by Carol Champagne.
+  Translators:
+               (translators put your name and email here)
+-->
+<chapter id="chapter_cbook">
+  <title>Checkbook</title>
+
+  <para>This chapter will give you all the specific information you need to
+  manage your checkbook with <application>&app;</application>. Managing your checkbook register is the
+  first step of tracking your finances, and <application>&app;</application> makes it much easier to
+  manage than the traditional paper register does.</para>
+
+  <para>For one thing, as discussed in <xref linkend="chapter_txns"></xref>,
+  data entry of common
+  transactions is practically done for you in <application>&app;</application>, because of its
+  auto-completion feature. <application>&app;</application> keeps a running balance of each account,
+  and it makes reconciling these accounts easy. And the double-entry method
+  helps you account for your spending by requiring a transfer account for
+  withdrawals, so you can easily find out how much money you spend in
+  different areas.</para>
+
+  <para>Once you are comfortable with using <application>&app;</application> for your checking and
+  other bank accounts, you may wish to continue on with tracking other
+  financial accounts. Chapters 6 through 9 examine methods to manage your
+  other accounts.</para>
+
+  <sect1 id="cbook-accounts1">
+    <title>Setting up Accounts</title>
+
+    <para>The first step in managing your checkbook is to set up the necessary
+    accounts. You can either use the default <application>&app;</application> accounts or set up your
+    own. For more detail on how to set up a new account, refer to
+    <xref linkend="accts-examples-toplevel2"></xref>.
+    For instructions on importing your accounts from another program, refer to the
+    <application>&app;</application> manual.</para>
+
+    <para>Let’s start with the bank accounts you’ll need. You need one <application>&app;</application>
+    bank type account for each physical bank account you wish to track. If you
+    are setting up your own accounts or using the default <application>&app;</application> accounts,
+    make sure that you have an opening balance transaction for each bank
+    account you own. The easiest way to get this number is to use the balance
+    from your last bank statement as your opening balance. You can enter this
+    in the account information window automatically as part of the
+    <guilabel>New Account Hierarchy Setup</guilabel> assistant, or you can enter a
+    manual transaction directly in the account. To enter the transaction
+    manually, enter a transfer from an <guilabel>Opening Balances</guilabel>
+    account (type equity) to the bank account.</para>
+
+    <para>The typical bank accounts you might track include:</para>
+
+    <itemizedlist>
+      <listitem>
+        <para>Checking - any institutional account that provides check-writing
+        privileges.</para>
+      </listitem>
+
+      <listitem>
+        <para>Savings - an interest-bearing institutional account usually used
+        to hold money for a longer term than checking accounts.</para>
+      </listitem>
+    </itemizedlist>
+
+    <para>Common transactions that affect these bank accounts are payments and
+    deposits. <emphasis>Payments</emphasis> are transfers of money out of the
+    bank account, usually to an expense account. <emphasis>Deposits</emphasis>
+    are transfers of money into the bank account, usually from an income
+    account. You will need to set up income and expense accounts to track
+    where that money comes from and where it goes. Remember that a balanced
+    transaction requires a transfer of an equal sum of money from at least one
+    account to at least one other account. So if you deposit money in your
+    checking account, you must also enter the account that money comes from.
+    If you pay a bill from your checking account, you must also enter the
+    account where that money goes.</para>
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="cbook-deposits1">
+    <title>Entering Deposits</title>
+
+    <para>Most deposit transactions are entered as a transfer from an income
+    account to a bank account. Income may come from many sources, and it’s a
+    good idea to set up a separate income type account for each different
+    source. For example, your income may come mainly from your paychecks, but
+    you may also receive interest on your savings. In this case, you should
+    have one income account for salary and another income account for interest
+    income.</para>
+
+    <tip>
+      <para>Be sure to check the Tax-Related box and assign an appropriate tax
+      category in the Income Tax Information Dialog (<menuchoice><guimenu>Edit</guimenu><guimenuitem>Tax
+      Report Options</guimenuitem></menuchoice>)
+      when you set up taxable income accounts. Some types of income,
+      such as gift income, may not be considered taxable, so check the
+      appropriate tax rules to determine what is taxable. For ways to track
+      capital gains income, refer to <xref linkend="chapter_capgain"></xref>.</para>
+    </tip>
+
+    <para>Before you start entering paycheck deposits, decide how much detail
+    you want to track. The basic level of detail is to enter your net pay,
+    just like you would in your paper register. This is easiest, but you can
+    get even more information out of <application>&app;</application> if you enter your gross pay with
+    deductions. It takes a bit more effort to enter the deductions, but
+    entering your tax withholding information throughout the year allows you
+    to run useful tax status reports in <application>&app;</application> at any time. These reports can
+    help you determine whether you are withholding enough tax, and they can
+    help you estimate your tax bill ahead of time. If you are unsure about the
+    level of detail, start by entering net pay. You can always go back and
+    edit your transactions later if you decide you want more detail.</para>
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="cbook-withdrawals1">
+    <title>Entering Withdrawals</title>
+
+    <para>When you withdraw money from your bank account, for whatever reason,
+    you are transferring money from your bank account to some other location.
+    In <application>&app;</application>, this other location is tracked as an account. The more
+    detailed accounts you create and use for your spending, the more
+    information you will get about where your money goes.</para>
+
+    <para>Withdrawals take many forms. ATM withdrawals are one of the most
+    common transactions. Writing checks is one way to withdraw money to pay
+    bills, to buy purchases, or to give to charity. Depending on your bank,
+    you might also have service charges, where the bank withdraws the money
+    from your account. Transfers of money out to another account are also
+    withdrawals. We will take a look at each of these types of withdrawals and
+    how to record them in <application>&app;</application>.</para>
+
+    <sect2 id="cbook-atm2">
+      <title>ATM/Cash Withdrawals</title>
+
+      <para>Cash withdrawals are handled as a transfer from a bank account to
+      a cash account. <application>&app;</application> provides special <emphasis>Cash</emphasis> type
+      accounts for tracking your cash purchases, so you should set up a cash
+      account to record your ATM and other cash withdrawals.</para>
+
+      <para>Cash accounts can be used for different levels of detail. On a
+      basic level of detail, you simply transfer money to it from your
+      checking account. That tells you how much money you took out of checking
+      on a given day, but it doesn’t tell you where that cash was spent. With
+      a little more effort, you can use the cash account to record your cash
+      purchases as well, so that you can see where that cash went. You record
+      these purchases as a transfer from the cash account to expense
+      accounts.</para>
+
+      <para>Some people record every cash purchase, but this takes a lot of
+      work. An easier way is to record the purchases for which you have
+      receipts, but then adjust the balance of the account to match what is in
+      your wallet.</para>
+
+      <para>It’s a good idea to at least set up a cash account for your
+      withdrawals. Then if you decide to track where your cash goes, you can
+      enter transactions for the money you spend. You determine what level of
+      detail you want to use.</para>
+    </sect2>
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="cbook-reconacct1">
+    <title>Reconciling Your Accounts</title>
+
+    <para><application>&app;</application> makes reconciliation of your bank account with your monthly
+    bank statement much easier. <xref linkend="txns-reconcile1"></xref>
+    gives instructions on how to
+    reconcile your transactions with the monthly bank statement. This is the
+    main reconciliation task that should be done every month.</para>
+
+    <para>But what about all those other accounts you created? Should those be
+    reconciled too? If you receive a statement for the account, then you
+    should consider reconciling that account. Examples include the checking
+    account statement, the savings account statement, and the credit card
+    statement. Credit card statements and credit card transactions are covered
+    in the <xref linkend="chapter_cc"></xref>, so if you are interested in
+    tracking your credit cards in <application>&app;</application>, take a look at the instructions
+    provided there.</para>
+
+    <para>Income and expense accounts are usually not reconciled, because
+    there is no statement to check them against. You also don’t need to
+    reconcile cash accounts, for the same reason. With a cash account, though,
+    you might want to adjust the balance every once in a while, so that your
+    actual cash on hand matches the balance in your cash account. Adjusting
+    balances is covered in the next section.</para>
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="cbook-together1">
+    <title>Putting It All Together</title>
+
+    <para>In <xref linkend="chapter_txns"></xref>, you entered some transactions
+    in your checking account. In this chapter, we will add more transactions and
+    then reconcile them.</para>
+
+    <sect2 id="cbook-puttoget-open2">
+      <title>Opening Balances</title>
+
+      <para>So, let’s get started by opening the gcashdata file you saved in the
+      last chapter (<filename>gcashdata_4</filename>). Your chart of accounts
+      should look like this:</para>
+
+      <screenshot id="cbook-gcashdata4">
+        <mediaobject>
+          <imageobject>
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/cbook_gcashdata4.png" format="PNG"
+                       srccredit="Bengt Thuree" />
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>The Chart of Accounts</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption>
+            <para>This image shows the Chart of Accounts.</para>
+          </caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="cbook-puttoget-transactions">
+      <title>Add some transactions</title>
+
+      <orderedlist>
+        <listitem>
+          <para>Now open the <emphasis>Checking</emphasis> account from the main window. In the last
+          chapter, you entered some paycheck transactions as deposits into
+          Checking. Now we will enter another kind of deposit - a transfer of
+          money from Savings into Checking. On a blank line, enter a transaction
+          to transfer $500 from <emphasis>Savings</emphasis> to <emphasis>Checking</emphasis> (In this case, the last
+          transaction date was March 28, but this transfer transaction took
+          place on the March 24). Your Transfer account will be <emphasis>Savings</emphasis>, since
+          you are in the <emphasis>Checking</emphasis> account. Your <emphasis>Checking</emphasis> account should now look
+          like this:</para>
+
+          <screenshot id="cbook-transferin">
+            <mediaobject>
+              <imageobject>
+                <imagedata fileref="figures/cbook_transferin.png" format="PNG"
+                           srccredit="Bengt Thuree" />
+              </imageobject>
+
+              <textobject>
+                <phrase>The Checking Account Register</phrase>
+              </textobject>
+
+              <caption>
+                <para>This image shows the Checking Account Register.</para>
+              </caption>
+            </mediaobject>
+          </screenshot>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para>Now let’s write some checks on this account. First, write a
+          check to HomeTown Grocery for $75 (5th of March). Your transfer account
+          is <emphasis>Groceries</emphasis>, since all of this money is going to buy groceries. Next,
+          write a check to ABC Hardware for $100 (6 of March), and split this
+          amount between two expenses: <emphasis>Household</emphasis> $50 and <emphasis>Tools</emphasis> $50. You will
+          need to create an <emphasis>Expense</emphasis> type account for each of these, then enter
+          splits for them. Your checking account should now look like
+          this;</para>
+
+          <screenshot id="cbook-checkexamp">
+            <mediaobject>
+              <imageobject>
+                <imagedata fileref="figures/cbook_checkexamp.png" format="PNG"
+                           srccredit="Bengt Thuree" />
+              </imageobject>
+
+              <textobject>
+                <phrase>The Checking Account Register</phrase>
+              </textobject>
+
+              <caption>
+                <para>This image shows the Checking Account Register after
+                registering some more checks.</para>
+              </caption>
+            </mediaobject>
+          </screenshot>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para>Suppose you now need to withdraw some money. You don’t have a
+          cash account set up in your chart of accounts, so you will need to
+          create one. Create the account as <guilabel>Cash</guilabel> as a
+          top-level account of type <guilabel>Asset</guilabel>. From your
+          <emphasis>Checking</emphasis> account register, enter an ATM type withdrawal to transfer
+          $100 from <emphasis>Checking</emphasis> to <emphasis>Cash</emphasis> on the 25 of March.</para>
+
+          <screenshot id="cbook-atm">
+            <mediaobject>
+              <imageobject>
+                <imagedata fileref="figures/cbook_atm.png" format="PNG"
+                           srccredit="Bengt Thuree" />
+              </imageobject>
+
+              <textobject>
+                <phrase>The Checking Account Register</phrase>
+              </textobject>
+
+              <caption>
+                <para>This image shows the Checking Account Register with an ATM
+                withdrawal.</para>
+              </caption>
+            </mediaobject>
+          </screenshot>
+        </listitem>
+      </orderedlist>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="cbook-puttoget-reconcile">
+      <title>Opening Balances</title>
+
+
+      <para>Now we are ready to reconcile this <emphasis>Checking</emphasis> account, using this
+      sample bank statement:</para>
+
+      <screenshot id="cbook-bankstmt">
+        <mediaobject>
+          <imageobject>
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/cbook_bankstmt.png" format="PNG"
+                       srccredit="Bengt Thuree" />
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>A sample Bank Statement</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption>
+            <para>This image shows a sample Bank Statement.</para>
+          </caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+
+      <orderedlist>
+        <listitem>
+          <para>Select <menuchoice><guimenu>Actions</guimenu>
+            <guimenuitem>Reconcile</guimenuitem></menuchoice> from the menu, and fill
+            in the Closing balance as $1451.79. Click <guibutton>OK</guibutton> to begin reconciling the
+            account. Check off the entries as they appear on the sample statement.
+            When you have checked off all your entries, the reconcile window
+            should look like this:
+          </para>
+
+          <screenshot id="cbook-reconexamp">
+            <mediaobject>
+              <imageobject>
+                <imagedata fileref="figures/cbook_reconexamp.png" format="PNG"
+                           srccredit="Bengt Thuree" />
+              </imageobject>
+
+              <textobject>
+                <phrase>The reconcile window</phrase>
+              </textobject>
+
+              <caption>
+                <para>This image shows the reconcile window with a $5
+                difference.</para>
+              </caption>
+            </mediaobject>
+          </screenshot>
+
+          <para>Notice that your reconciled balance differs from your ending
+            balance by $5.00. If you look at the sample bank statement, you will
+            see there is a $5.00 service charge that has not been added to your
+            <emphasis>Checking</emphasis> account.
+          </para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para>So click on the <emphasis>Checking</emphasis> register and add the $5.00 service
+          charge to your <emphasis>Checking</emphasis> account. On a blank line of the <emphasis>Checking</emphasis>
+          register, enter a transaction to transfer $5.00 from <emphasis>Checking</emphasis> to a
+          <emphasis>Service Charges</emphasis> account. (You will need to create the <emphasis>Service Charges</emphasis>
+          account as type <guilabel>Expense</guilabel>.) Use the transaction date printed on the
+          sample statement as the date you enter for this transaction. Your
+          <emphasis>Checking</emphasis> account should now look like this:</para>
+
+          <screenshot id="cbook-servch">
+            <mediaobject>
+              <imageobject>
+                <imagedata fileref="figures/cbook_servch.png" format="PNG"
+                           srccredit="Bengt Thuree" />
+              </imageobject>
+
+              <textobject>
+                <phrase>The Checking Account Register</phrase>
+              </textobject>
+
+              <caption>
+                <para>This image shows the Checking Account Register with
+                service charge added.</para>
+              </caption>
+            </mediaobject>
+          </screenshot>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para>Click back on the Reconcile window, and you should see the
+          service charge now under <guilabel>Funds Out</guilabel>. Click on it to mark it as
+          reconciled, and note that the difference amount below now becomes
+          0.00. Click the <guibutton>Finish</guibutton> button on the <emphasis>Toolbar</emphasis> to complete the
+          reconciliation. The Reconcile R column in your <emphasis>Checking</emphasis> register
+          should now show <guilabel>y</guilabel> for each transaction you just
+          reconciled. Also observe the bottom status row that now indicates
+          <guilabel>Reconciled: USD 1451.79</guilabel></para>
+
+          <screenshot id="cbook-reconciledCheckAct">
+            <mediaobject>
+              <imageobject>
+                <imagedata fileref="figures/cbook_reconciledCheckAct.png"
+                           format="PNG" srccredit="Bengt Thuree" />
+              </imageobject>
+
+              <textobject>
+                <phrase>The Checking Account Register</phrase>
+              </textobject>
+
+              <caption>
+                <para>This image shows the reconciled Checking Account
+                Register.</para>
+              </caption>
+            </mediaobject>
+          </screenshot>
+        </listitem>
+
+      </orderedlist>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="cbook-puttoget-save">
+      <title>Save file</title>
+
+      <para>Go back to the main window and save your file with the new
+      <filename>gcashdata_5</filename> name. Your chart of accounts is
+      steadily growing, and it should now look like this:</para>
+
+      <screenshot id="cbook-chartaccts5">
+        <mediaobject>
+          <imageobject>
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/cbook_chartaccts5.png" format="PNG"
+                       srccredit="Bengt Thuree" />
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+             <phrase>The Chart of Accounts</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption>
+            <para>This image shows the Chart of Accounts.</para>
+          </caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="cbook-puttoget-reports">
+      <title>Reports</title>
+
+      <para>As we did in the previous chapter, let’s have a look at a
+        <guilabel>Cash Flow</guilabel>, and a <guilabel>Transaction</guilabel> Report.
+      </para>
+
+      <orderedlist>
+        <listitem>
+          <para>First let’s have a look at the <guilabel>Cash Flow</guilabel> report
+          for the month of March.</para>
+          <para>Select the cash flow report from <menuchoice><guimenu>Reports</guimenu>
+            <guisubmenu>Income & Expense</guisubmenu>
+            <guimenuitem>Cash Flow</guimenuitem></menuchoice>.
+          </para>
+
+      	  <screenshot id="cbook-puttoget2-Cash">
+            <mediaobject>
+              <imageobject>
+                <imagedata fileref="figures/cbook_CashFlow.png" format="PNG"
+                           srccredit="Bengt Thuree" />
+              </imageobject>
+
+              <textobject>
+                <phrase>Cash Flow report for the month of March</phrase>
+              </textobject>
+
+              <caption>
+                <para>This image shows the Cash Flow report after
+                <xref linkend="chapter_cbook"></xref>.</para>
+              </caption>
+            </mediaobject>
+          </screenshot>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para>Now let’s have a look at corresponding transaction report for the various
+            Asset accounts.
+          </para>
+          <para>Select the transaction report from <menuchoice><guimenu>Reports</guimenu>
+            <guimenuitem>Transaction Report</guimenuitem></menuchoice>.
+          </para>
+
+      	  <screenshot id="cbook-puttoget2-TransactionRptChecking">
+            <mediaobject>
+              <imageobject>
+                <imagedata fileref="figures/cbook_TransactionRptAssets.png"
+                           format="PNG" srccredit="Bengt Thuree" />
+              </imageobject>
+
+              <textobject>
+                <phrase>Transaction Report for the Assets accounts during March</phrase>
+              </textobject>
+
+              <caption>
+                <para>This image shows the Transaction Report for the Assets accounts
+                  during March.
+                </para>
+              </caption>
+            </mediaobject>
+          </screenshot>
+
+        </listitem>
+
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para>Now let’s change the transaction report to only show the various
+            <emphasis>Expenses</emphasis> account.
+          </para>
+
+      	  <screenshot id="cbook-puttoget2-TransactionRptExpenses">
+            <mediaobject>
+              <imageobject>
+                <imagedata fileref="figures/cbook_TransactionRptExpenses.png"
+                           format="PNG" srccredit="Bengt Thuree" />
+              </imageobject>
+
+              <textobject>
+                <phrase>Transaction Report for the Expenses accounts during March</phrase>
+              </textobject>
+
+              <caption>
+                <para>This image shows the Transaction Report for the various Expense accounts
+                  during March.
+                </para>
+              </caption>
+            </mediaobject>
+          </screenshot>
+
+        </listitem>
+
+      </orderedlist>
+
+
+      <para>Notice that you have not yet used one of the accounts listed in your
+        chart, the <guilabel>Credit Card</guilabel> account. Now that you know how
+        to keep track of your bank and cash accounts in <application>&app;</application>, you may want to
+        start tracking your credit cards as well. <application>&app;</application> provides a special type
+        of account for credit cards, and this is discussed in the next
+        chapter.
+      </para>
+    </sect2>
+
+  </sect1>
+</chapter>
diff --git a/guide/ru/ch_cc.xml b/guide/ru/ch_cc.xml
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..30a5ca3
--- /dev/null
+++ b/guide/ru/ch_cc.xml
@@ -0,0 +1,618 @@
+<!--
+      (Do not remove this comment block.)
+  Version: 2.0.0
+  Last modified: July 9th 2006
+  Maintainers:
+               Chris Lyttle <chris at wilddev.net>
+  Author:
+  		Jon Lapham <lapham at extracta.com.br>
+  	Updated	Bengt Thuree <bengt at thuree.com>
+  Originally written by Carol Champagne.
+  Translators:
+               (translators put your name and email here)
+-->
+<chapter id="chapter_cc">
+  <title>Credit Cards</title>
+
+  <para>This chapter will show you how to manage your credit cards using
+  <application>&app;</application>.</para>
+
+  <sect1 id="cc-concepts1">
+    <title>Concepts</title>
+
+    <para>Since you probably write a check or make an electronic payment to
+    the credit card company each month, you may think of your credit card bill
+    as an expense - but it really is not an expense. Why? A credit card
+    account is a short-term loan - you buy things on that loan account, and
+    then you eventually have to pay back the money, often with interest (your
+    finance charge). The purchases you make with that credit card are your
+    expenses.</para>
+
+    <para>You have a couple of options when entering credit card transactions,
+    so choose the one that fits your desired level of detail. The simplest
+    method is to simply track monthly payments to the credit card company.
+    From your bank account, you enter a transfer of money each month to the
+    credit card expense account. This will show you the amount of money you
+    are paying each month to the credit card company, but it won’t show you
+    any information about your credit card balance or credit card
+    purchases.</para>
+
+    <para>A more complete way to track your credit card in <application>&app;</application> is to enter
+    each purchase and payment as a separate transaction. Using the credit card
+    account register, you enter your receipts throughout the month. When your
+    credit card statement arrives, you reconcile the credit card account to
+    the statement, and you enter your payment as a transfer of money from your
+    checking account to your credit card account. This method gives you more
+    information about your balance during the month and points out any
+    discrepancies during reconciliation, but you will have to do more data
+    entry.</para>
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="cc-accounts1">
+    <title>Setting Up Accounts</title>
+
+    <para>To begin managing your credit cards in <application>&app;</application>, you should set up a
+    <guilabel>Liability</guilabel> top level account and under this parent account create credit
+    card type accounts for each credit card you use. If you are tracking only
+    the payments you make to the credit card company, then all you need is a
+    bank account and a credit card account to enter your transactions.</para>
+
+    <para>The charges you make on your credit card are expenses, so you will
+    have to set up these accounts under the top-level account called
+    <guilabel>Expenses</guilabel>. If you decide to keep a more detailed records of your
+    purchases, you will need to create expense accounts for each kind of
+    purchase you make. Since you will also be reconciling the balance to your
+    credit card statements, you should also enter an opening balance in each
+    credit card account. The easiest way to do this is to use your last
+    statement balance as the opening balance.</para>
+
+    <sect2 id="cc-accounts-simple2">
+      <title>Simple Setup</title>
+
+      <para>If you do not want to track each expense made on the credit card,
+      you can set up a simple account hierarchy like this:</para>
+
+      <literallayout>
+-Assets
+   -Bank
+-Liabilities
+   -Credit Card
+-Expenses
+   -Credit Card
+   </literallayout>
+
+      <para>In this example, if you enter your total amount charged per month
+      as a transaction between <emphasis>Liabilities:Credit Card</emphasis> and
+      <emphasis>Expenses:Credit Card</emphasis>. When you make a payment, you would
+      enter a transaction between <emphasis>Assets:Bank</emphasis> and
+      <emphasis>Liabilities:Credit Card</emphasis>.</para>
+
+      <para>The obvious limitation of this simple credit card setup is that
+      you cannot see where your money is going. All your credit card expenses
+      are being entered in the Credit Card expense account. This is, however,
+      very simple to set up and maintain.</para>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="cc-accounts-complete2">
+      <title>Complete Setup</title>
+
+      <para>If you want to track your expenses more completely, you should
+      set up multiple expense accounts named for the various kinds of expenses
+      you have. Each charge on your credit card is then entered as a separate
+      transaction between your Credit Card liability account and a specific
+      expense account. Below is an example of an account hierarchy for
+      this:</para>
+
+      <literallayout>
+-Assets
+    -Bank
+-Liabilities
+    -Credit Card
+-Expenses
+    -Food
+    -Car
+    -Clothes
+    -Entertainment
+    -Interest
+    -Service
+   </literallayout>
+
+      <para>Clearly, you should enter specific expense accounts which fit your
+      spending habits. The only difference with this setup as compared to the
+      simple setup is that the expenses have been subdivided by groups. Also
+      notice that there is an <quote>Interest</quote> expense, this is used for when your
+      credit card charges interest on your monthly unpaid balance. The
+      <quote>Service</quote> expense account is used to track service expenses associated
+      with the credit card, such as the yearly usage fee if it exists. With
+      this setup, you will be able to see where your money goes every month,
+      grouped according to the expense accounts.</para>
+
+      <para>The rest of this chapter will assume you are using the complete
+      setup.</para>
+    </sect2>
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="cc-entercharge1">
+    <title>Entering Charges</title>
+
+    <para>Entering your charges provides you with a more complete picture of
+    your spending habits. Charges on a credit card are tracked as a
+    transaction between the credit card liability account and the appropriate
+    expense account.</para>
+
+    <para>When you pay for goods or services with your credit card, you are telling the credit card company to pay the merchant for you. This transaction will increase the amount of money you owe the credit card company, and the credit card balance will increase. The other side of these transactions will in most cases be an expense account. For example, if you buy clothing from a store with your credit card for $50, you would be transferring that money from the credit account into Expenses:Clothing.</para>
+
+    <para>Entering these transactions into <application>&app;</application> allows you to track how much you owe the credit card company, as well as provides you a better picture of your overall accounts. It also allows you to monitor your account and ensure that fraud is avoided.</para>
+
+    <para>Adding transactions to a credit card account is similar to entering transactions in other accounts. You can enter them manually, or import them from your credit card company using a compatible import format.</para>
+
+    <para>For assistance with entering transactions, see Chapter 6 of the Help manual and <xref linkend="chapter_txns"></xref>.</para>
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="cc-enterpay1">
+    <title>Entering Payments</title>
+
+    <para>Most payments to your credit card bill are entered as transfers from
+    a bank account (asset) to the credit card account (liability). When you
+    pay the monthly bill, you are withdrawing money from a bank account to pay
+    down the credit card balance. This transaction decreases both your bank
+    account balance and the amount of credit card debt you owe.</para>
+
+    <para>When you return a purchase, you receive a refund on your credit
+    card. This is another type of payment in that it decreases the amount of
+    credit card debt you owe. If you recorded the original purchase
+    transaction as a transfer from the credit card account to the expense, you
+    now simply reverse that transaction: transfer the money back from the
+    expense to the credit card account. This transaction decreases both the
+    expense account balance and the credit card account balance. For example,
+    if you originally recorded a credit card purchase of clothing, the
+    transaction is a transfer from the credit card account to the clothing
+    expense account. If you then return that clothing for a refund, you simply
+    transfer the money back from the clothing expense account to the credit
+    card account.</para>
+
+    <note>
+      <para>A common mistake is to enter a refund as income. It is not income,
+      but rather a <quote>negative expense</quote>. That is why you must transfer money
+      from the expense account to your credit card when you receive a
+      refund.</para>
+    </note>
+
+    <para>To clarify this, let’s run through an example. You bought some jeans
+    for $74.99 on your VISA card, but realized one day later that they are too
+    big and want to return them. The shop gracefully agrees, and refunds your
+    credit card.</para>
+
+    <orderedlist>
+      <listitem>
+        <para>Start with opening the previous datafile we stored
+        (<filename>gcashdata_5</filename>), and store it as
+        <filename>gcashdata_6</filename>.</para>
+      </listitem>
+
+      <listitem>
+        <para>Open the <emphasis>Liabilities:Visa</emphasis> account register
+        and enter a simple 2 account transaction to pay the $74.99 jeans
+        purchase. The <guilabel>Transfer</guilabel> account should be
+        <emphasis>Expenses:Clothes</emphasis> and you
+        <guilabel>Charge</guilabel> your <emphasis>Visa</emphasis> account with the $74.99.</para>
+
+        <note>
+          <para>Since we had not created the <emphasis>Expenses:Clothes</emphasis> account
+          previously, <application>&app;</application> will prompt us to create it. Just remember to
+          create it as an <guilabel>Expense</guilabel> account</para>
+        </note>
+      </listitem>
+
+      <listitem>
+        <para>Enter the refund in one of the following way.</para>
+
+        <itemizedlist>
+          <listitem>
+            <para>Enter the same transaction as the purchase transaction, but
+            instead of a <quote>Charge</quote> amount, use a <quote>Payment</quote> amount in the Credit
+            Card account register.</para>
+          </listitem>
+
+          <listitem>
+            <para>Select the purchase transaction you want to refund (that is
+            the Jeans transaction in our case), and selecting
+            <menuchoice><guimenu>Transaction</guimenu><guisubmenu>Add Reversing
+            Transaction</guisubmenu></menuchoice>. Modify the date as needed.</para>
+          </listitem>
+        </itemizedlist>
+
+        <para>After reversing the transaction, your credit card account should
+        look something like this:</para>
+        <screenshot id="cc-Reversing-Transaction-1">
+            <mediaobject>
+              <imageobject>
+                <imagedata fileref="figures/cc_Reversing_Transaction_1.png"
+                           format="PNG" srccredit="Bengt  Thuree" ></imagedata>
+              </imageobject>
+
+              <textobject>
+                <phrase>Refunded a credit card purchase</phrase>
+              </textobject>
+
+              <caption>
+                <para>This image shows <emphasis>Liability:Credit Card</emphasis> -
+                Register after reversing a purchase
+                transaction.</para>
+              </caption>
+            </mediaobject>
+          </screenshot>
+
+        <para>And the <emphasis>Expenses:Clothes</emphasis> register should
+        look something like this:</para>
+        <screenshot id="cc-Reversing-Transaction-2">
+            <mediaobject>
+              <imageobject>
+                <imagedata fileref="figures/cc_Reversing_Transaction_2.png"
+                           format="PNG" srccredit="Bengt  Thuree" ></imagedata>
+              </imageobject>
+
+              <textobject>
+                <phrase>Refunded a credit card purchase</phrase>
+              </textobject>
+
+              <caption>
+                <para>This image shows <emphasis>Expenses:Clothes</emphasis>
+                register after reversing a purchase transaction.</para>
+              </caption>
+            </mediaobject>
+          </screenshot>
+      </listitem>
+
+      <listitem>
+        <para>Save the <application>&app;</application> data file.</para>
+      </listitem>
+    </orderedlist>
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="cc-together1">
+    <title>Putting It All Together</title>
+
+    <para>Now that we have covered the basic ideas behind the various
+    transactions you must make to successfully track your credit card in
+    <application>&app;</application>, let’s go through an example. In this example, we will make credit
+    card purchases, refund two of the purchases, get charged interest on
+    the unpaid balance, reconcile the credit card account, and finally make a
+    partial payoff of the credit card.</para>
+
+    <sect2 id="cc-puttoget-openfile">
+      <title>Open <application>&app;</application> file</title>
+
+      <para>Start with opening the previous datafile we stored,
+      <filename>gcashdata_5</filename>, and store it as
+      <filename>gcashdata_6</filename> directly. The main window should look
+      something like this: </para>
+
+    <screenshot id="cc-accounts">
+      <mediaobject>
+        <imageobject>
+          <imagedata fileref="figures/cc_accounts.png" format="PNG"
+                     srccredit="Bengt Thuree" ></imagedata>
+        </imageobject>
+
+        <textobject>
+          <phrase>Starting account structure</phrase>
+        </textobject>
+
+        <caption>
+          <para>Starting account structure for tracking a credit card in the
+          putting it all together example.</para>
+        </caption>
+      </mediaobject>
+    </screenshot>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="cc-together-purchases2">
+      <title>Purchases</title>
+
+      <para>Let’s make some purchases on our visa card. Start by buying $25
+      worth of food from the Greasy Spoon Cafe, $100 worth of clothing from
+      Faux Pas Fashions, $25 worth of gasoline from Premium Gasoline, $125
+      worth of groceries and household items from Groceries R Us (split
+      between $85 in groceries and $40 in household items) and finally, $60
+      worth of household items from CheapMart.</para>
+
+      <para>We also redo the exercise in previous chapter, with purchasing
+      a pair of Jeans for $74.99 on April 3, and refund them two days later.</para>
+
+      <para>The register window for the credit card liability should look like this:</para>
+
+      <screenshot id="cc-purchases">
+        <mediaobject>
+          <imageobject>
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/cc_purchases.png" format="PNG"
+                       srccredit="Bengt Thuree" ></imagedata>
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>Initial credit card purchases</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption>
+            <para>Initial credit card purchases.</para>
+          </caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="cc-together-refund2">
+      <title>Refund</title>
+
+      <para>Now suppose that on April 15th you return the clothes you bought
+      on April 11th from Faux Pas Fashions and they give you credit back on
+      your credit card. Enter a transaction for the credit card refund for the
+      full $100 amount. Remember to use the same transfer account you used for
+      the original purchase, and enter the amount under the Payment column.
+      <application>&app;</application> will automatically complete the name and transfer account for
+      you, but it will also automatically enter the $100 in the Charge column.
+      You will need to reenter the amount in the Payment column. The
+      transaction looks like this:</para>
+
+      <screenshot id="cc-refund">
+        <mediaobject>
+          <imageobject>
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/cc_refund.png" format="PNG"
+                       srccredit="Bengt Thuree" ></imagedata>
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>Item return transaction</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption>
+            <para>Returning clothes to Faux Pas Fashions, refund to credit
+            card.</para>
+          </caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="cc-together-interest2">
+      <title>Interest Charge</title>
+
+      <para>After the month of spending, unfortunately, the credit card bill
+      arrives in the mail or you access it on-line through the internet. You
+      have been charged $20 in interest on the last day of April because of
+      the balance you carried from the previous month. This gets entered into
+      the credit card account as an expense.</para>
+
+      <screenshot id="cc-interest">
+        <mediaobject>
+          <imageobject>
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/cc_interest.png" format="PNG"
+                       srccredit="Bengt Thuree" ></imagedata>
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>Interest charge</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption>
+            <para>Interest charge.</para>
+          </caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="cc-together-reconcile2">
+      <title>Reconciliation</title>
+
+      <para>When your credit card bill arrives you should reconcile your
+      credit card account to this document. This is done using <application>&app;</application>’s
+      built-in reconciliation application. Highlight the credit card account
+      and click on <menuchoice><guimenu>Actions</guimenu>
+      <guimenuitem>Reconcile...</guimenuitem></menuchoice>. This reconciliation procedure is
+      described in detail in the <xref linkend="txns-reconcile1"></xref>,
+      but we will step
+      through the process here as well. For this example, let’s assume that
+      the credit card statement is dated May 1st, with a final balance of
+      $455. Enter these values in to the initial Reconcile window as shown
+      here.</para>
+
+      <screenshot id="cc-reconcile-init">
+        <mediaobject>
+          <imageobject>
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/cc_reconcile_init.png" format="PNG"
+                       srccredit="Bengt Thuree" ></imagedata>
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>Initial reconcile window</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption>
+            <para>Initial account reconciliation window.</para>
+          </caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+
+      <para>During the reconciliation process, you check off each transaction
+      in the account as you confirm that the transaction appears in both your
+      <application>&app;</application> account and the credit card statement. For this example, as
+      shown in the figure below, there is a $300 difference between your
+      <application>&app;</application> accounts and the credit card statement.</para>
+
+      <screenshot id="cc-reconcile">
+        <mediaobject>
+          <imageobject>
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/cc_reconcile.png" format="PNG"
+                       srccredit="Bengt Thuree" ></imagedata>
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>Main reconcile window</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption>
+            <para>Main account reconciliation window, demonstrating a
+            discrepancy of $300.</para>
+          </caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+
+      <para>Some investigation uncovers that you forgot to record a payment
+      you made on March 5th to the credit card company for $300, you
+      must enter this payment transaction from your bank account to the credit
+      card. Now the credit card statement and your <application>&app;</application> account can be
+      reconciled, with a balance of $455.</para>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="cc-together-payment2">
+      <title>Payment</title>
+
+      <para>Assuming you have completed reconciliation of your credit card
+      account, you need to make a payment to the credit card company. In this
+      example, we owe $455 but will make a partial payment of $300 again this
+      month. To do so, enter a transaction from your bank account to the
+      credit card account for $300, which should reduce your credit card
+      balance to $155. Your credit card account register should now appear
+      like this:</para>
+
+      <screenshot id="cc-payment">
+        <mediaobject>
+          <imageobject>
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/cc_payment.png" format="PNG"
+                       srccredit="Bengt Thuree" ></imagedata>
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>Reconciliation and payment</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption>
+            <para>Account register after account reconciliation and
+            payment.</para>
+          </caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+
+      <para>Go back to the main window and save your file
+      (<filename>gcashdata_6</filename>). Your chart of accounts is steadily
+      growing, and it should now look like this:</para>
+
+      <screenshot id="cc-final">
+        <mediaobject>
+          <imageobject>
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/cc_final.png" format="PNG"
+                       srccredit="Bengt Thuree" ></imagedata>
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase><application>&app;</application> main window</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption>
+            <para><application>&app;</application> Chart of Accounts after account reconciliation and
+            payment.</para>
+          </caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="cc-puttoget-save">
+      <title>Save file</title>
+      <para>Last, save the <application>&app;</application> data file (<filename>gcashdata_6</filename>).</para>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="cc-puttoget-reports">
+      <title>Reports</title>
+
+      <para>As we did in the previous chapters, let’s have a look at a
+        <guilabel>Cash Flow</guilabel>, and a <guilabel>Transaction</guilabel> Report.
+      </para>
+
+      <orderedlist>
+        <listitem>
+          <para>First let’s have a look at the <guilabel>Cash Flow</guilabel> report
+          for the liability account <guilabel>Visa</guilabel> during the month of March.</para>
+          <para>Select the cash flow report from <menuchoice><guimenu>Reports</guimenu>
+            <guisubmenu>Income & Expense</guisubmenu>
+            <guimenuitem>Cash Flow</guimenuitem></menuchoice>.
+          </para>
+
+      	  <screenshot id="cc-puttoget2-Cash">
+            <mediaobject>
+              <imageobject>
+                <imagedata fileref="figures/cc_CashFlow.png" format="PNG"
+                           srccredit="Bengt Thuree" />
+              </imageobject>
+
+              <textobject>
+                <phrase>Cash Flow report for the month of March</phrase>
+              </textobject>
+
+              <caption>
+                <para>This image shows the Cash Flow report after
+                <xref linkend="chapter_cc"></xref>.</para>
+              </caption>
+            </mediaobject>
+          </screenshot>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para>Now let’s have a look at corresponding transaction report for the Visa
+            account.
+          </para>
+          <para>Select the transaction report from <menuchoice><guimenu>Reports</guimenu>
+            <guimenuitem>Transaction Report</guimenuitem></menuchoice>.
+          </para>
+
+      	  <screenshot id="cc-puttoget2-TransactionRptVisa">
+            <mediaobject>
+              <imageobject>
+                <imagedata fileref="figures/cc_TransactionRptVisa.png"
+                           format="PNG" srccredit="Bengt Thuree" />
+              </imageobject>
+
+              <textobject>
+                <phrase>Transaction Report for the Visa account during March/April</phrase>
+              </textobject>
+
+              <caption>
+                <para>This image shows the Transaction Report for the Visa account
+                  during March/April.
+                </para>
+              </caption>
+            </mediaobject>
+          </screenshot>
+
+        </listitem>
+
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para>Now let’s change the transaction report to only show the various
+            Expenses accounts.
+          </para>
+
+      	  <screenshot id="cc-puttoget2-TransactionRptExpenses">
+            <mediaobject>
+              <imageobject>
+                <imagedata fileref="figures/cc_TransactionRptExpenses.png"
+                           format="PNG" srccredit="Bengt Thuree" />
+              </imageobject>
+
+              <textobject>
+                <phrase>Transaction Report for the Expenses accounts during April</phrase>
+              </textobject>
+
+              <caption>
+                <para>This image shows the Transaction Report for the various Expense accounts
+                  during April.
+                </para>
+              </caption>
+            </mediaobject>
+          </screenshot>
+
+        </listitem>
+
+      </orderedlist>
+    </sect2>
+
+
+  </sect1>
+</chapter>
diff --git a/guide/ru/ch_currency.xml b/guide/ru/ch_currency.xml
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..b9831f5
--- /dev/null
+++ b/guide/ru/ch_currency.xml
@@ -0,0 +1,825 @@
+<!--
+      (Do not remove this comment block.)
+  Version: 2.6.15
+  Last modified: December 6, 2016
+  Maintainers:
+               Chris Lyttle <chris at wilddev.net>
+  Author:
+  		Jon Lapham <lapham at extracta.com.br>
+  	Updated	Bengt Thuree <bengt at thuree.com>
+  	Updated	Geert Janssens <janssens-geert at telenet.be>
+	Revised David T. <sunfish62 at yahoo.com>
+  Originally designed by Carol Champagne.
+  Translators:
+               (translators put your name and email here)
+-->
+<chapter id="chapter_currency">
+  <title>Multiple Currencies</title>
+
+  <para>This chapter will show how to set up <application>&app;</application> accounts to use
+  multiple currencies.</para>
+
+  <sect1 id="currency_concepts1">
+    <title>Basic Concepts</title>
+
+    <para><application>&app;</application> supports over a hundred currencies, from the Andorran Franc
+    to the Zimbabwe Dollar. For example, you can have a bank account set up in Euros, and
+    another using Hong Kong Dollars.</para>
+
+    <para>Some of the issues which arise when using multiple currencies are, how
+    do you transfer funds between accounts with different currencies? How do
+    you calculate the overall value when you have mixed currency accounts? How
+    do reports deal with mixed currencies?</para>
+
+    <note>
+      <para>An alternative way to manage multiple currency accounts from the one
+      presented in the next sections, is to use the <guilabel>trading</guilabel> accounts
+      capabilities of <application>&app;</application>. This feature, which was
+      introduced with <application>&app;</application> version 2.3.14, can be enabled by
+      going to the <guilabel>Accounts</guilabel> tab under <menuchoice><guimenu>File</guimenu><guimenuitem>
+      Properties</guimenuitem></menuchoice>.</para>
+      <para>For a complete guide on <guilabel>trading</guilabel> accounts, see
+      <ulink type="http" url="http://www.mathstat.dal.ca/~selinger/accounting/tutorial.html">
+      this tutorial by Peter Selinger</ulink>.</para>
+    </note>
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="currency_acct1">
+    <title>Account Setup</title>
+
+    <para>Your default account currency is set in the <guilabel>Account</guilabel> tab
+    under <menuchoice><guimenu>Edit</guimenu><guimenuitem>Preferences</guimenuitem></menuchoice>
+    (<menuchoice><guimenu>&app;</guimenu><guimenuitem>Preferences</guimenuitem></menuchoice> on Mac OS X).</para>
+
+    <para>Similarly, <application>&app;</application> offers an option to
+    set your preferred currency for displaying reports (like the balance
+    sheet and income statement). The option is called <guilabel>Default
+    Report Currency</guilabel>, and is in the <guilabel>Reports</guilabel>
+    tab of the <guilabel>&app; Preferences</guilabel> screen.
+    You’ll want to set both options when you start using
+    <application>&app;</application> because if (for example) your accounts
+    are all in Canadian Dollars but the generated reports are all in US
+    Dollars, the reports will just say that there are <quote>no
+    data/transactions (or only zeroes) for the selected time
+    period</quote>.</para>
+
+    <para>When you create a new account, you have the option to define the
+    commodity in which that account is denominated. For accounts denominated 
+    in a currency, you can specify any of the currencies supported by <application>&app;</application> 
+    by simply selecting it from the currency commodity list. You will notice 
+    that the default currency is the currency that is defined for the parent 
+    account of the new account.</para>
+
+    <para>As an example, let’s set up a bank account scenario where
+    you mostly work in US Dollars, but do also have a European bank account
+    using the Euro currency, as well as one bank account in Hong Kong using
+    Hong Kong Dollars. So, set up 3 bank accounts, one denominated in US Dollars, 
+    one using Euros, and the third in Hong Kong Dollars. One possible account
+    structure for this would be:</para>
+
+    <literallayout>
+-Assets (USD)
+   -Current Assets (USD)
+      -US Bank (USD)
+      -European Bank (EUR)
+      -HK Bank (HKD)
+-Equity (USD)
+   -Opening Balances (USD)
+      -USD (USD)
+      -EUR (EUR)
+      -HKD (HKD)
+
+Note: the currency of each account is shown in parenthesis.
+ </literallayout>
+
+    <para>Since in this example you mostly work in USD, all of the parent
+    accounts are set to USD. Of course, if you mostly work in Euros, you could
+    change the currency of these parent accounts to EUR. The totals shown in
+    the account tree window will always be converted to the currency of each
+    particular account. Notice, we also set up 3 Starting Balances equity
+    accounts, used to initially populate the 3 banks.</para>
+
+    <note>
+      <para>You could also set up just a single Starting Balance account and
+      use a currency transfer to populate the <quote>different currency</quote> accounts.
+      However, this is more advanced option, which is explained in a later
+      section (<xref linkend="currency_purchase2" />).</para>
+    </note>
+
+    <para>Below you see the result of this example, in which you start with
+    USD 10,000, EUR 10,000 as well as HKD 10,000 in the three bank accounts.
+    Notice that the total of the parent accounts only shows the value of the
+    currency of sub-accounts with matching currencies. In other words, the 
+    Total Assets and Total Equity values only reflect USD amounts, because <application>&app;</application>
+    has no way of evaluating the value of EUR or HKD yet. Once you set up 
+    exchange rates between the currencies, the parent accounts
+    will calculate the converted value of all sub-accounts. See the later
+    section (<xref linkend="currency_howto1" />) on ways to do this.</para>
+
+    <screenshot id="currency_main1">
+      <mediaobject>
+        <imageobject>
+          <imagedata fileref="figures/currency_main1.png" format="PNG"
+                     srccredit="Geert Janssens" />
+        </imageobject>
+
+        <textobject>
+          <phrase>Initial multi currency Account Bank Setup</phrase>
+        </textobject>
+
+        <caption><para>Initial setup of 3 bank accounts with different
+        currencies. </para></caption>
+      </mediaobject>
+    </screenshot>
+
+    <para>Notice that the "Total (Report)" column is being displayed. This is
+    configured in the column header row, select <guibutton>Arrow
+    down</guibutton> and select <quote>Total(USD)</quote>.</para>
+
+    <sect2 id="currency_acct_user2">
+      <title>User-Defined Currencies</title>
+
+      <para>Usually when we talk about currencies, we mean
+      government-backed currencies (or more precisely, currencies defined
+      in <ulink
+      url="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISO_4217">ISO 4217</ulink>).
+      <application>&app;</application> does not allow you to create your
+      own currencies. If you want to track non-<acronym>ISO</acronym>
+      currencies, you can use either of two workarounds, depending on which
+      fits your needs better.</para>
+      
+      <para>The first method is is to treat these as if they were a security—that
+      is, like a stock or mutual fund. The second method is to use one of the <quote>dummy</quote>
+      currencies for them.</para>
+
+      <para>Let’s say for example that you want to track loyalty points 
+      you’ve earned by buying from a certain group of businesses. The 
+      account which tracks your loyalty points will be 
+      <emphasis>Assets:Other:LoyaltyGroupRewardMiles</emphasis>.</para>
+
+      <para>In the first method, you define a new security, of type <guilabel>FUND</guilabel>,
+      called RewardMiles. This is pretty straightforward—when you
+      create the new <emphasis>LoyaltyGroupRewardMiles</emphasis> account, just set the account
+      type to <guilabel>Stock</guilabel> or <guilabel>Mutual
+      Fund</guilabel>, click the <guibutton>Select...</guibutton> button
+      next to the <guilabel>Security/currency:</guilabel> box, and click
+      <guibutton>New</guibutton> to define a new security of type
+      <guilabel>FUND</guilabel>.</para>
+
+      <para>This is not really what the stock and mutual fund account types
+      are meant for, but <application>&app;</application> will allow it. The downside is
+      that you’ll have to enter a <quote>price</quote> for every
+      transaction involving this account, because
+      <application>&app;</application> needs the prices to figure out the
+      monetary value of the points and treat them as one of your
+      assets.</para>
+
+      <para>In the second method, you use one of the dummy
+      currencies to track the loyalty points. These currencies are
+      <quote>XTS (Code for testing purposes)</quote> and <quote>XXX (No
+      currency)</quote>. If you use one of these for your
+      LoyaltyGroupRewardMiles account, you can enter transactions into the
+      account without having to enter share prices for every transaction.
+      And, you can keep using the same two dummy currencies to track all
+      sorts of amounts—vacation dollars earned and used so far this
+      year, vacation hours earned and used, health insurance benefits
+      allowance used and remaining, and so on.</para>
+
+      <para>The drawback with this second method is that you cannot define exchange rates for
+      the dummy currencies to convert them to <acronym>ISO</acronym>
+      currencies. If you want to do that, you really should use the first
+      method.</para>
+    </sect2>
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="currency_howto1">
+    <title>Recording and Updating Currency Exchange Rates</title>
+
+    <para><application>&app;</application> allows you to update the Currency Exchange Rates 
+    both manually and automatically. This process is essentially the
+    same as setting share prices for investments (see <xref linkend="invest-stockprice1"/>). 
+    In the following two sections we will work through both methods.</para>
+
+    <para>Before we start, let’s have a quick look at the Chart of
+    Accounts</para>
+
+    <screenshot id="currency_main1a">
+      <mediaobject>
+        <imageobject>
+          <imagedata fileref="figures/currency_main1.png" format="PNG"
+                     srccredit="Geert Janssens" />
+        </imageobject>
+
+        <textobject>
+          <phrase>Initial multi currency Account Bank Setup</phrase>
+        </textobject>
+
+        <caption><para>Initial set up of 3 bank accounts with different
+        currencies. </para></caption>
+      </mediaobject>
+    </screenshot>
+    <para>As you see, the overall balances do not yet reflect any value for EUR 
+    or HKD holdings. Adding currency exchange rates will fix this.</para> 
+
+    <sect2 id="currency_howto_Manual">
+      <title>Manually Updating Exchange Rates</title>
+
+      <para>Open the <guilabel>Price Editor</guilabel> by going to <menuchoice><guimenu>Tools</guimenu>
+      <guimenuitem>Price Editor</guimenuitem></menuchoice>.</para>
+
+      <screenshot id="currency_peditor">
+        <mediaobject>
+          <imageobject>
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/currency_peditor.png"
+                       format="PNG" srccredit="Geert Janssens" />
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>Price Editor window</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption><para>Price Editor Window. </para></caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+
+      <para>Click on the <guibutton>Add</guibutton> button to add a new
+      currency exchange rate. A window will appear in which you can set up a new
+      exchange rate. This window should appear like this:</para>
+
+      <screenshot id="currency_addcurr">
+        <mediaobject>
+          <imageobject>
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/currency_addcurr.png" format="PNG"
+                       srccredit="Geert Janssens" />
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>Set up Euro Exchange Rate</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption><para>Add Price Editor Window</para></caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+
+      <para> Set the <guilabel>Namespace</guilabel> to
+      Currency and the <guilabel>Security</guilabel> to EUR (Euro).
+      Then set the exchange rate between the selected security and the
+      selected currency. The price box defines how many units of currency are
+      required to purchase one unit of the security. In this case, how many dollars
+      it will take to purchase on Euro. In this example, you will set the exchange rate to 1
+      EUR for 1 USD.</para>
+
+      <screenshot id="currency_manualpriceadded">
+        <mediaobject>
+          <imageobject>
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/currency_BeforeGetOnlineQuotes.png" format="PNG"
+                       srccredit="Geert Janssens" />
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>Price Editor Window</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption><para>The Price Editor window after setting the exchange
+          rate between Euros and US Dollars</para></caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+
+      <screenshot id="currency_main2">
+        <mediaobject>
+          <imageobject>
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/currency_main2.png" format="PNG"
+                       srccredit="Geert Janssens" />
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>Chart of Accounts</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption><para>Chart of Accounts after setting the exchange rate
+          between Euros and US Dollars.</para></caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+
+      <para>Observe that since you have no exchange rate for HKD, <application>&app;</application>
+      doesn’t convert the HKD accounts to USD. This will be added in the next
+      section.</para>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="currency_howto_Auto">
+      <title>Automatic Updating Exchange Rates (How-To)</title>
+
+      <para>In the previous section you saw how to manually define a
+      new currency exchange rate, but <application>&app;</application> includes an
+      automatic price update feature, which will now be described.</para>
+
+      <para>Open the <guilabel>Price Editor</guilabel> by going to <menuchoice><guimenu>Tools</guimenu>
+      <guimenuitem>Price Editor</guimenuitem></menuchoice>.</para>
+
+      <screenshot id="currency_BeforeGetOnline">
+        <mediaobject>
+          <imageobject>
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/currency_BeforeGetOnlineQuotes.png" format="PNG"
+                       srccredit="Geert Janssens" />
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>Price Editor window</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption><para>Price Editor Window before you obtain online quotes.
+          </para></caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+
+      <para>Click on the <guibutton>Get Quotes</guibutton> button to
+      automatically load the various exchange rates you need.</para>
+
+      <note><para>
+         If the <guibutton>Get Quotes</guibutton> button is disabled,
+         that means that the <application>Perl</application> module <application>Finance::Quote</application> is not installed.
+         For information on how to install it, please see
+         <xref linkend="invest-stockprice-auto2" ></xref>
+      </para></note>
+
+      <para><screenshot id="currency_AfterGetOnlineQuotes">
+          <mediaobject>
+            <imageobject>
+              <imagedata fileref="figures/currency_AfterGetOnlineQuotes.png"
+                         format="PNG" srccredit="Geert Janssens" />
+            </imageobject>
+
+            <textobject>
+              <phrase>Price Editor window</phrase>
+            </textobject>
+
+            <caption><para>Price Editor Window after we obtained online
+            quotes. </para></caption>
+          </mediaobject>
+        </screenshot></para>
+
+      <para><application>&app;</application> downloads exchange rates for all
+      currencies that are in use in your various accounts. This will happen
+      every time you click on <guibutton>Get Quotes</guibutton> or request <application>&app;</application>
+      to download quotes as per <xref linkend="invest-stockprice-auto2" /></para>
+
+      <para>Now when you check the main Chart of Accounts you will see that
+      <application>&app;</application> has automatically converted the HKD amount to USD amount on the
+      parent accounts that are in USD, as well as on the Total (USD) column.
+      Also the Euro accounts have been been updated with the latest exchange
+      rate.</para>
+
+      <screenshot id="currency_main3.png">
+        <mediaobject>
+          <imageobject>
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/currency_main3.png" format="PNG"
+                       srccredit="Geert Janssens" />
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>Price Editor window</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption><para> Chart of Accounts after we obtain online quotes.
+          </para></caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+    </sect2>
+    <sect2 id="currency_howto_disable">
+      <title>Disabling Exchange Rate Retrieval</title>
+      <para>Whenever you create an account that uses a non-default currency,
+      exchange rate retrieval will be automatically enabled for that currency.
+      However, if you later delete that account, <application>&app;</application> will not automatically
+      disable exchange rate retrieval for that currency.</para>
+      <para>If you have deleted the last account for a particular currency, and
+      you do not wish to retrieve exchange rates for that currency anymore, do
+      the following:</para>
+      <itemizedlist>
+        <listitem>
+          <para>Open the Securities window by selecting
+          <menuchoice><guimenu>Tools</guimenu><guimenuitem>Security
+          Editor</guimenuitem></menuchoice>.</para>
+        </listitem>
+        <listitem>
+          <para>Make sure the <guilabel>Show National Currencies</guilabel> box
+          is selected.</para>
+        </listitem>
+        <listitem>
+          <para>Expand the CURRENCY row.</para>
+        </listitem>
+        <listitem>
+          <para>Double click on the currency for which you want to disable
+          exchange rate retrieval.</para>
+        </listitem>
+        <listitem>
+          <para>Deselect the <guilabel>Get Online Quotes</guilabel> box and
+          click <guibutton>OK</guibutton>.</para>
+        </listitem>
+      </itemizedlist>
+    </sect2>
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="currency_purchase1">
+    <title>Recording Purchases in a Foreign Currency</title>
+
+    <para>Purchases in a foreign currency can be managed in two different ways.</para>
+
+    <para>1) Use <application>&app;</application>'s built-in currency exchange functions when you
+    do your transactions. This is mainly used for one-time transactions, and
+    nothing which happens regularly.</para>
+
+    <para>2) Use separate accounts to track transactions, where all involved
+    accounts use the same currency. This is the recommended method, since it
+    allows much better tracking and follow up. In this way, you do one
+    currency exchange transaction, and after that you do normal
+    transactions in the native currency.</para>
+
+    <para>The rest of this section will explain more based upon option 2).</para>
+
+    <sect2 id="currency_purchase2">
+      <title>Purchase of an Asset with Foreign Currency</title>
+
+      <para>You are using USD as your default currency. But, you decide to purchase a
+      boat in Jamaica. To do this, you opened a bank account in Jamaica, moved some
+      money from the US, and then purchased your boat.</para>
+
+      <para>To record this in <application>&app;</application> we use the following basic account
+      structure:</para>
+
+      <literallayout>
+-Assets (USD)
+   -Current Assets (USD)
+      -US Bank (USD)
+      -Jamaican Bank (JMD)
+   -Fixed Assets (USD)
+      -Boat (JMD)
+-Equity (USD)
+   -Opening Balances (USD)
+      -USD (USD)
+
+Note: the currency of each account is shown in parenthesis.
+ </literallayout>
+
+      <para>First you need to transfer some money ($10,000) to Jamaica, and
+      you use your US bank account (with a balance of $100,000) for
+      that. The bank gives you an exchange rate of USD 1 = JMD 64, but charges
+      you USD 150 to transfer the money.</para>
+
+      <screenshot id="currency_purchase_MoveMoney.png">
+        <mediaobject>
+          <imageobject>
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/currency_purchase_MoveMoney.png"
+                       format="PNG" srccredit="Bengt Thuree" />
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>Currency transfer</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption><para>Transfer money to Jamaica</para></caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+
+      <para>Select the Jamaica transaction line ($9,850.00), right click and
+      select <guilabel>Edit Exchange Rate</guilabel></para>
+
+      <screenshot id="currency_purchase_SetExchangeRate.png">
+        <mediaobject>
+          <imageobject>
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/currency_purchase_SetExchangeRate.png"
+                       format="PNG" srccredit="Bengt Thuree" />
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>Edit Exchange rate</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption><para>A dialog window where the exchange rate in a currency
+          transaction is specified</para></caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+
+      <para>As Exchange Rate, you enter 1 USD = 64 JMD, since this is the rate
+      your bank gave. Press ok in the Transfer Funds (Edit Exchange Rate)
+      window, and then save this split transaction. Below is how it now looks
+      in the main Chart of Accounts.</para>
+
+      <screenshot id="currency_purchase_BeforeBoat.png">
+        <mediaobject>
+          <imageobject>
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/currency_purchase_BeforeBoat.png"
+                       format="PNG" srccredit="Bengt Thuree" />
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>Chart of Accounts before purchasing the boat</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption><para>Chart of Accounts before purchasing the
+          boat</para></caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+
+      <para>You choose to buy a boat for JMD 509,000. To record this transaction 
+      in <application>&app;</application>, you will need to enter a simple 
+      transaction in <emphasis>Assets:Current Assets:Jamaican Bank</emphasis>
+      withdrawing JMD 509,000 and transferring it to <emphasis>Assets:Fixed Assets:Boat</emphasis></para>
+
+      <screenshot id="currency_purchase_AfterBoat.png">
+        <mediaobject>
+          <imageobject>
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/currency_purchase_AfterBoat.png"
+                       format="PNG" srccredit="Bengt Thuree" />
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>Chart of Accounts after purchasing the boat</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption><para>Chart of Accounts after purchasing the
+          boat</para></caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+      <para>The Chart of Accounts now reflects that your bank account has been
+      reduced by JMD 509,000, and that your Fixed Assets boat account has been 
+      increased by the same amount. If you also have turned
+      on the CoA (Column Choice) "Total (USD)" you will see the corresponding
+      value in USD. The USD value will always reflect the latest currency exchange
+      rate you have either automatically or manually retrieved.</para>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="currency_purchase3">
+      <title>Purchasing Foreign Stocks</title>
+
+      <para>This example will show how to purchase stocks that are priced in a
+      currency other than your primary currency.</para>
+
+      <para>Assume that you live in New York and therefore you have set the
+      default currency to USD. You decide to purchase a stock traded in Hong
+      Kong that is priced in HKD. You would also like to be able to track the
+      various income and expense amounts per stock and broker.</para>
+
+      <para>You decide to purchase stock in the Beijing Airport (Hong Kong). 
+      The ticker for this stock is 0694.HK on Yahoo! Since you wanted to 
+      track all various income and expense amounts, here is the necessary
+      account structure:</para>
+
+      <literallayout>
+Assets:Investments:Brokerage Accounts:Boom:0694.HK (0694.HK)
+Assets:Investments:Brokerage Accounts:Boom:Bank (HKD)
+Equity:Opening Balances:HKD (HKD)
+Expenses:Commissions:Boom.0694.HK (HKD)
+Income:Investments:Dividend:Boom:0694.HK (HKD)
+      </literallayout>
+
+      <para>The Chart of Accounts looks like this after creating all the
+      needed accounts:</para>
+
+      <screenshot id="currency_purchase_BeforeStocks.png">
+        <mediaobject>
+          <imageobject>
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/currency_purchase_BeforeStocks.png"
+                       format="PNG" srccredit="Bengt Thuree" />
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>Chart of Accounts for international stocks</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption><para>Chart of Accounts for international
+          stocks</para></caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+
+      <para>The stock definition can be seen in the Security Editor.
+      (<menuchoice><guimenu>Tools</guimenu><guimenu>Security Editor</guimenu></menuchoice>)
+      </para>
+
+      <screenshot id="currency_purchase_Commodities.png">
+        <mediaobject>
+          <imageobject>
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/currency_purchase_Commodities.png"
+                       format="PNG" srccredit="Bengt Thuree" />
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>International securities</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption><para>International securities</para></caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+
+      <para>If you have not moved money (HKD 50,000) into the brokerage
+      cash account (<emphasis>Assets:Investments:Brokerage Account:Boom:Bank</emphasis>), do so
+      now, either using the Equity (HKD) account, or an existing bank account
+      (Currency Transfer).</para>
+
+      <para>There are two ways to enter the actual purchase transaction: you can
+      enter it from the cash account (shown below), or you can enter it 
+      from the stock account. <emphasis>If entered from the stock account, the stock is 
+      assumed to be priced in the currency of the parent account</emphasis>.</para> 
+
+      <para>Let’s assume that the stock price is HKD 3 per share. To record the
+      purchase, open the brokerage’s HKD cash account
+      (<emphasis>Assets:Investments:Brokerage Account:Boom:Bank</emphasis>), and enter
+      the following:</para>
+<bridgehead renderas='sect4'>Buy Stocks</bridgehead>
+<informaltable frame='none' colsep='0' rowsep='0'>
+      <tgroup cols='3'>
+	<colspec colwidth='3*' align='left'/>
+	<colspec colwidth='1*' align='left'/>
+	<colspec colwidth='1*' align='right'/>
+	<tbody>
+	<row><entry>Assets:Investments:Brokerage Account:Boom:Bank</entry><entry>Withdrawal</entry><entry>50,000</entry></row>
+	<row><entry>Expenses:Investments:Commission:Boom_HKD</entry><entry>Deposit</entry><entry>500</entry></row>
+	<row><entry>Assets:Investments:Brokerage
+	Account:Boom:0694</entry><entry>Deposit</entry><entry>49,500
+	(16,500 shares)</entry></row>
+	</tbody>
+      </tgroup>
+</informaltable>
+
+      <para>If the exchange rate dialog box does not appear automatically,
+      right-click on the stock row, and select <guilabel>Edit
+      Exchange Rate</guilabel>. Enter the number of shares (16,500) as the
+      <guilabel>To Amount</guilabel>.
+      </para>
+
+      <screenshot id="currency_purchase_ToAmount.png">
+        <mediaobject>
+          <imageobject>
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/currency_purchase_ToAmount.png"
+                       format="PNG" srccredit="Bengt Thuree" />
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>Transfer Funds</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption><para>Setting the number of shares in the Transfer Funds dialog</para></caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+
+      <para>When you return to the Chart of Accounts, you will see the
+      purchased shares reflected in the stock account’s total.</para>
+
+      <screenshot id="currency_purchase_AfterStocks.png">
+        <mediaobject>
+          <imageobject>
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/currency_purchase_AfterStocks.png"
+                       format="PNG" srccredit="Bengt Thuree" />
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>Purchased international stocks</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+          <caption><para>
+            Chart of Accounts with some international stocks
+          </para></caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+
+      <para>However, as you can see, the USD totals may be zero if
+      <application>&app;</application> doesn’t have an exchange rate between USD and HKD.
+      To fix this, go to <menuchoice><guimenu>Tools</guimenu><guimenuitem>Price
+      Editor</guimenuitem></menuchoice>
+      and click the <guibutton>Get Quotes</guibutton> button to
+      automatically retrieve the exchange rates you need.</para>
+
+      <note>
+        <para>To reiterate, this example shows how stock can be purchased in any currency
+         by entering the transaction in the register of the cash account used
+         to make payment. It is also possible to enter the purchase
+         in the stock account’s register, but be aware that the stock is 
+         assumed to be priced in the currency of the stock account’s parent.</para>
+        <para>In this example, the stock account’s parent
+         (<emphasis>Assets:Investments:Brokerage Account:Boom</emphasis>) is denominated in HKD.
+         Since this is same currency as the stock price, the purchase
+         can be safely entered in the stock account’s register.</para>
+      </note>
+
+    </sect2>
+
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="currency_invest1">
+    <title>Tracking Currency Investments</title>
+
+    <para>Currency investment is when you decide to invest in a different
+    country's currency, and hope that it will rise in value
+    relative your own currency.</para>
+
+    <para>When you enter these transactions into <application>&app;</application>, you will have to
+    decide on how much detail you would like to have.</para>
+
+    <para>If you are not interested in detail at all, a very simple account
+    structure would suffice:</para>
+
+    <literallayout>
+    Assets:Investments:Currency:Bank (USD)
+    Assets:Investments:Currency:XXX (XXX)
+    </literallayout>
+
+    <para>You would simply enter transfers between the two accounts, noting 
+    exchange rates as you went.</para>
+    
+    <para>But, if you do want to be able to track capital gains or losses,
+    as well as any fees, you do need a more complex account structure, such as:</para>
+
+    <literallayout>
+    Assets:Investments:Currency:Bank (USD)
+    Assets:Investments:Currency:Currency Bank:XXX (XXX)
+    Expenses:Investments:Currency:Currency Bank:XXX (XXX)
+    Income:Investments:Currency Bank:Capital Gains:XXX (XXX)
+    </literallayout>
+
+    <sect2 id="currency_invest12">
+      <title>Purchasing Currency</title>
+
+      <para>When purchasing another currency, you will buy a certain number of 
+      units of foreign currency with your own currency, at a particular rate.
+      For example, you might buy USD 10,000 worth of Andorran Francs, at 5 Francs
+      to the dollar, with a transaction fee of $150.</para>
+      
+      <bridgehead renderas='sect4'>Buy Currency</bridgehead>
+      <informaltable frame='none' colsep='0' rowsep='0'>
+      <tgroup cols='3'>
+	<colspec colwidth='5*' align='left'/>
+	<colspec colwidth='2*' align='left'/>
+	<colspec colwidth='1*' align='right'/>
+	<tbody>
+	  <row><entry>Assets:Investments:Currency:Bank</entry><entry>Withdrawal</entry><entry>10,000</entry></row>
+	  <row><entry>Expenses:Investments:Currency:Currency Bank:ADF</entry><entry>Deposit</entry><entry>150</entry></row>
+	  <row><entry>Assets:Investments:Currency:ADF</entry><entry>Deposit</entry><entry>49,250</entry></row>
+	</tbody>
+      </tgroup>
+      </informaltable>
+
+    <para>The Exchange Rate window should pop up when you
+      leave the last row in the split above (Currency Transaction). If this
+      window does not pop up, right click on the row or select 
+      <guimenu>Actions</guimenu>, and select <guilabel>Edit
+      Exchange Rate</guilabel>. In the Exchange Rate window you specify the
+      exchange rate you got from the bank.</para>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="currency_invest13">
+      <title>Selling a currency investment</title>
+
+      <para>Entering a currency sale is done in the same way as
+      a currency buy except that you are now transferring money from the Currency
+      account to your Savings account (very similar to <xref
+      linkend="invest-sell1" />).</para>
+
+      <para>The proper recording of the currency sale *must* account for realized
+      gains or losses. This can be done using a
+      split transaction. In the split transaction, you must account for the
+      profit (or loss) as coming from an <emphasis>Income:Capital Gains</emphasis> account (or
+      <emphasis>Expenses:Capital Loss</emphasis>). To balance this income, you will need to enter
+      the Currency asset twice in the split—once to record the actual sale
+      (using the correct amount and correct exchange rate), and once to balance
+      the income profit (setting the amount to 0).</para>
+
+      <para>In short, a selling Currency transaction should look something
+      like below, seen again from the <emphasis>Assets:Investments:Currency:Bank</emphasis>.</para>
+
+      <table>
+        <title>Selling a currency with a Split Transaction Scheme</title>
+
+        <tgroup cols="3">
+	  <colspec colwidth='3*' align='left'/>
+	  <colspec colwidth='1*' align='center'/>
+	  <colspec colwidth='1*' align='center'/>
+	  <thead>
+            <row><entry>Account</entry><entry>Deposit</entry><entry>Withdrawal</entry></row>
+	  </thead>
+          <tbody>
+            <row>
+              <entry>Assets:Investments:Currency:Bank</entry> <entry>Sold Amount - Exchange Fee</entry> <entry></entry> </row> 
+            <row> <entry>Expenses:Investments:Currency:Currency Bank:XXX</entry> <entry>Exchange Fee</entry> <entry></entry> </row>
+	    <row> <entry>Assets:Investments:Currency:XXX</entry> <entry></entry> <entry>Sold Amount</entry> </row>
+	    <row> <entry>Income:Investments:Currency Bank:Capital Gains:XXX</entry> <entry>[LOSS]</entry> <entry>PROFIT</entry> </row> 
+            <row> <entry>Assets:Investments:Currency:XXX</entry> <entry>PROFIT (with To Amount = 0)</entry> <entry>[LOSS (with To Amount = 0) ]</entry> </row>
+          </tbody>
+        </tgroup>
+      </table>
+
+    </sect2>
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="currency_reconcile1">
+    <title>Reconciling Statements in a Foreign Currency</title>
+
+    <para>Reconciling foreign statement are done in the same manner as when
+    you reconcile your local bank statement. If you have created a Chart of
+    Accounts structure which allows you to have the same currency per account
+    as your statement, it is actually exactly the same as
+    reconciling your local bank statement.</para>
+
+    <para>If you have different currencies you might have to manually convert
+    the amounts from one currency to another while you reconcile the
+    accounts.</para>
+  </sect1>
+
+</chapter>
diff --git a/guide/ru/ch_dep.xml b/guide/ru/ch_dep.xml
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..7f839f8
--- /dev/null
+++ b/guide/ru/ch_dep.xml
@@ -0,0 +1,599 @@
+<!--
+      (Do not remove this comment block.)
+  Version: 2.0.0
+  Last modified: July 9th 2006
+  Maintainers:
+               Chris Lyttle <chris at wilddev.net>
+  Author:
+  		Jon Lapham <lapham at extracta.com.br>
+  	Updated	Bengt Thuree <bengt at thuree.com>
+  Originally designed by Carol Champagne.
+  Translators:
+               (translators put your name and email here)
+-->
+<chapter id="chapter_dep">
+  <title>Depreciation</title>
+
+  <para>This chapter will introduce the concept of depreciation in accounting
+  and give some real life examples for using it.</para>
+
+  <sect1 id="dep_concepts1">
+    <title>Basic Concepts</title>
+
+    <para>Depreciation is the accounting method for expensing capital
+    purchases over time. There are two reasons that you may want to record
+    depreciation; you are doing bookkeeping for your own personal finances and
+    would like to keep track of your net worth, or you are doing bookkeeping
+    for a small busines and need to produce a financial statement from which
+    you will prepare your tax return.</para>
+
+    <para>The method of recording depreciation is the same in either case. but
+    the end goal is different. This section will discuss the differences
+    between the two. But first, some terminology.</para>
+
+    <itemizedlist>
+      <listitem>
+        <para><emphasis>Accumulated depreciation</emphasis> - the accumulated
+        total of book depreciation taken over the life of the asset. This is
+        accumulated in the depreciation account in the asset section.</para>
+      </listitem>
+
+      <listitem>
+        <para><emphasis>Book depreciation</emphasis> - this is the amount of
+        depreciation that you record in your financial statements per
+        accounting period.</para>
+      </listitem>
+
+      <listitem>
+        <para><emphasis>Fair market value</emphasis> - the amount for which an
+        asset could be sold at a given time.</para>
+      </listitem>
+
+      <listitem>
+        <para><emphasis>Net book value</emphasis> - this is the difference
+        between the original cost and the depreciation taken to date.</para>
+      </listitem>
+
+      <listitem>
+        <para><emphasis>Original cost</emphasis> - this is the amount that the
+        asset cost you to purchase. It includes any cost to get the asset into
+        a condition in which you can use it. For example - shipping,
+        installation costs, special training.</para>
+      </listitem>
+
+      <listitem>
+        <para><emphasis>Salvage value</emphasis> - this is the value that you
+        estimate the asset can be sold for at the end of it’s useful life (to
+        you).</para>
+      </listitem>
+
+      <listitem>
+        <para><emphasis>Tax depreciation</emphasis> - this is the amount of
+        depreciation that you take for income tax purposes.</para>
+      </listitem>
+    </itemizedlist>
+
+    <sect2 id="dep_concepts_personal2">
+      <title>Personal Finances</title>
+
+      <para>Depreciation is used in personal finances to periodically lower an
+      asset’s value to give you an accurate estimation of your current net
+      worth. For example, if you owned a car you could keep track of its
+      current value by recording depreciation every year. To accomplish this,
+      you record the original purchase as an asset, and then record a
+      depreciation expense each year (See <xref linkend="dep_example1" /> for
+      an example). This would result in the net book value being approximately
+      equal to the fair market value of the asset at the end of the
+      year.</para>
+
+      <para>Depreciation for personal finance has no tax implications, it is
+      simply used to help you estimate your net worth. Because of this, there
+      are no rules for how you estimate depreciation, use your best
+      judgement.</para>
+
+      <para>For which assets should you estimate depreciation? Since the idea
+      of depreciation for personal finances is to give you an estimate of your
+      personal net worth, you need only track depreciation on assets of
+      notable worth that you could potentially sell, such as a car or
+      boat.</para>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="dep_concepts_business2">
+      <title>Business</title>
+
+      <para>As opposed to personal finance where the goal is tracking personal
+      worth, business is concerned with matching the expense of purchasing
+      capital assets with the revenue generated by them. This is done through
+      book depreciation. Businesses must also be concerned with local tax laws
+      covering depreciation of assets. This is known as tax depreciation. The
+      business is free to choose whatever scheme it wants to record book
+      depreciation, but the scheme used for tax depreciation is fixed. More
+      often than not this results in differences between book and tax
+      depreciation, but steps can be taken to reduce these differences.</para>
+
+      <para>Now, what purchases should be capitalized? If you expect something
+      that you purchase to help you earn income for more than just the current
+      year, then it should be capitalized. This includes things like land,
+      buildings, equipment, automobiles, and computers - as long as they are
+      used for business purposes. It does not include items that would be
+      considered inventory. So if you made a purchase with the intent to
+      resell the item, it should not be capitalized.</para>
+
+      <para>In addition to the purchase of the asset itself, any costs
+      associated with getting the asset into a condition so that you can use
+      it should be capitalized. For example, if you buy a piece of equipment
+      and it needs to be shipped from out of town, and then some electrical
+      work needs to be done so you can plug the machine in, and some
+      specialized training is needed so you know how to use the machine, all
+      these costs would be included in the cost of the equipment.</para>
+
+      <para>You also need to know the estimated salvage value of the asset.
+      Generally, this is assumed to be zero. The idea behind knowing the
+      salvage value is that the asset will be depreciated until the net book
+      value (cost less depreciation) equals the salvage value. Then, when the
+      asset is written off, you will not have a gain or loss resulting from
+      the disposal of the asset.</para>
+
+      <para>The last step is to determine the method of depreciation that you
+      want to use. This will be discussed on the next few pages.</para>
+
+      <note>
+        <para>Warning: Be aware that different countries can have
+        substantially different tax policies for depreciation; all that this
+        document can really provide is some of the underlying ideas to help
+        you apply your <quote>favorite</quote> tax/depreciation policies.</para>
+      </note>
+    </sect2>
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="dep_value1">
+    <title>Estimating Valuation</title>
+
+    <para>A central issue with depreciation is to determine how you will
+    estimate the future value of the asset. Compared to the often uncertain
+    estimates one has to do where appreciation of assets is concerned, we are
+    on somewhat firmer ground here. Using sources listed below should make it
+    fairly straight forward to estimate the future value of your depreciating
+    assets.</para>
+
+    <itemizedlist>
+      <listitem>
+        <para><emphasis>Tax Codes:</emphasis> For businesses that want to use
+        depreciation for tax purposes, governments tend to set up precise
+        rules as to how you are required to calculate depreciation. Consult
+        your local tax codes, which should explicitly state how to estimate
+        depreciation.</para>
+      </listitem>
+
+      <listitem>
+        <para><emphasis>Car Blue Book:</emphasis> For automobiles, it is easy
+        to look up in references such as <quote>Blue Books</quote> estimates of what an
+        automobile should be worth after some period of time in the future.
+        From this you will be able to develop a model of the
+        depreciation.</para>
+      </listitem>
+    </itemizedlist>
+
+    <sect2 id="dep_valueschemes2">
+      <title>Depreciation Schemes</title>
+
+      <para>A <emphasis>depreciation scheme</emphasis> is a mathematical model
+      of how an asset will be expensed over time. For every asset which
+      undergoes depreciation, you will need to decide on a depreciation
+      scheme. An important point to keep in mind is that, for tax purposes,
+      you will need to depreciate your assets at a certain rate. This is
+      called tax depreciation. For financial statement purposes you are free
+      to choose whatever method you want. This is book depreciation. Most
+      small businesses use the same rate for tax and book depreciation. This
+      way there is less of a difference between your net income on the
+      financial statements and your taxable income.</para>
+
+      <para>This section will present 3 of the more popular depreciation
+      schemes: <emphasis>linear</emphasis>, <emphasis>geometric</emphasis>,
+      and <emphasis>sum of digits</emphasis>. To simplify the examples, we
+      will assume the salvage value of the asset being depreciated is zero. If
+      you choose to use a salvage value, you would stop depreciating the asset
+      once the net book value equals the salvage value.</para>
+
+      <orderedlist>
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>Linear depreciation</emphasis> diminishes the value
+          of an asset by a fixed amount each period until the net value is
+          zero. This is the simplest calculation, as you estimate a useful
+          lifetime, and simply divide the cost equally across that
+          lifetime.</para>
+
+          <para>Example: You have bought a computer for $1500 and wish to
+          depreciate it over a period of 5 years. Each year the amount of
+          depreciation is $300, leading to the following calculations:</para>
+
+          <para><table>
+              <title>Linear Depreciation Scheme Example</title>
+
+              <tgroup cols="3">
+                <tbody>
+                  <row>
+                    <entry><emphasis>Year</emphasis></entry>
+
+                    <entry><emphasis>Depreciation</emphasis></entry>
+
+                    <entry><emphasis>Remaining Value</emphasis></entry>
+                  </row>
+
+                  <row>
+                    <entry>0</entry>
+
+                    <entry>-</entry>
+
+                    <entry>1500</entry>
+                  </row>
+
+                  <row>
+                    <entry>1</entry>
+
+                    <entry>300</entry>
+
+                    <entry>1200</entry>
+                  </row>
+
+                  <row>
+                    <entry>2</entry>
+
+                    <entry>300</entry>
+
+                    <entry>900</entry>
+                  </row>
+
+                  <row>
+                    <entry>3</entry>
+
+                    <entry>300</entry>
+
+                    <entry>600</entry>
+                  </row>
+
+                  <row>
+                    <entry>4</entry>
+
+                    <entry>300</entry>
+
+                    <entry>300</entry>
+                  </row>
+
+                  <row>
+                    <entry>5</entry>
+
+                    <entry>300</entry>
+
+                    <entry>0</entry>
+                  </row>
+                </tbody>
+              </tgroup>
+            </table></para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>Geometric depreciation</emphasis> is depreciated by
+          a fixed percentage of the asset value in the previous period. This
+          is a front-weighted depreciation scheme, more depreciation being
+          applied early in the period. In this scheme the value of an asset
+          decreases exponentially leaving a value at the end that is larger
+          than zero (i.e.: a resale value).</para>
+
+          <para>Example: We take the same example as above, with an annual
+          depreciation of 30%.</para>
+
+          <para><table>
+              <title>Geometric Depreciation Scheme Example</title>
+
+              <tgroup cols="3">
+                <tbody>
+                  <row>
+                    <entry><emphasis>Year</emphasis></entry>
+
+                    <entry><emphasis>Depreciation</emphasis></entry>
+
+                    <entry><emphasis>Remaining Value</emphasis></entry>
+                  </row>
+
+                  <row>
+                    <entry>0</entry>
+
+                    <entry>-</entry>
+
+                    <entry>1500</entry>
+                  </row>
+
+                  <row>
+                    <entry>1</entry>
+
+                    <entry>450</entry>
+
+                    <entry>1050</entry>
+                  </row>
+
+                  <row>
+                    <entry>2</entry>
+
+                    <entry>315</entry>
+
+                    <entry>735</entry>
+                  </row>
+
+                  <row>
+                    <entry>3</entry>
+
+                    <entry>220.50</entry>
+
+                    <entry>514.50</entry>
+                  </row>
+
+                  <row>
+                    <entry>4</entry>
+
+                    <entry>154.35</entry>
+
+                    <entry>360.15</entry>
+                  </row>
+
+                  <row>
+                    <entry>5</entry>
+
+                    <entry>108.05</entry>
+
+                    <entry>252.10</entry>
+                  </row>
+                </tbody>
+              </tgroup>
+            </table></para>
+
+          <note>
+            <para>Beware: Tax authorities may require (or allow) a larger
+            percentage in the first period. On the other hand, in Canada, this
+            is reversed, as they permit only a half share of <quote>Capital Cost
+            Allowance</quote> in the first year. The result of this approach is that
+            asset value decreases more rapidly at the beginning than at the
+            end which is probably more realistic for most assets than a linear
+            scheme. This is certainly true for automobiles.</para>
+          </note>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>Sum of digits</emphasis> is a front-weighted
+          depreciation scheme similar to the geometric depreciation, except
+          that the value of the asset reaches zero at the end of the period.
+          This is a front-weighted depreciation scheme, more depreciation
+          being applied early in the period. This method is most often
+          employed in Anglo/Saxon countries. Here is an illustration:</para>
+
+          <para>Example: First you divide the asset value by the sum of the
+          years of use, e.g. for our example from above with an asset worth
+          $1500 that is used over a period of five years you get
+          1500/(1+2+3+4+5)=100. Depreciation and asset value are then
+          calculated as follows:</para>
+
+          <para><table>
+              <title>Sum of Digits Depreciation Scheme Example</title>
+
+              <tgroup cols="3">
+                <tbody>
+                  <row>
+                    <entry><emphasis>Year</emphasis></entry>
+
+                    <entry><emphasis>Depreciation</emphasis></entry>
+
+                    <entry><emphasis>Remaining Value</emphasis></entry>
+                  </row>
+
+                  <row>
+                    <entry>0</entry>
+
+                    <entry>-</entry>
+
+                    <entry>1500</entry>
+                  </row>
+
+                  <row>
+                    <entry>1</entry>
+
+                    <entry>100*5=500</entry>
+
+                    <entry>1000</entry>
+                  </row>
+
+                  <row>
+                    <entry>2</entry>
+
+                    <entry>100*4=400</entry>
+
+                    <entry>600</entry>
+                  </row>
+
+                  <row>
+                    <entry>3</entry>
+
+                    <entry>100*3=300</entry>
+
+                    <entry>300</entry>
+                  </row>
+
+                  <row>
+                    <entry>4</entry>
+
+                    <entry>100*2=200</entry>
+
+                    <entry>100</entry>
+                  </row>
+
+                  <row>
+                    <entry>5</entry>
+
+                    <entry>100*1=100</entry>
+
+                    <entry>0</entry>
+                  </row>
+                </tbody>
+              </tgroup>
+            </table></para>
+        </listitem>
+      </orderedlist>
+    </sect2>
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="dep_accounts1">
+    <title>Account Setup</title>
+
+    <para>As with most accounting practices, there are a number of different
+    ways to setup depreciation accounts. We will present here a general method
+    which should be flexible enough to handle most situations. The first
+    account you will need is an <emphasis>Asset Cost</emphasis> account
+    (<application>&app;</application> account type <guilabel>Asset</guilabel>), which is simply a place where you record
+    the original purchase of the asset. Usually this purchase is accomplished
+    by a transaction from your bank account.</para>
+
+    <para>In order to keep track of the depreciation of the asset, you will
+    need two depreciation accounts. The first is an <emphasis>Accumulated
+    Depreciation</emphasis> account in which to collect the sum of all of the
+    depreciation amounts, and will contain negative values. In <application>&app;</application>, this
+    is an account type <emphasis>asset</emphasis>. The <emphasis>Accumulated Depreciation</emphasis>
+    account is balanced by a <emphasis>Depreciation Expense</emphasis> account,
+    in which all periodic depreciation expenses
+    are recorded. In <application>&app;</application>, this is an account type
+    <emphasis>expense</emphasis>.</para>
+
+    <para>Below is a generic account hierarchy for tracking the depreciation
+    of 2 assets, <emphasis>ITEM1</emphasis> and <emphasis>ITEM2</emphasis>. The <emphasis>Asset Cost</emphasis> accounts are balanced by
+    the <emphasis>Bank</emphasis> account, the <emphasis>Accumulated Depreciation</emphasis> account is balanced by
+    the <emphasis>Expenses:Depreciation</emphasis> account.</para>
+
+    <literallayout>
+-Assets
+   -Fixed Assets
+      -ITEM1
+         -Cost                (Asset Cost account)
+         -Depreciation     (Accumulated Depreciation account)
+      -ITEM2
+         -Cost                (Asset Cost account)
+         -Depreciation     (Accumulated Depreciation account)
+   -Current Assets
+      -Bank
+-Expense
+   -Depreciation        (Depreciation Expense account)
+  </literallayout>
+
+    <para>One of the features of the account hierarchy shown above is that you
+    can readily see some important summary values about your depreciating
+    asset. The <emphasis>Assets:Fixed Assets:ITEM1</emphasis> account total shows you the current
+    estimated value for item1, the <emphasis>Assets:Fixed Assets:ITEM1:Cost</emphasis> shows you
+    what you originally paid for item1, <emphasis>Assets:Fixed Assets:ITEM1:Depreciation</emphasis>
+    shows you your accrued depreciation for item1,
+    and finally, <emphasis>Expenses:Depreciation</emphasis> demonstrates the total accrued
+    depreciation of all your assets.</para>
+
+    <para>It is certainly possible to use a different account hierarchy. One
+    popular account setup is to combine the <emphasis>Asset Cost</emphasis>
+    and <emphasis>Accrued Depreciation</emphasis> asset accounts. This has the
+    advantage of having fewer accounts cluttering your account hierarchy, but
+    with the disadvantage that to determine some of the summary details
+    mentioned in the paragraph above you will have to open the account
+    register windows. As with most things, there are many ways to do it, find
+    a way that works best for you.</para>
+
+    <para>The actual input of the depreciation amounts is done by hand every
+    accounting period. There is no way in <application>&app;</application> (as of yet) to perform the
+    depreciation scheme calculations automatically, or to input the values
+    automatically into the appropriate accounts. However, since an accounting
+    period is typically one year, this really is not much work to do by
+    hand.</para>
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="dep_example1">
+    <title>Example</title>
+
+    <para>Let’s go ahead and step through an example. Imagine you are a
+    photographer and you use a car and an expensive camera for your personal
+    business. You will want to track the depreciation on these items, because
+    you can probably deduct the depreciation from your business taxes.</para>
+
+    <para>The first step is to build the account hierarchy (as shown in the
+    previous section, replace <emphasis>ITEM1</emphasis> and <emphasis>ITEM2</emphasis> with <quote>car</quote> and <quote>camera</quote>). Now,
+    record the purchase of your assets by transferring the money from your
+    bank account to the appropriate <emphasis>Asset Cost</emphasis> accounts
+    for each item (eg: the <emphasis>Assets:Fixed Assets:Car:Cost</emphasis> account for the
+    car). In this example, you start with $30k in the bank, the car cost $20k
+    and the camera cost $10k and were both purchased on January 1,
+    2000.</para>
+
+    <screenshot id="dep_example">
+      <mediaobject>
+        <imageobject>
+          <imagedata fileref="figures/dep_example.png" format="PNG"
+                     srccredit="Bengt Thuree" />
+        </imageobject>
+
+        <textobject>
+          <phrase>Asset Depreciation Example1</phrase>
+        </textobject>
+
+        <caption><para>The asset depreciation example main window, before
+        depreciation </para></caption>
+      </mediaobject>
+    </screenshot>
+
+    <para>Looking at the tax codes, we realize that we must report
+    depreciation on these items using the <quote>sum of digits</quote> scheme, over a 5
+    year period. So, the yearly depreciation amounts for the car come to
+    $6667, $5333, $4000, $2667, $1333 for years 1 to 5 respectively, rounded
+    to the nearest dollar. The yearly depreciation amounts for the camera are
+    $3333, $2667, $2000, $1333, $667. Consult the previous section on
+    Depreciation Schemes for the formula for calculating these values.</para>
+
+    <para>For each accounting period (IE: fiscal year) you record the
+    depreciation as an expense in the appropriate <emphasis>Accrued
+    Depreciation</emphasis> account (eg: the <emphasis>Assets:Fixed Assets:Car:Depreciation</emphasis>
+    account for the car). The two windows below show
+    your car’s accrued depreciation account and the main window after the
+    third year (IE: three periods) of depreciation using this <guilabel>sum of digits</guilabel>
+    scheme.</para>
+
+    <screenshot id="dep_assetreg">
+      <mediaobject>
+        <imageobject>
+          <imagedata fileref="figures/dep_assetreg.png" format="PNG"
+                     srccredit="Bengt Thuree" />
+        </imageobject>
+
+        <textobject>
+          <phrase>Asset Depreciation Register Window</phrase>
+        </textobject>
+
+        <caption><para>The asset depreciation register window
+        </para></caption>
+      </mediaobject>
+    </screenshot>
+
+    <screenshot id="dep_assetmain">
+      <mediaobject>
+        <imageobject>
+          <imagedata fileref="figures/dep_assetmain.png" format="PNG"
+                     srccredit="Bengt Thuree" />
+        </imageobject>
+
+        <textobject>
+          <phrase>Asset Depreciation Main Window</phrase>
+        </textobject>
+
+        <caption><para>The asset depreciation main window </para></caption>
+      </mediaobject>
+    </screenshot>
+
+    <note>
+      <para>A Word of Caution: Since depreciation and tax issues are closely
+      related, you may not always be free in choosing your preferred method.
+      Fixing wrong calculations will cost a whole lot more time and trouble
+      than getting the calculations right the first time, so if you plan to
+      depreciate assets, it is wise to make sure of the schemes you will be
+      permitted or required to use.</para>
+    </note>
+  </sect1>
+</chapter>
diff --git a/guide/ru/ch_expenses.xml b/guide/ru/ch_expenses.xml
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..98559f7
--- /dev/null
+++ b/guide/ru/ch_expenses.xml
@@ -0,0 +1,86 @@
+<!--
+      (Do not remove this comment block.)
+  Version: 2.6.0
+  Last modified: September 12th 2016
+       modified: September 12th 2016
+  Maintainers:
+               Alex Aycinena <alex.aycinena at gmail.com>
+               Chris Lyttle <chris at wilddev.net>
+  Author:
+  		Jon Lapham <lapham at extracta.com.br>
+   	Updated	Bengt Thuree <bengt at thuree.com>
+ Originally written by Carol Champagne.
+  Translators:
+               (translators put your name and email here)
+-->
+<chapter id="chapter_expenses">
+  <title>Expense Accounts</title>
+
+  <para>If managing your checkbook is the first step in tracking your finances, then using expense accounts
+  to see where you are expending money is a close second step. This chapter will give you an understanding of
+  how <application>&app;</application> uses expense accounts to help you keep track of many different
+  categories of transactions.</para>
+
+  <sect1 id="expenses-concepts">
+    <title>Concepts</title>
+    <para>An expense type account is used to allow you to track how much you spend on specific
+    expenses. Technically, expense accounts are not a part of traditional accounting,
+    but have become common with the increased capabilities of computer-based accounting systems.
+    Many people's first experience with tracking expenses comes from Quicken(tm), where
+    transactions can be assigned to one or more categories. In <application>&app;</application>, these categories
+    are set up as separate accounts, which are designated as Expense type accounts.
+    This allows <application>&app;</application> to apply the rules of double-entry accounting consistently.
+    Expense accounts can be as detailed or as general as you need. Some users need only a few accounts for
+    personal expense tracking. Others use <application>&app;</application> expense accounts to manage their expenses
+    in great detail. The level of detail you choose is up to you. Keep in mind that with <application>&app;</application>,
+    you can change accounts for transactions, so if your needs change later on, it is possible to move
+    transactions around.</para>
+    </sect1>
+  <sect1 id="expenses-setup">
+    <title>Setting Up Accounts</title>
+    <sect2 id="expenses-su-simple">
+      <title>Simple Expense Account Setup</title>
+      <para>For many users, the easiest way to set up expense accounts is to check the "Common Accounts"
+      when you create a new Account Hierarchy. This will establish many of the most common expense accounts
+      that users need. See "New Account Hierarchy Setup" in Chapter 3 of the Help guide for more information.</para>
+      </sect2>
+    <sect2 id="expenses-su-complex">
+      <title>Complex Expense Account Setup</title>
+      <para>If you have different expense accounting needs, you can refer to <xref linkend="chapter_txns"></xref>,
+      or Chapter 5.4 in the Help manual for instructions on how to create accounts.</para>
+      <para>Typical reasons for adding new or different expense accounts include: to track
+      expenses for particular business purposes (e.g., specific types of supply expenses),
+      to track expenses for particular tax purposes (e.g., tax expenses that must be reported
+      to others), or simply to track expenses that are meaningful to you (e.g., payments made
+      to a particular charity).</para>
+      </sect2>
+  </sect1>
+  <sect1 id="expenses-entering">
+    <title>Entering Expense Transactions</title>
+    <para>While it is possible to enter transactions directly into expense accounts, it is
+    not normally how these are entered. For most people, transactions for an expense account
+    are added when the user is entering data into the other account in the transaction.
+    In other words, if you have an expense account for Charitable Donations (e.g., Expenses:Charity),
+    you will typically add a transaction to the expense account by assigning a check in your
+    checking account register to the Charity account.</para>
+    <para>If you open an expense account, you will see a register similar to most others you find
+    in <application>&app;</application>. The informal column headings for the transaction amounts
+    are slightly different, however. The left (debit) column will read <emphasis>Tot Expense</emphasis>, while
+    the right (credit) column will read <emphasis>Tot Rebate</emphasis>.</para>
+  </sect1>
+  <sect1 id="expenses-other">
+    <title>Other Considerations for Expense Accounts</title>
+    <para>Because expense accounts are generated entirely by you, there are no statements against
+    which you would reconcile your data. Therefore, there is technically nothing to reconcile. You
+    can, of course use the reconcile process for expense accounts, which will lock the transactions
+    for future editing.</para>
+    <para>One point to consider is that as your use of <application>&app;</application> continues, the
+    balances in these accounts will grow, since there are usually very few credit transactions that
+    reduce the balances. There is nothing wrong with this situation, but some users may wish to clear
+    the balances in their expense accounts periodically. Zeroing transactions can be entered that
+    transfer the balance of the account to an Equity account. <application>&app;</application> includes
+    a Closing Books procedure that includes zeroing out expense accounts. Keep in mind that this is
+    not necessary, and that if you need to gather information on a given expense account, you can
+    use various reports to extract that data without zeroing the account out.</para>
+  </sect1>
+</chapter>
\ No newline at end of file
diff --git a/guide/ru/ch_import_business_data.xml b/guide/ru/ch_import_business_data.xml
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..55ce87e
--- /dev/null
+++ b/guide/ru/ch_import_business_data.xml
@@ -0,0 +1,347 @@
+<!-- (Do not remove this comment block.)
+
+Version: 2.4.0
+Last modified: 2013-11-21
+
+Maintainers:
+
+Author:
+  Mike Evans <mikee at saxicola.co.uk>
+
+    Translators:
+    (translators put your name and email here)
+-->
+
+<chapter id="ch_import_bus_data">
+  <title>Importing Business Data</title>
+
+
+  <sect1 id="import-invoices">
+    <title>Import Bills or Invoices</title>
+    <para>This functionality is only available by default for versions greater than 2.6</para>
+   <para>For 2.4.13 the Customers and Vendors importer is an optional module and needs to enabled by editing the file <filename>$HOME/.gnucash/config.user</filename>,
+    adding the line:</para>
+    <para><code>(gnc:module-load "gnucash/plugins/bi_import" 0)</code></para>
+    <para>On Linux systems this file is found at <filename>$HOME/.gnucash/config.user</filename>
+      and on Mac OSX it is <filename>~/Library/Application Support/Gnucash/config.user</filename>.
+      If the file doesn’t already exist you will have to create it.
+      After restarting <application>&app;</application>, the item will appear at the bottom
+    of the business menu.</para>
+
+
+    <para>In order for the importer to work the data must be in a fixed field
+      length, comma separated line format. A example <application>Python</application> script to convert
+      a downloaded order is shown below.
+    </para>
+
+    <para>
+      <programlisting language="python" linenumbering="unnumbered">
+import sys
+import csv
+
+VENDOR_ID="000013"
+INFILE=sys.argv[1]
+INV_ID=sys.argv[2]
+try:
+  ACCOUNT=sys.argv[3]
+except:
+  ACCOUNT="Expenses:Materials General"
+
+Reader = csv.reader(open(INFILE), delimiter=',')
+
+# Need to ignore 1st and last rows
+
+for row in Reader:
+  if row[0].isdigit(): # We only use numbered lines
+    outline=(INV_ID + ",," + VENDOR_ID + ",,,," + row[1] + " > " + row[4] + ",ea," +
+      ACCOUNT + "," + row[2] + "," + row[5].replace("GBP", "") + ",,,,no,,,,,,,")
+  print outline
+      </programlisting>
+    </para>
+
+    <para>Example of a downloaded vendor order from <emphasis>Rapid Electronics</emphasis> (UK).
+      <programlisting language="python" linenumbering="unnumbered">
+line number,product code,quantity,availability,product description,unit price,discounts,line total,delivery,sub total,vat,grand total
+1,47-3524,100,100 Available,BC848C SOT-23 NPN TRANSISTOR (INF) (RC),GBP0.03,GBP0.00,GBP0.03
+2,47-3278,30,30 Available,L78L05ACZ 0.1A +5V VOLTAGE REG (ST) (RC),GBP0.18,GBP0.00,GBP0.18
+3,22-0120,1,1 Available,Tube 34 14pin DIL socket, narrow7.62mm, without central support,GBP1.05,GBP0.00,GBP1.05
+4,22-0127,1,0 Available<br />1 on Back Order,Tube 17 28pin DIL socket, wide15.24mm, without central support,GBP1.22,GBP0.00,GBP1.22
+5,62-0368,1,1 Available,820R CR25 0.25W CF Resistor Pk 100,GBP0.50,GBP0.00,GBP0.50
+6,47-3130,100,100 Available,1N4001 1A 50V SILICON RECTIFIER DIODE RC,GBP0.01,GBP0.00,GBP0.01
+7,17-0310,1,1 Available,PROFESSIONAL MINATURE PROBE HOOK RED RC,GBP0.90,GBP0.00,GBP0.90
+8,17-0312,1,1 Available,PROFESSIONAL MINATURE PROBE HOOK BLACKRC,GBP0.90,GBP0.00,GBP0.90
+9,34-0655,1,1 Available,PROTOBLOC 2 BREADBOARD,GBP4.39,GBP0.00,GBP4.39
+10,18-0200,1,1 Available,PP3 9V ALKALINE BATTERY "Not For Retail Sale",GBP1.37,GBP0.00,GBP1.37
+,,,,,,,,GBP4.95,GBP24.93,GBP4.35,GBP29.28
+      </programlisting>
+    </para>
+
+    <para>A similar file after processing with the <application>Python</application> script.</para>
+
+    <para>
+        <programlisting language="python">
+MEC-0071,,000013,,,,34-0655 > PROTOBLOC 2 BREADBOARD,ea,Expenses:Materials General,1,4.39,,,,no,,,,,,,
+MEC-0071,,000013,,,,18-0105 > PP3 / PP6 BATTERY CLIP 150MM (RC),ea,Expenses:Materials General,10,0.06,,,,no,,,,,,,
+MEC-0071,,000013,,,,62-0370 > 1k CR25 0.25W CF Resistor Pk 100,ea,Expenses:Materials General,1,0.50,,,,no,,,,,,,
+MEC-0071,,000013,,,,62-0354 > 220R CR25 0.25W CF Resistor Pk 100,ea,Expenses:Materials General,1,0.50,,,,no,,,,,,,
+MEC-0071,,000013,,,,34-5548 > PLAIN DOCUMENT WALLET ASSORTED PK 50 RE,ea,Expenses:Materials General,1,6.95,,,,no,,,,,,,
+MEC-0071,,000013,,,,62-0386 > 4k7 CR25 0.25W CF Resistor Pk 100,ea,Expenses:Materials General,1,0.50,,,,no,,,,,,,
+MEC-0071,,000013,,,,34-0860 > COPPER CLAD SRBP SS 100 X 160 (RC),ea,Expenses:Materials General,5,0.50,,,,no,,,,,,,
+MEC-0071,,000013,,,,18-0163 > PP3 BATTERY HOLDER WITH FLYING LEADS RC,ea,Expenses:Materials General,5,0.23,,,,no,,,,,,,
+MEC-0071,,000013,,,,73-4290 > ATMEGA8-16PU 8-BIT MICRO 8K DIL-28 (RC),ea,Expenses:Materials General,3,1.99,,,,no,,,,,,,
+MEC-0071,,000013,,,,81-0014 > BC108 NPN GP TRANSISTOR RC,ea,Expenses:Materials General,20,0.16,,,,no,,,,,,,
+MEC-0071,,000013,,,,DELIVERY,ea,Expenses:Postage,1,4.95,,,,no,,,,,,,
+MEC-0071,,000013,,,,VAT,tax,Expenses:VAT,1,4.35,,,,no,,,,,,,
+        </programlisting>
+    </para>
+
+    <para>
+      As can be seen there are some fields that are absent and some that
+      are not required for import. The first line is not required and the last
+      line is superfluous as <application>&app;</application> will total the order for us. All that is
+      required is to take what we want and produce an output file with the
+      correct format to import into <application>&app;</application>. In this case we join the part
+      number and description fields and these become description in <application>&app;</application>
+      invoice/bill. We need the qty and part price fields. Contrary to the
+      header line <acronym>VAT</acronym> is not included by line and is always zero, the <acronym>VAT</acronym> is
+      calculated on the last line as <acronym>VAT</acronym> on the order total.
+      <note>
+        <para>This will cause problems later.</para>
+      </note>
+      In this example I have assigned the
+      <emphasis>Expenses:Materials General</emphasis> account to be the target account. This can be
+      changed after import in the usual way, along with any other data. If there
+      is no such account as <emphasis>Expenses:Materials General</emphasis> then that field will be
+      left blank on import and will have to be set manually. Lines beginning
+      with a <quote>#</quote> are regarded as comment lines and ignored.
+    </para>
+
+    <para>The script is called with the following command:</para>
+      <para> <command>python importer.py <replaceable>file_to_import</replaceable>,
+      <replaceable>invoice_id</replaceable> > <replaceable>file_to_save_as.csv</replaceable></command>
+      </para>
+    <para>This short script can easily be
+      changed to suit any downloaded format. The only restriction is that the
+      final number of field is fixed, at least at the moment. The importer will
+      ignore lines with the wrong number of fields. (This may be fixed in future
+      version). Vendor ID is simply the ID assigned to the specific vendor, or
+      client. The row[N] items refer to the position in the line where the
+      correct data lies. Note that the first field is row[0] NOT row[1].
+    </para>
+
+    <para>Once you have converted the file navigate to <menuchoice><guimenu>Business</guimenu>
+      <guimenuitem>Invoice & Bill Import</guimenuitem></menuchoice> to open a new import window.
+      Select the file you have just created, select <guilabel>Bill</guilabel>
+      or <guilabel>Invoice</guilabel> and <guilabel>Comma separated</guilabel> format. At this
+      point the data should show up in the preview window. Check that the field
+      data are in the correct columns before selecting <guibutton>OK</guibutton>. Once imported the
+      invoice can be opened for editing and posting in the usual way.
+    </para>
+
+    <para>A note on <acronym>VAT</acronym>, or any purchase tax. As previously mentioned <emphasis>Rapid
+      Electronics</emphasis> calculate the <acronym>VAT</acronym> on the bill total not line by line. <application>&app;</application>
+      calculated the <acronym>VAT</acronym> per line then totals the <acronym>VAT</acronym>. This can lead to
+      inaccuracies in the <acronym>VAT</acronym> of the region of a few pennies and is enough to
+      cause problems when reconciling the purchase with your bank or credit card
+      account used to make the purchase. As to how you overcome that, for the
+      moment, is a problem for you to use whatever method suits your conscience
+      or accountant best. Personally I add the <acronym>VAT</acronym> as a separate line along with
+      delivery charges manually. So some work is left to the user but the tedium
+      of entering each item eliminated.
+    </para>
+
+    <para>Future: Currently the import format is quite strict and many users
+      may have problems with the conversion process. Adding a template for every
+      possible vendor <acronym>CSV</acronym> format would be mammoth and likely impossible task
+      notwithstanding the fact the vendors are likely to change the format
+      without informing the <application>&app;</application> team. Future import enhancements will be
+      based on user feedback and hopefully the process can be made simpler or
+      more flexible. Note that often <quote>simple</quote> is incompatible with
+      <quote>flexible</quote>.
+    </para>
+
+    <note>
+    <para>If <application>Python</application> (other languages are avaialble) is not your thing then
+      post a request to <ulink url="https://lists.gnucash.org/mailman/listinfo/gnucash-user"><citetitle>&app; user list</citetitle></ulink>,
+      with an example of your downloaded <acronym>CSV</acronym>, and someone may write you a <application>Python</application> script to do the
+      translation.
+    </para>
+    </note>
+
+    <sect2 id="python-author-notes">
+      <title>Notes for <application>Python</application> authors</title>
+
+      <para>In order for the import to succeed the number of fields must be
+        adhered to, so the trailing commas are important.
+      </para>
+
+      <para>A complete list of the required fields is:</para>
+
+      <para>id, date_opened, owner_id, billingid, notes, date, desc, action,
+        account, quantity, price, disc_type, disc_how, discount, taxable,
+        taxincluded, tax_table, date_posted, due_date, account_posted,
+        memo_posted, accu_splits,
+      </para>
+      <note>
+        <para>Mind the trailing comma.</para>
+      </note>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="python-import-fields">
+      <title>A brief description of each field</title>
+
+      <itemizedlist>
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>id</emphasis> -
+            The invoice number. All lines must
+            contain this or the line will be rejected.
+          </para>
+        </listitem>
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>date_opened</emphasis> -
+             Use the same date format as setup in Preferences. Today's date is inserted if this is blank.
+          </para>
+        </listitem>
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>owner_id</emphasis> -
+            ID number of the vendor or customer. All lines must
+            contain this or the line will be rejected.
+          </para>
+        </listitem>
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>billingid</emphasis> -
+            Billing ID.
+          </para>
+        </listitem>
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>notes</emphasis> -
+            Invoice notes.
+          </para>
+        </listitem>
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>date</emphasis> -
+            The date of the item line. Can be left blank for todays
+            date.
+          </para>
+        </listitem>
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>desc</emphasis> -
+            Description as per normal invoice or bill.
+          </para>
+        </listitem>
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>action</emphasis> -
+            For bills usually <quote>ea</quote>.
+          </para>
+        </listitem>
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>account</emphasis> -
+            Account to which the item is attributed.
+          </para>
+        </listitem>
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>quantity</emphasis> -
+            Quantity of each item. Must contain a value or the line
+            will be rejected.
+          </para>
+        </listitem>
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>price</emphasis> -
+            Price of each item. Must contain a value or the line will be
+            rejected.
+          </para>
+        </listitem>
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>disc_type</emphasis> -
+            Type of discount, either <quote>%</quote> or <quote>TODO</quote>, only applies to
+            invoices. Some experimentation may be required here as may be currency
+            dependent.
+          </para>
+        </listitem>
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>disc_how</emphasis> -
+            Only applies to invoices.
+          </para>
+        </listitem>
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>discount</emphasis> -
+            Amount of discount to be applied. only applies to
+            invoices.
+          </para>
+        </listitem>
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>taxable</emphasis> -
+            Will tax be applied to the item? <quote>yes</quote> or blank.
+          </para>
+        </listitem>
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>taxincluded</emphasis> -
+            Is tax included in the item price? <quote>yes</quote> or blank.
+          </para>
+        </listitem>
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>tax_table</emphasis> -
+            Tax table to apply to item.
+          </para>
+        </listitem>
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>date_posted</emphasis> -
+            If posted, what date. Normally left blank for manual
+            posting after editing the invoice.  Use the same date format as setup in Preferences.
+          </para>
+        </listitem>
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>due_date</emphasis> -
+            Date payment is due.   Use the same date format as setup in Preferences.
+          </para>
+        </listitem>
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>account_posted</emphasis> -
+            Posted to what account.
+          </para>
+        </listitem>
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>memo_posted </emphasis> -
+            If posted insert memo here.
+          </para>
+        </listitem>
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>accu_splits</emphasis> -
+            Accumulate splits? <quote>yes</quote> or blank.
+          </para>
+        </listitem>
+      </itemizedlist>
+    </sect2>
+
+  </sect1>
+
+<sect1 id="import-customers-vendors">
+  <title>Importing Customers and Vendors</title>
+  <para>This functionality is only available in the 2.6 versions of GnuCash and is only loaded by default for versions greater than 2.6.</para>
+   <para>For versions lower than 2.6 the Customers and Vendors importer is an optional module and needs to
+    enabled by editing the file <filename>$HOME/.gnucash/config.user</filename>,
+    adding the line:</para>
+    <para><code>(gnc:module-load "gnucash/plugins/customer_import" 0)
+    </code></para>
+    <para>On Linux systems this file is found at <filename>$HOME/.gnucash/config.user</filename>
+      and on Mac OSX it is <filename>~/Library/Application Support/Gnucash/config.user</filename>.
+      If the file doesn’t already exist you will have to create it.
+      After restarting <application>&app;</application> the item will appear at the bottom
+    of the business menu.</para>
+    <para>In order for the importer to work each line in the input file must have the following structure.
+    </para>
+    <para><code>
+    id,  company,  name,  addr1,  addr2,  addr3,  addr4,  phone,  fax,  email,  notes,  shipname,  shipaddr1,  shipaddr2,  shipaddr3, shipaddr4, shiphone, shipfax, shipmail
+    </code> </para>
+
+    <para>
+    Fields can be separated with commas or semicolons and each field can be in quotes.  These options are selectable in the import dialog. Vendors don’t have shipping information so even though the fields have to exist, leave them empty.
+    The id field is optional and if it is empty a new id will be chosen. If the id field has a value this will UPDATE any vendor/customer with the same id.  This may not be what you want.  Note that in your input file the data must be a single line for each customer/vendor.
+    </para>
+    <para>
+      The importer does not currently import billing information for customers or vendors, these will have to be edited individually after importing.
+  </para>
+  </sect1>
+
+
+</chapter>
diff --git a/guide/ru/ch_invest.xml b/guide/ru/ch_invest.xml
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..ecbaec6
--- /dev/null
+++ b/guide/ru/ch_invest.xml
@@ -0,0 +1,3936 @@
+<!--
+      (Do not remove this comment block.)
+  Version: 2.0.0
+  Last modified: December 7th 2009
+       modified: January 10th 2007
+       modified: July 9th 2006
+  Maintainers:
+               Alex Aycinena <alex.aycinena at gmail.com>
+               Chris Lyttle <chris at wilddev.net>
+  Author:
+  		Jon Lapham <lapham at extracta.com.br>
+  	Updated	Dave Herman <dvherman at bigfoot.com>
+  Originally designed by Carol Champagne.
+  Translators:
+               (translators put your name and email here)
+-->
+<chapter id="chapter_invest">
+  <title>Investments</title>
+
+  <para>This chapter explains how to manage your investments with <application>&app;</application>.
+  Most people have an investment plan, whether its just putting money into a
+  CD account, investing through a company sponsored plan at your workplace or
+  buying and selling stocks and bonds through a brokerage. <application>&app;</application> gives you
+  tools to help you manage these investments such as the <emphasis>Price
+  Editor </emphasis> which allows you to record changes in the prices of
+  stocks you own.</para>
+
+  <sect1 id="invest_concepts1">
+    <title>Basic Concepts</title>
+
+    <para>An investment is something that you purchase in the hopes of
+    generating income, or that you hope to sell in the future for more than
+    you paid. Using this simple definition, many things could be considered
+    investments: the house you live in, a valuable painting, stocks in
+    publicly traded companies, your savings account at the bank, or a
+    certificate of deposit. These many types of investments will be discussed
+    in this chapter in terms of how to track them using <application>&app;</application>.</para>
+
+    <sect2 id="invest_terms2">
+      <title>Terminology</title>
+
+      <para>Before discussing investments specifically, it will be helpful to
+      present a glossary of investment terminology. The terms presented below
+      represent some of the basic concepts of investing. It is a good idea to
+      become familiar with these terms, or at least, refer back to this list
+      if you encounter an unfamiliar word in the later sections.</para>
+
+    <variablelist>
+      <varlistentry>
+        <term><emphasis>Capital gains</emphasis></term>
+        <listitem>
+          <para>The difference between
+          the purchase and selling prices of an investment. If the selling
+          price is lower than the purchase price, this is called a
+          <emphasis>capital loss</emphasis>. Also known as <emphasis>realized
+          gain/loss</emphasis>.</para>
+        </listitem>
+      </varlistentry>
+
+      <varlistentry>
+        <term><emphasis>Commission</emphasis></term>
+        <listitem>
+          <para>The fee you pay to a broker
+          to buy or sell securities.</para>
+        </listitem>
+      </varlistentry>
+
+      <varlistentry>
+        <term><emphasis>Common stock</emphasis></term>
+        <listitem>
+          <para>A security that
+          represents a certain fractional ownership of a company. This is what
+          you buy when you <quote>buy stock</quote> in a company on the open market. This
+          is also sometimes known as <emphasis>capital
+          stock</emphasis>.</para>
+        </listitem>
+      </varlistentry>
+
+      <varlistentry>
+        <term><emphasis>Compounding</emphasis></term>
+        <listitem>
+          <para>The concept that the
+          reinvested interest can later earn interest of its own (interest on
+          interest). This is often referred to as <emphasis>compound
+          interest</emphasis>.</para>
+        </listitem>
+      </varlistentry>
+
+      <varlistentry>
+        <term><emphasis>Dividends</emphasis></term>
+        <listitem>
+          <para>Dividends are cash payments a company
+          makes to shareholders. The amount of this payment is usually
+          determined as some amount of the profits of the company. Note that
+          not all common stocks give dividends.</para>
+        </listitem>
+      </varlistentry>
+
+      <varlistentry>
+        <term><emphasis>Equities</emphasis></term>
+        <listitem>
+          <para>Equities are investments in which the
+          investor becomes part (or whole) owner in something. This includes
+          common stock in a company, or real estate.</para>
+        </listitem>
+      </varlistentry>
+
+      <varlistentry>
+        <term><emphasis>Interest</emphasis></term>
+        <listitem>
+          <para>What a borrower pays a lender
+          for the use of their money. Normally, this is expressed in terms of
+          a percentage of the principal per year. For example, a savings
+          account with 1% interest (you are the lender, the bank is the
+          borrower) will pay you $1 for every $100 you keep there per
+          year.</para>
+        </listitem>
+      </varlistentry>
+
+      <varlistentry>
+        <term><emphasis>Liquidity</emphasis></term>
+        <listitem>
+          <para>A measure of how easily
+          convertible an investment is to cash. Money in a savings account is
+          very liquid, while money invested in a house has low liquidity
+          because it takes time to sell a house.</para>
+        </listitem>
+      </varlistentry>
+
+      <varlistentry>
+        <term><emphasis>Principal</emphasis></term>
+        <listitem>
+          <para>The original amount of money
+          invested or borrowed.</para>
+        </listitem>
+      </varlistentry>
+
+      <varlistentry>
+        <term><emphasis>Realized vs Unrealized Gain/Loss</emphasis></term>
+        <listitem>
+          <para>Unrealized gain or loss occurs when you’ve got a change in price of
+          an asset. You realize the gain/loss when you actually sell the
+          asset. See also <emphasis>capital gain/loss</emphasis>.</para>
+        </listitem>
+      </varlistentry>
+
+      <varlistentry>
+        <term><emphasis>Return</emphasis></term>
+        <listitem>
+          <para>The total income plus capital
+          gains or losses of an investment. See also
+          <emphasis>Yield</emphasis>.</para>
+        </listitem>
+      </varlistentry>
+
+      <varlistentry>
+        <term><emphasis>Risk</emphasis></term>
+        <listitem>
+          <para>The probability that the return
+          on investment is different from what was expected. Investments are
+          often grouped on a scale from low risk (savings account, government
+          bonds) to high risk (common stock, junk bonds). As a general rule of
+          thumb, the higher the risk the higher the possible return.</para>
+        </listitem>
+      </varlistentry>
+
+      <varlistentry>
+        <term><emphasis>Shareholder</emphasis></term>
+        <listitem>
+          <para>A shareholder is a person who holds common
+          stock in a company.</para>
+        </listitem>
+      </varlistentry>
+
+      <varlistentry>
+        <term><emphasis>Stock split</emphasis></term>
+        <listitem>
+          <para>Occurs when a company offers
+          to issue some additional multiple of shares for each existing stock.
+          For example, a <quote>2 for 1</quote> stock split means that if you own 100
+          shares of a stock, you will receive an additional 100 at no cost to
+          you. The unit price of the shares will be adjusted so there is no
+          net change in the value, so in this example the price per share will
+          be halved.</para>
+        </listitem>
+      </varlistentry>
+
+      <varlistentry>
+        <term><emphasis>Valuation</emphasis></term>
+        <listitem>
+          <para>The process of determining
+          the market value or the price the investment would sell at in a
+          <quote>reasonable time frame</quote>.</para>
+        </listitem>
+      </varlistentry>
+
+      <varlistentry>
+        <term><emphasis>Yield</emphasis></term>
+        <listitem>
+          <para>A measure of the amount of money
+          you earn from an investment (IE: how much income you receive from
+          the investment). Typically this is reported as a percentage of the
+          principal amount. Yield does not include capital gains or loses (see
+          Return). Eg: A stock sells for $100 and gives $2 in dividends per
+          year has a yield of 2%.</para>
+        </listitem>
+      </varlistentry>
+    </variablelist>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="invest_types2">
+      <title>Types of Investments</title>
+
+      <para>Below is presented some of the broad types of investments
+      available, and examples of each type.</para>
+
+      <itemizedlist>
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>Interest-bearing account or
+          instrument</emphasis></para>
+
+          <para>This type of investment usually allows you immediate access to
+          your money, and will typically pay you interest every month based on
+          the amount of money you have deposited. Examples are bank savings
+          accounts (and some interest bearing checking accounts) and cash
+          accounts at your brokerage. This is a very low risk investment, in
+          the US these accounts are often insured against loss, to a specified
+          limit.</para>
+
+          <para>Sometimes an interest bearing investment is
+          <emphasis>time-locked</emphasis>. This type of investment requires
+          you to commit your money to be invested for a given period of time
+          for which you receive a set rate of return. Usually, the longer you
+          commit the higher the interest rates. If you withdraw your money
+          before the maturity date, you will usually have to pay an early
+          withdrawal penalty. This is a relatively lower risk investment.
+          Examples are certificates of deposit or some government bonds. Other
+          types of Bonds may have higher yields based on the higher risks from
+          the quality of the issuer’s <quote>credit rating</quote>.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>Stocks and Mutual Funds</emphasis></para>
+
+          <para>This is an investment you make in a company, in which you
+          effectively become a part owner. There is usually no time lock on
+          publicly traded stock, however there may be changes in the tax rates
+          you pay on capital gains depending on how long you hold the stock.
+          Thus, stocks are typically quite liquid, you can access your money
+          relatively quickly. This investment is a higher risk, as you have no
+          guarantee on the future price of a stock.</para>
+
+          <para>A mutual fund is a group investment mechanism in which you can
+          buy into many stocks simultaneously. For example, a "S&P 500
+          index fund" is a fund which purchases all 500 stocks listed in the
+          Standard and Poor’s index. When you buy a share of this fund, you
+          are really buying a small amount of each of the 500 stocks contained
+          within the fund. Mutual funds are treated exactly like a single
+          stock, both for tax purposes and in accounting.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>Fixed Assets</emphasis></para>
+
+          <para>Assets that increase in value over time are another form of
+          investment. Examples include a house, a plot of land, or a valuable
+          painting. This type of investment is very difficult to determine the
+          value of until you sell it. The tax implications of selling these
+          items is varied, depending on the item. For example, you may have
+          tax relief from selling a house if it is your primary residence, but
+          may not receive this tax break on an expensive painting.</para>
+
+          <para>Fixed asset investments are discussed in <xref linkend="chapter_capgain" /> and
+          <xref linkend="chapter_dep" />. Typically, there is not much to do
+          in terms of accounting for fixed asset investments except recording
+          the buying and selling transactions.</para>
+        </listitem>
+      </itemizedlist>
+    </sect2>
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="invest_accounts1">
+    <title>Setting Up Accounts</title>
+
+    <para>To setup investment accounts in <application>&app;</application> you can either use the
+    predefined investment account hierarchy or create your own. The minimum
+    you need to do to track investments is to setup an asset account for each
+    type of investment you own. However, as we have seen in previous chapters,
+    it is usually more logical to create a structured account hierarchy,
+    grouping related investments together. For example, you may want to group
+    all your publicly traded stocks under a parent account named after the
+    brokerage firm you used to buy the stocks.</para>
+
+    <note>
+    <para>Regardless of how you setup your account hierarchy, remember that
+    you can always move accounts around later (without losing the work you’ve
+    put into them), so your initial account hierarchy does not have to be
+    perfect.</para>
+    </note>
+
+    <sect2 id="invest_predefined2">
+      <title>Using Predefined Investment Accounts</title>
+
+      <para>The <guilabel>Investment Accounts</guilabel> option of the
+      <guilabel>New Account Hierarchy Setup</guilabel> assistant will
+      automatically create a basic investment account hierarchy for you. To
+      access the predefined investment accounts hierarchy, you must make
+      sure your <application>&app;</application> file is open, switch to the
+      <guilabel>Accounts</guilabel> tab, and choose
+      <menuchoice><guimenu>Actions</guimenu><guimenuitem>New Account
+      Hierarchy</guimenuitem></menuchoice>. This will run the <guilabel>New
+      Account Hierarchy Setup</guilabel> assistant and allow you to select
+      additional accounts to add to your account hierarchy. Choose the
+      <guilabel>Investment Accounts</guilabel> option (along with any
+      others you are interested in). Assuming only investment accounts were
+      selected, this will create an account hierarchy as shown
+      below.</para>
+
+      <tip>
+        <para>You can also run the <guilabel>New Account Hierarchy
+        Setup</guilabel> assistant by creating a new <application>&app;</application> file.</para>
+      </tip>
+
+      <screenshot id="invest_accountspredef">
+        <mediaobject>
+	   <imageobject role="html">
+             <imagedata fileref="figures/invest_AccountsPredef.png" format="PNG"
+                        srccredit="Cristian Marchi" width="510px"></imagedata>
+           </imageobject>
+           <imageobject role="fo">
+             <imagedata fileref="figures/invest_AccountsPredef.png" format="PNG"
+                        srccredit="Cristian Marchi"></imagedata>
+           </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>Setup Interest Investment</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption><para>This is a screen image of the <guilabel>Accounts</guilabel> tab after
+          creating a new file and selecting only the default investment
+          accounts. </para></caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+
+      <para>You will probably at least want to add a <emphasis>Bank</emphasis>
+      account to the Assets and probably an <emphasis>Equity:Opening Balances</emphasis>
+      account, as we have done in previous chapters. Don’t
+      forget to save your new account file with a relevant name!</para>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="invest_creating2">
+      <title>Creating Investment Accounts Manually</title>
+
+      <para>If you want to set up your own investment accounts hierarchy,
+      you may of course do so. Investments usually have a number of
+      associated accounts that need to be created: an asset account to
+      track the investment itself; an income account to track dividend
+      transactions; and expense accounts to track investment fees and
+      commissions.</para>
+
+      <para>In a typical account structure, security accounts are sub accounts
+        of an asset account representing an account at a brokerage firm. The
+        brokerage account would be denominated in your local currency and it
+        would include sub accounts for each security that you trade there.
+      </para>
+
+      <para>Related purchases, sales, income and expense accounts should also
+        be in the same currency as the brokerage account.
+      </para>
+
+      <para>The security sub accounts would each be configured to contain units
+        of a single security selected from the master (user defined) security
+        list and they are expected to use the same currency as the brokerage
+        account.
+      </para>
+
+      <para>Security prices are kept in a separate area of <application>&app;
+        </application> (the Price Database - <menuchoice><guimenu>Tools
+        </guimenu><guimenuitem>Price Editor</guimenuitem></menuchoice>). This
+        contains prices for individual securities (not security accounts). All
+        prices for an individual security are in a single currency. If a
+        security is traded in multiple currencies, then a separate security and
+        separate accounts should be set up for each currency.
+      </para>
+
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="invest_custom2">
+      <title>Custom Accounts Example</title>
+
+      <para>The following is a somewhat more complicated example of setting up
+      <application>&app;</application> to track your investments, which has the advantage that it
+      groups each different investment under the brokerage that deals with the
+      investments. This way it is easier to compare the statements you get
+      from your brokerage with the accounts you have in <application>&app;</application> and spot where
+      <application>&app;</application> differs from the statement. <literallayout>
+ Assets
+    Investments
+       Brokerage Accounts
+          I*Trade
+             Stocks
+                ACME Corp
+             Money Market Funds
+                I*Trade Municipal Fund
+             Cash
+          My Stockbroker
+             Money Market Funds
+                Active Assets Fund
+             Government Securities
+                Treas Bond xxx
+                Treas Note yyy
+             Mutual Funds
+                Fund A
+                Fund B
+             Cash
+ Income
+    Investments
+       Brokerage Accounts
+          Capital Gains
+             I*Trade
+             My Stockbroker
+          Dividends
+             I*Trade
+                Taxable
+                Non-taxable
+             My Stockbroker
+                Taxable
+                Non-taxable
+          Interest Income
+             I*Trade
+                Taxable
+                Non-taxable
+             My Stockbroker
+                Taxable
+                Non-taxable
+ Expenses
+    Investment Expenses
+       Commissions
+          I*Trade
+          My Stockbroker
+       Management Fees
+          I*Trade
+          My Stockbroker
+ </literallayout></para>
+
+      <tip>
+      <para>There really is no standard way to set up your investment account
+      hierarchy. Play around, try different layouts until you find something
+      which divides your investment accounts into logical groups which make
+      sense to you.</para>
+      </tip>
+    </sect2>
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="invest_int1">
+    <title>Interest Bearing Accounts</title>
+
+    <para>Investments which have a fixed or variable rate of interest are one
+    of the simplest and most common form of investments available. Interest
+    bearing investments include your bank account, a certificate of deposit,
+    or any other kind of investment in which you receive interest from the
+    principal. This section will describe how to handle these kinds of
+    investments in <application>&app;</application>.</para>
+
+    <sect2 id="invest_intacct2">
+      <title>Account Setup</title>
+
+      <para>When you purchase the interest bearing investment, you must create
+      an asset account to record the purchase of the investment, an income
+      account to record earnings from interest, and an expense account to
+      record bank charges. Below is an account layout example, in which you
+      have an interest bearing savings account and a certificate of deposit at
+      your bank.</para>
+
+      <literallayout>
+Assets
+   Bank ABC
+      CD
+      Savings
+Expenses
+   Bank ABC
+      Charges
+Income
+   Interest Income
+      CD
+      Savings
+  </literallayout>
+
+      <para>As usual, this account hierarchy is simply presented as an
+      example, you should create your accounts in a form which best matches
+      your actual situation.</para>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="invest-intex2">
+      <title>Example</title>
+
+      <para>Now let’s populate these accounts with real numbers. Let’s assume
+      that you start with $10000 in your bank account, which pays 1% interest
+      and you buy a $5000 certificate of deposit with a 6 month maturity date
+      and a 2% yield. Clearly, it is much better to keep your money in the CD
+      than in the savings account. After the initial purchase, your accounts
+      should look something like this:</para>
+
+      <screenshot id="invest-int">
+        <mediaobject>
+           <imageobject role="html">
+             <imagedata fileref="figures/invest_int1.png" format="PNG"
+                        srccredit="Cristian Marchi" width="510px"></imagedata>
+           </imageobject>
+           <imageobject role="fo">
+             <imagedata fileref="figures/invest_int1.png" format="PNG"
+                        srccredit="Cristian Marchi"></imagedata>
+           </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>Setup Interest Investment</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption><para>This is an image of the account register after
+          creating and investing in a CD investment. </para></caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+
+      <para>Now, during the course of the next 6 months, you receive monthly
+      bank statements which describe the activity of your account. In our
+      fictional example, we do nothing with the money at this bank, so the
+      only activity is income from interest and bank charges. The monthly bank
+      charges are $2. After 6 months, the register window for the CD and for the savings
+      account should look like these:</para>
+
+      <screenshot id="invest-int2">
+        <mediaobject>
+           <imageobject role="html">
+             <imagedata fileref="figures/invest_int2.png" format="PNG"
+                        srccredit="Cristian Marchi" width="510px"></imagedata>
+           </imageobject>
+           <imageobject role="fo">
+             <imagedata fileref="figures/invest_int2.png" format="PNG"
+                        srccredit="Cristian Marchi"></imagedata>
+           </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>Setup Interest Investment</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption><para>This is an image of the register of the CD account
+          after 6 months. </para></caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+
+      <screenshot id="invest-int2-1">
+        <mediaobject>
+           <imageobject role="html">
+             <imagedata fileref="figures/invest_int2-1.png" format="PNG"
+                        srccredit="Cristian Marchi" width="510px"></imagedata>
+           </imageobject>
+           <imageobject role="fo">
+             <imagedata fileref="figures/invest_int2-1.png" format="PNG"
+                        srccredit="Cristian Marchi"></imagedata>
+           </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>Setup Interest Investment</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption><para>This is an image of the register of the Savings account
+          after 6 months. </para></caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+
+      <para>And this is the main <application>&app;</application> account window:</para>
+
+      <screenshot id="invest-int3">
+        <mediaobject>
+           <imageobject role="html">
+             <imagedata fileref="figures/invest_int3.png" format="PNG"
+                        srccredit="Cristian Marchi" width="510px"></imagedata>
+           </imageobject>
+           <imageobject role="fo">
+             <imagedata fileref="figures/invest_int3.png" format="PNG"
+                        srccredit="Cristian Marchi"></imagedata>
+           </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>Setup Interest Investment</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption><para>This a screen capture of the accounts after 6 months.
+          </para></caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+
+      <para>From the above image of the main <application>&app;</application> account window you see a
+      nice summary of what happened to these investments over the 6 months.
+      While the yield on the CD is double that of the savings account, the
+      return on the CD was $50.21 versus $13.03 for the savings account, or
+      almost 4 times more. Why? Because of the pesky $2 bank charges that hit
+      the savings account (which counted for $12 over 6 months).</para>
+
+      <para>After this 6 month period, the CD has reached maturity which means
+      you may sell it with no early withdrawal penalty. To do so, simply
+      transfer the $5050.21 from the CD account into the savings
+      account.</para>
+    </sect2>
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="invest-setup1">
+    <title>Setup Investment Portfolio</title>
+
+    <para>Now that you have built an account hierarchy in the previous
+    section, this section will show you how to create and populate the accounts with your
+    investment portfolio. After this initial setup of your portfolio, you may have
+    shares of stock purchased from before you started using <application>&app;</application>. For these stocks,
+    follow the instructions in the <link linkend="invest-buy-stock2"><emphasis>Entering
+    Preexisting Shares</emphasis></link> section below. If you have just purchased your stocks,
+    then use the <link linkend="invest-buy-new2"><emphasis>Buying New Shares</emphasis>
+    </link> section.</para>
+
+    <sect2 id="invest-setup-stockaccounts2">
+      <title>Setup Accounts for Stocks and Mutual Funds</title>
+
+      <para>This section will show you how to add stocks and mutual fund
+      accounts to <application>&app;</application>. In this section, we will assume you are using the
+      basic account setup introduced in the previous section, but
+      the principles can be applied to any account hierarchy.</para>
+
+      <para>You should have within the top level <guilabel>Asset</guilabel>
+      account, a few levels down, an account entitled
+      <guilabel>Stock</guilabel>. Open the account tree to this level by
+      clicking on the <quote>right facing triangle marker</quote> signs next
+      to the account names until the tree is opened to the depth of the new
+      account. You will need to create a sub-account (of type
+      <emphasis>stock</emphasis>) under the Stock account for every stock you
+      own. Every stock is a separate account. The naming of these stock
+      accounts is usually done using the stock ticker abbreviation, though account
+      names may be anything that is clear to you and other users. So, for
+      example, you could name your accounts <emphasis>AMZN</emphasis>,
+      <emphasis>IBM</emphasis> and <emphasis>NST</emphasis> for your Amazon,
+      IBM and NSTAR stocks respectively. Below is a schematic model of the
+      layout (only showing the Assets sub-accounts).</para>
+
+      <literallayout>
+ Assets
+    Investments
+       Brokerage Accounts
+          Bond
+          Mutual Funds
+          Market Index
+          Stock
+             AMZN
+             IBM
+             NST
+ </literallayout>
+
+      <note>
+        <para>If you want to track income (dividends/interest/capital gains)
+        on a per-stock or fund basis, you will need to create an
+        <emphasis>Income:Dividends:STOCKSYMBOL</emphasis>,
+        <emphasis>Income:Cap Gain (Long):STOCKSYMBOL</emphasis>,
+        <emphasis>Income:Cap Gain (Short):STOCKSYMBOL</emphasis>
+        and <emphasis>Income:Interest:STOCKSYMBOL</emphasis>
+        account for each stock you own that pays dividends or interest.</para>
+      </note>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="invest-setup-example2">
+      <title>Example Stock Account</title>
+
+      <para>As an example, let’s assume that you currently own 100 shares of
+      Amazon stock. First, create the stock account AMZN by selecting the
+      <guilabel>Stock</guilabel> account and click on the menu <menuchoice>
+      <guimenu>Actions</guimenu><guimenu>New Account...</guimenu></menuchoice>. The New
+      Account dialog will appear, follow the steps, in the sequence below to
+      setup your new stock account.</para>
+
+      <screenshot id="invest-newaccount">
+        <mediaobject>
+           <imageobject role="html">
+             <imagedata fileref="figures/invest_newaccount.png" format="PNG"
+                        srccredit="Cristian Marchi" width="510px"></imagedata>
+           </imageobject>
+           <imageobject role="fo">
+             <imagedata fileref="figures/invest_newaccount.png" format="PNG"
+                        srccredit="Cristian Marchi"></imagedata>
+           </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>New Account Window</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption><para>New Account Window </para></caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+
+      <orderedlist>
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>Account Name</emphasis> - Usually, use the stock
+          ticker abbreviation, IE: <quote>AMZN</quote></para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>Account Code</emphasis> - Optional field, use CUSIP,
+          the newspaper listing symbol, mutual fund family ID or code of your
+          own choosing.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>Description</emphasis> - Optional field for detailed
+          description of the commodity/stock. Note this field by default is
+          displayed in the <guilabel>Account</guilabel> tab tree.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>Account Type</emphasis> - Select the type of account
+          you are creating from the lower left-hand list.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>Parent Account</emphasis> - Select the parent
+          account for the new account from the right hand listing. Expand list
+          of accounts if necessary.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>Create the New Security</emphasis> - To use a new
+          stock, you must create the stock as a new commodity</para>
+
+          <note><para>Be sure to first select Account Type <emphasis>Stock
+            </emphasis> or <emphasis>Mutual Fund</emphasis> so that the
+            <guilabel>Select...</guilabel> button brings up the list of
+            securites rather than currencies.</para>
+          </note>
+
+          <itemizedlist>
+            <listitem>
+              <para><emphasis>Select Security/Currency</emphasis> - Click on
+              the <guibutton>Select ...</guibutton> button next to the
+              <guilabel>security/currency</guilabel> line. We must change the
+              security from the default (your default currency) to this
+              specific stock. This will bring up the
+              <guilabel>Select Security</guilabel> dialog.</para>
+            </listitem>
+
+            <listitem>
+              <para><emphasis>Type</emphasis> - Select the exchange where the
+              security/commodity is traded (in this example NASDAQ).</para>
+
+              <para>Select the <guibutton>New</guibutton> button to open the
+              <guilabel>New Security</guilabel> window.</para>
+
+              <screenshot id="invest-selectsecurity">
+                <mediaobject>
+                   <imageobject role="html">
+                     <imagedata fileref="figures/invest_selectsecurity.png" format="PNG"
+                                srccredit="Cristian Marchi"></imagedata>
+                   </imageobject>
+                   <imageobject role="fo">
+                     <imagedata fileref="figures/invest_selectsecurity.png" format="PNG"
+                                srccredit="Cristian Marchi"></imagedata>
+                   </imageobject>
+
+                  <textobject>
+                    <phrase>Select Security Window</phrase>
+                  </textobject>
+
+                  <caption><para>Select Security Window </para></caption>
+                </mediaobject>
+              </screenshot>
+            </listitem>
+
+            <listitem>
+              <para><emphasis>Create the Security</emphasis> - Click on the
+              <guibutton>New...</guibutton> button and enter the appropriate
+              information for this stock on the new form <guilabel>New Security</guilabel>.</para>
+
+              <!--  Open inner most loop (#3)
+-->
+
+              <itemizedlist>
+                <listitem>
+                  <para>The <guilabel>Full name:</guilabel> is
+                  <quote>Amazon.com</quote>.</para>
+                </listitem>
+
+                <listitem>
+                  <para>The <guilabel>Symbol/abbreviation:</guilabel> is
+                  <quote>AMZN</quote>. The symbol is the stock ticker used in your
+                  quote source several lines down on the form. Note that different
+                  symbols will be utilized on different price sources for the same stock,
+                  an example is Ericsson on the Stockholm Exchange is ERIC-B while
+                  on Yahoo it is ERRICB.ST</para>
+                </listitem>
+
+                <listitem>
+                  <para>The <guilabel>Type:</guilabel> should already be
+                  <guilabel>NASDAQ</guilabel>, because this is what was selected in the security selector, but you can change it here, including adding more categories. More information about this can be found in the Help Manual in section 7.7, <quote>Security Editor</quote>.</para>
+                </listitem>
+
+                <listitem>
+                  <para>The <guilabel>ISIN, CUSIP or other code</guilabel> is where
+                  you can enter some other coding number or text (leave it
+                  blank in this example).</para>
+                </listitem>
+
+                <listitem>
+                  <para>The <guilabel>Fraction traded</guilabel> should be
+                  adjusted to the smallest fraction of this security which can
+                  be traded, usually 1/100 or 1/10000.</para>
+                </listitem>
+
+                <listitem>
+                  <para>The checkbox <quote>Get Online Quotes</quote>, the
+                  quote source and the timezone should be selected to define
+                  the sources for updating prices on-line. See Also
+                  <link linkend="invest-stockprice-auto2">
+                    <quote>Setting Stock Price Automatically</quote></link>.</para>
+
+		<note>
+                  <para>If the <guibutton>Get Online Quotes</guibutton> button is not highlighted, and it
+                  is not tickable, then the <application>Finance::Quote</application> package is not installed.
+                  See the section on
+                   <link linkend="invest-stockprice-auto-install3">
+                    <quote>Installing <application>Finance::Quote</application></quote></link>.</para>
+		</note>
+
+                  <para>Below is what this window should look like when
+                  finished: <screenshot id="invest-newsecurity">
+                      <mediaobject>
+                        <imageobject role="html">
+                          <imagedata fileref="figures/invest_newsecurity.png" format="PNG"
+                                     srccredit="Cristian Marchi" width="510px"></imagedata>
+                        </imageobject>
+                        <imageobject role="fo">
+                          <imagedata fileref="figures/invest_newsecurity.png" format="PNG"
+                                     srccredit="Cristian Marchi"></imagedata>
+                        </imageobject>
+
+                        <textobject>
+                          <phrase>New Security Window</phrase>
+                        </textobject>
+
+                        <caption><para>New Security Window </para></caption>
+                      </mediaobject>
+                    </screenshot></para>
+                </listitem>
+
+                <listitem>
+                  <para><emphasis>Save Security</emphasis> - Click on the
+                  <guibutton>OK</guibutton> button to save this new security,
+                  this will close the <guilabel>New Security</guilabel> window and
+                  return to the <guilabel>New Account</guilabel> window.</para>
+                </listitem>
+              </itemizedlist>
+
+              <!--  Close inner most loop
+-->
+            </listitem>
+
+            <!--  Close loop #2
+-->
+          </itemizedlist>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>Select the Security</emphasis> - you should now see
+          the newly created security available in the pull down menu for
+          <guilabel>Security/Currency</guilabel>. Select it (it is probably
+          already selected) and click on <guibutton>OK</guibutton>.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>Smallest Fraction</emphasis> - Specify the smallest
+          fraction of the security/commodity that is traded.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>Notes</emphasis> - Enter any notes or messages
+          related to this security/commodity.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>Tax Related</emphasis> - Go to <menuchoice><guimenu>Edit</guimenu>
+          <guimenuitem>Tax Report Options</guimenuitem></menuchoice> to check this box if this
+          account’s transactions will relate to Income Taxes.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>Placeholder</emphasis> - Check box if this account
+          is a <quote>Placeholder</quote>, that is it will contain no
+          transactions.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>Finished</emphasis> - You should now have been
+          automatically returned to the New Account dialog, with the
+          <guilabel>symbol/abbreviation:</guilabel> line set to <quote>AMZN
+          (Amazon.com)</quote>. Click on <guibutton>OK</guibutton> to save
+          this new stock account.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <!--
+                    Outer list can now be closed
+-->
+      </orderedlist>
+
+      <para>You have now created the Amazon stock account, your main account
+      should look something like this (notice that there are a few extra
+      accounts here, a bank account, and an equity account):</para>
+
+      <screenshot id="invest-setup-current">
+        <mediaobject>
+           <imageobject role="html">
+             <imagedata fileref="figures/invest_setup_current.png" format="PNG"
+                        srccredit="Cristian Marchi" width="510px"></imagedata>
+           </imageobject>
+           <imageobject role="fo">
+             <imagedata fileref="figures/invest_setup_current.png" format="PNG"
+                        srccredit="Cristian Marchi"></imagedata>
+           </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>Setup Current Portfolio</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption><para>This image is after the creation of the first stock
+          account (AMZN)</para></caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+
+      <para>Open the account register window for this AMZN stock account
+      (double click on it). Here you see the <emphasis
+      role="strong">Commodity</emphasis> view. This gives you an overview of
+      the transactions in this commodity including the number of units (shares for a stock or mutual fund) bought or sold, the net price per unit, and the total amount.
+      Obviously, we have not bought or sold any shares of AMZN yet, so the register should not contain any transactions.</para>
+    </sect2>
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="invest-buy-stock1">
+    <title>Buying Shares</title>
+
+    <sect2 id="invest-buy-stock2">
+      <title>Entering Preexisting Shares</title>
+
+      <para>
+        The examples in this section use <guilabel>Transaction Journal
+        </guilabel> view.
+      </para>
+
+      <para>To register the initial 100 shares of this stock that you purchased
+        previously, on the first (transaction) line, enter the date of the
+        purchase (eg: Jan. 1 2005) and <guilabel>Description</guilabel> (eg:
+        Opening Balance). On the first split line, enter 100 in <guilabel>Shares
+        </guilabel>, delete the (unit) <guilabel>Price</guilabel> (it will be
+        calculated when you <keycap>Tab</keycap> out of the split) and enter
+        2000 in the <guilabel>Buy</guilabel> column.
+      </para>
+
+      <note>
+        <para>It is also possible to use <application>&app;</application> to
+          calculate <guilabel>Shares</guilabel> or <guilabel>Buy</guilabel> from
+          the other 2 columns but to avoid rounding errors, it is better to
+          automatically calculate <guilabel>Price</guilabel>.
+        </para>
+      </note>
+
+      <para><keycap>Tab</keycap> to the second split line, enter transfer from
+        account <emphasis>Equity:Opening Balances</emphasis>. For simplicity,
+        this example assumed there were no commissions on this transaction.
+        Your AMZN Commodity view should now appear like this:
+      </para>
+
+      <screenshot id="invest-setup-portfolio1">
+        <mediaobject>
+           <imageobject role="html">
+             <imagedata fileref="figures/invest_setup_portfolio1.png" format="PNG"
+                        srccredit="Cristian Marchi" width="510px"></imagedata>
+           </imageobject>
+           <imageobject role="fo">
+             <imagedata fileref="figures/invest_setup_portfolio1.png" format="PNG"
+                        srccredit="Cristian Marchi"></imagedata>
+           </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>Setup Current Portfolio</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption><para>This image is of the transaction register of the AMZN
+            account after the first stock <quote>purchase</quote>.</para>
+          </caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+
+      <para>Notice that the <guilabel>Balance</guilabel> (last column) is in the
+        units of the commodity (AMZN shares) not in currency units. Thus, the
+        balance is 100 (AMZN units) rather than $2000. This is how it should be.
+      </para>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="invest-buy-new2">
+      <title>Buying New Shares</title>
+
+      <para>The main difference between setting up a new stock purchase
+        versus the setup for preexisting stocks as described in the previous
+        section is that instead of transferring the money used to purchase the
+        stock from the <emphasis>Equity:Opening Balances</emphasis> account, you
+        transfer from  your <emphasis>Assets:Bank ABC</emphasis> or <emphasis>
+        Assets:Brokerage Account</emphasis> account.
+      </para>
+
+      <sect3 id="invest-buy-com">
+        <title>Handling Commissions and Fees</title>
+
+        <para>For conciseness, this document will refer to the money you pay to
+          a broker for buying and selling securities as <emphasis>Commissions
+          </emphasis>. Government fees may also be payable. Unless otherwise
+          stated, fees are handled in a similar way.
+        </para>
+
+        <para>
+          In <application>&app;</application> there are 2 alternate ways to
+          handle commissions (for simplicity this document section will refer to
+          these ways as net pricing and gross pricing):
+        </para>
+
+        <itemizedlist>
+          <listitem><para><emphasis>Net Pricing:</emphasis> You enter a net
+            price (adjusted by commissions) when buying and selling
+            securities. You do <emphasis>not</emphasis> also record commissions
+            in a specific commissions account in order to later claim it as an
+            expense, as this would be claiming commissions twice. This way
+            <emphasis>is</emphasis> compatible with using
+            <xref linkend="invest-sellLots"></xref>. This results in a
+            slightly misleading price being added to the price database (the
+            effective price you paid) but is not usually of any concern.</para>
+          </listitem>
+        </itemizedlist>
+
+        <para>OR</para>
+
+        <itemizedlist>
+          <listitem><para><emphasis>Gross Pricing:</emphasis> You enter the
+            price not adjusted by commissions and enter the commissions expense
+            on a separate split in the transaction. This enables the tracking of
+            commissions but is <emphasis>not</emphasis> compatible with using
+            <xref linkend="invest-sellLots"></xref>. Scrubbing doesn't know to
+            deduct commissions and fees from the gains, so capital gains or
+            losses must be manually calculated (see
+            <xref linkend="invest-sell-man"></xref>).</para>
+          </listitem>
+        </itemizedlist>
+
+        <para>Please get professional advice if you are unsure which of these
+          ways are applicable to your jurisdiction.
+        </para>
+      </sect3>
+
+      <sect3 id="invest-buy-gross">
+        <title>Example: Buying Shares with Gross Pricing</title>
+
+        <para>In this example you will purchase $5000 of IBM stock, with a
+          commission of $100. First step will be to create the stock account for
+          IBM. The existing <emphasis>Expenses:Commission</emphasis>
+          account will be used. If you wish to track commissions to the
+          individual stock level an additional sub-account would be necessary.
+          E.g. <emphasis>Expenses:Commission:IBM</emphasis>.
+        </para>
+
+        <para>Now for the transaction, on the first (transaction) line, enter
+          the <guilabel>Date</guilabel> of the purchase (eg: Jan. 3 2005) and
+          <guilabel>Description</guilabel> (eg: Initial IBM Purchase). On the
+          first split line, enter 50 in <guilabel>Shares</guilabel>, delete
+          <guilabel>Price</guilabel> (leave it empty so it will be calculated)),
+          and enter 5000 in <guilabel>Buy</guilabel>. You do not need to fill in
+          the <guilabel>Price</guilabel> column, as it will be calculated for
+          you when you <keycap>Tab</keycap> to the next split. The next line in
+          the split transaction will be <emphasis>Expenses:Commissions
+          </emphasis> and fill in <guilabel>Buy</guilabel> ($100). The third
+          line will be to transfer $5100 from account <emphasis>
+          Assets:Bank ABC</emphasis> to balance the transaction. Your IBM
+          Commodity view should now appear like this:
+        </para>
+
+        <screenshot id="invest-setup-portfolio2">
+          <mediaobject>
+             <imageobject role="html">
+               <imagedata fileref="figures/invest_SetupPortfolio2.png" format="PNG"
+                          srccredit="Chris Good" width="510px"></imagedata>
+             </imageobject>
+             <imageobject role="fo">
+               <imagedata fileref="figures/invest_SetupPortfolio2.png" format="PNG"
+                          srccredit="Chris Good"></imagedata>
+             </imageobject>
+
+            <textobject>
+              <phrase>Setup Current Portfolio</phrase>
+            </textobject>
+
+            <caption><para>This image is of the transaction register of the IBM
+              account after the first stock <quote>purchase</quote> with a
+              commission.</para>
+            </caption>
+          </mediaobject>
+        </screenshot>
+      </sect3>
+
+      <sect3 id="invest-buy-net">
+        <title>Example: Buying Shares with Net Pricing</title>
+
+        <para>Repeating the previous example using Net Pricing instead of Gross
+          Pricing, in Transaction Journal view:
+        </para>
+
+        <para>Purchase $5000 of IBM stock being 50 Shares for $100.00 each, plus
+          a commission of $100.</para>
+
+        <para>Now for the transaction, on the first (transaction) line, enter
+          the <guilabel>Date</guilabel> of the purchase (eg: Jan. 3 2005) and a
+          <guilabel>Description</guilabel> (eg: Initial IBM Purchase). On the
+          first split line, optionally enter more details in <guilabel>Memo
+          </guilabel>, then 50 in <guilabel>Shares</guilabel>, delete
+          anything in <guilabel>Price</guilabel> (so it will be calculated by
+          dividing <guilabel>Buy</guilabel> by <guilabel>Shares</guilabel> when
+          you <keycap>Tab</keycap> out of the split), 5100 in <guilabel>Buy
+          </guilabel> (50 * $100.00 + $100). Alternatively use
+          <application>&app;</application> to calculate <guilabel>Buy</guilabel>
+          by entering the formula <emphasis>5000+100</emphasis> or <emphasis>
+          (50 * 100) + 100 </emphasis> in <guilabel>Buy</guilabel> (
+          <guilabel>Buy</guilabel> will be calculated when you <keycap>Tab
+          </keycap> out of the column. Use the <keycap>Tab</keycap> key as many
+          times as needed to proceed to the next split.
+        </para>
+
+        <para>
+          Do <emphasis>not</emphasis> enter a separate split for Commission as
+          it has already been included in the <guilabel>Buy</guilabel> value.
+          The second split line will be to transfer from <emphasis>
+          Assets:Bank ABC</emphasis> $5100 to balance the transaction. After the
+          splits are all correct, use the <keycap function="enter" >Enter
+          </keycap> key to save the transaction. Your IBM Commodity view should
+          now appear like this:
+        </para>
+
+        <screenshot id="invest-setup-portfolio3">
+          <mediaobject>
+             <imageobject role="html">
+               <imagedata fileref="figures/invest_SetupPortfolio3.png" format="PNG"
+                          srccredit="Chris Good" width="510px"></imagedata>
+             </imageobject>
+             <imageobject role="fo">
+               <imagedata fileref="figures/invest_SetupPortfolio3.png" format="PNG"
+                          srccredit="Chris Good"></imagedata>
+             </imageobject>
+
+            <textobject>
+              <phrase>Setup Current Portfolio</phrase>
+            </textobject>
+
+            <caption><para>This image is of the transaction register of the IBM
+              account after the first stock <quote>purchase</quote> with a
+              commission.</para>
+            </caption>
+          </mediaobject>
+        </screenshot>
+      </sect3>
+    </sect2>
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="invest-stockprice1">
+    <title>Setting Share Price</title>
+
+    <para>The value of a commodity, such as a stock, must be explicitly set.
+    The stock accounts track the quantity of stocks you own, but the value of
+    the stock is stored in the <emphasis>Price Editor</emphasis>. The values
+    set in the <guilabel>Price Editor</guilabel> can be updated manually or automatically.</para>
+
+    <sect2 id="invest-stockprice-initial2">
+      <title>Initial Price Editor Setup</title>
+
+      <para>To use the <guilabel>Price Editor</guilabel> to track a stock value, you must initially
+      insert the stock. To do so, open the <guilabel>Price Editor</guilabel>
+      (<menuchoice><guimenu>Tools</guimenu><guimenuitem>Price Editor</guimenuitem></menuchoice>) and
+      click on <guibutton>Add</guibutton> button. The first time a
+      Commodity/Stock is entered this window will be blank except for the
+      control buttons on the bottom. Select the appropriate Commodity you want
+      to insert into the <guilabel>Price Editor</guilabel>. At this point, you can input the price
+      of the commodity manually. There are 6 fields in the New Commodity
+      window:</para>
+
+	<variablelist>
+	  <varlistentry>
+            <term><guilabel>Namespace</guilabel></term>
+	    <listitem>
+              <para>The exchange market where the security/commodity
+              is traded (in this example NASDAQ)</para>
+            </listitem>
+	  </varlistentry>
+
+	  <varlistentry>
+            <term><guilabel>Security</guilabel></term>
+            <listitem>
+              <para>The name of the commodity,
+              must be chosen from the <guibutton>Select...</guibutton> list</para>
+            </listitem>
+	  </varlistentry>
+
+	  <varlistentry>
+            <term><guilabel>Currency</guilabel></term>
+            <listitem>
+              <para>The currency in which the
+              Price is expressed.</para>
+            </listitem>
+	  </varlistentry>
+
+	  <varlistentry>
+            <term><guilabel>Date</guilabel></term>
+            <listitem>
+              <para>Date that the price is
+              valid</para>
+            </listitem>
+	  </varlistentry>
+
+	  <varlistentry>
+            <term><guilabel>Type</guilabel></term>
+            <listitem>
+              <para>One of: <guilabel>Bid</guilabel>
+              (the market buying price), <guilabel>Ask</guilabel> (the market
+              selling price), <guilabel>Last</guilabel> (the last transaction
+              price), <guilabel>Net Asset Value</guilabel> (mutual fund price per
+              share), or <guilabel>Unknown</guilabel>. Stocks and currencies will
+              usually give their quotes as one of bid, ask or last. Mutual funds
+              are often given as net asset value. For other commodities, simply
+              choose <guilabel>Unknown</guilabel>. This option is for informational purposes only, it
+              is not used by <application>&app;</application>.</para>
+            </listitem>
+	  </varlistentry>
+
+	  <varlistentry>
+            <term><guilabel>Price</guilabel></term>
+            <listitem>
+              <para>The price of one unit of this
+              commodity.</para>
+            </listitem>
+	  </varlistentry>
+	</variablelist>
+
+      <para>As an example of adding the AMZN commodity to the price editor,
+      with an initial value of $40.50 per share.</para>
+
+      <screenshot id="invest-peditor">
+        <mediaobject>
+           <imageobject role="html">
+             <imagedata fileref="figures/invest_peditor.png" format="PNG"
+                        srccredit="Cristian Marchi"></imagedata>
+           </imageobject>
+           <imageobject role="fo">
+             <imagedata fileref="figures/invest_peditor.png" format="PNG"
+                        srccredit="Cristian Marchi"></imagedata>
+           </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>Price Editor</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption><para>Adding the AMZN commodity to the price editor, with
+          an initial value of $40.50 per share.</para></caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+
+      <para>Click <guibutton>OK</guibutton> when finished. Once you have
+      performed this initial placement of the commodity into the <guilabel>Price Editor</guilabel>,
+      you will not have to do it again, even if you use the same commodity in
+      another account.</para>
+
+      <note>
+        <para>If you have online retrieval of quotes activated (see <xref
+        linkend="invest-stockprice-auto2"></xref>), you can initialize a
+        commodity without manually making an entry. When you initially add
+        the security in the <guilabel>Security Editor</guilabel>, check
+        <guibutton>Get Online Quotes</guibutton> and save the security.
+        Then, in the <guilabel>Price Editor</guilabel>, click
+        <guibutton>Get Quotes</guibutton>, and the new security will be
+        inserted into the price list with the retrieved price.</para>
+      </note>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="invest-stockprice-manual2">
+      <title>Setting Stock Price Manually</title>
+
+      <para>If the value of the commodity (stock) changes, you can adjust the
+      value by entering the <guilabel>Price Editor</guilabel>, selecting the commodity, clicking on
+      <guibutton>Edit</guibutton> and entering the new price.</para>
+
+      <screenshot id="invest-peditor2">
+        <mediaobject>
+           <imageobject role="html">
+             <imagedata fileref="figures/invest_peditor2.png" format="PNG"
+                        srccredit="Cristian Marchi" width="510px"></imagedata>
+           </imageobject>
+           <imageobject role="fo">
+             <imagedata fileref="figures/invest_peditor2.png" format="PNG"
+                        srccredit="Cristian Marchi"></imagedata>
+           </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>Price Editor</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption><para>The main price editor window, showing the list of all
+          known commodities.</para></caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="invest-stockprice-auto2">
+      <title>Configuring for Automatic Retrieval of Quotes</title>
+
+      <para>If you have more than a couple of commodities, you will tire of
+      having to update their prices constantly. <application>&app;</application> has the ability to
+      automatically download the most recent price for your commodities using
+      the Internet. This is accomplished through the <application>Perl</application> module
+      <application>Finance::Quote</application>, which must be installed in order to activate this
+      feature.</para>
+
+      <para>To determine if the <application>Perl</application> module <application>Finance::Quote</application> is already
+      installed on your system, type <command>perldoc Finance::Quote</command> in
+      a terminal window and check to see if there is any documentation
+      available. If you see the documentation, then the module is installed,
+      if you do not see the documentation, then it has not been
+      installed.</para>
+
+      <sect3 id="invest-stockprice-auto-install3">
+        <title>Installing <application>Finance::Quote</application></title>
+	<para><emphasis role="strong">Microsoft Windows:</emphasis>
+	<itemizedlist>
+	  <listitem>
+            <para>Close <application>&app;</application>.</para>
+          </listitem>
+	  <listitem>
+            <para>Run <emphasis role="strong">Install Online Price
+            Retrieval</emphasis> which can be found in the
+            <application>&app;</application> <quote>Start</quote> menu
+            entry.</para>
+          </listitem>
+	</itemizedlist>
+        </para>
+
+	<para><emphasis role="strong">Mac OS X:</emphasis> You need to
+	have XCode installed. XCode is an optional item from your OS X
+	distribution DVD. Run the <emphasis role="strong">Update
+	Finance Quote</emphasis> app in the
+	<application>&app;</application> dmg. You can run it from the
+	dmg or copy it to the same folder to which you copied
+	<application>&app;</application>. It will open a Terminal
+	window and run a script for you which will ask lots of
+	questions. Accept the default for each unless you know what
+	you’re doing.</para>
+
+        <para><emphasis role="strong">Linux:</emphasis>
+	<itemizedlist>
+	  <listitem>
+            <para>Close any running <application>&app;</application> instances.</para>
+          </listitem>
+	  <listitem>
+            <para>Locate the folder where <application>&app;</application>
+            is installed by searching for <application>gnc-fq-update</application></para>
+          </listitem>
+	  <listitem>
+            <para>Change to that directory, open a root shell</para>
+          </listitem>
+	  <listitem>
+            <para>Run the command <command>gnc-fq-update</command></para>
+          </listitem>
+	</itemizedlist>
+
+	This will launch a <application>Perl</application> CPAN update session that will go out
+	onto the internet and install the <application>Finance::Quote</application> module on
+	your system. The gnc-fq-update program is interactive,
+	however, with most systems you should be able to answer
+	<quote>no</quote> to the first question: <quote>Are you ready
+	for manual configuration? [yes]</quote> and the update will
+	continue automatically from that point.</para>
+
+        <para>After installation is complete, you should run the <quote>gnc-fq-dump</quote>
+        test program, in the same directory, distributed with <application>&app;</application> to test
+        if <application>Finance::Quote</application> is installed and working properly.</para>
+
+        <note>
+          <para>If you feel uncomfortable about performing any of these steps,
+          please either email the <application>&app;</application>-user mailing list
+          (<email>gnucash-user at gnucash.org</email>) for help or come to the <application>&app;</application> IRC
+          channel on irc.gnome.org. You can also leave out this step and
+          manually update your stock prices.</para>
+        </note>
+      </sect3>
+
+      <sect3 id="invest-stockprice-auto-configure3">
+        <title>Configuring Securities for Online Quotes</title>
+
+        <para>With <application>Finance::Quote</application> installed and functioning correctly, you
+        must configure your <application>&app;</application> securities to use this feature to
+        obtain updated price information automatically. Whether creating new securities or modifying securities
+        that have already been setup, use the <menuchoice><guimenu>Tools</guimenu><guimenuitem>Security Editor</guimenuitem>
+        </menuchoice>, to edit the
+        security and check the <guilabel>Get Online Quotes</guilabel> box. You will
+        now be able to modify the radio buttons for <guilabel>Type of quote source</guilabel>, the pull-down menus
+        to specify the specific source(s) and <guilabel>The timezone for these
+        quotes</guilabel>. When finished editing, <guilabel>Close</guilabel> the Security Editor to return to
+        the <guilabel>Price Editor</guilabel> and click on the <guibutton>Get Quotes</guibutton>
+        button to update your stock prices on the Internet.</para>
+
+        <para>The command <command>gnucash --add-price-quotes $HOME/gnucash-filename</command>
+        can be used to fetch the current prices of your stocks.  The file specified
+        <filename class="directory">$HOME/gnucash-filename</filename> will depend on the name and location of your
+        data file.
+        This can be determined by the name displayed in the top frame of the <application>&app;</application> window,
+        before the <quote>-</quote>.  The file name can also be found under <guimenu>File</guimenu>
+        in the recently opened file list; the first item, numbered 1, is the name of the currently
+        open file.</para>
+
+        <para>This can be automated by creating a <application>crontab</application> entry. For example,
+        to update your file every Friday evening (16:00) after the relevant exchange
+        markets close (modify the time accordingly for your time zone), you could add
+        the following to your personal <application>crontab</application>:</para>
+
+        <para>0 16 * * 5 gnucash --add-price-quotes $HOME/gnucash-filename >
+        /dev/null 2>&1</para>
+
+        <para>Remember that Mutual Fund <quote>prices</quote> are really <quote>Net Asset
+        Value</quote> and require several hours after the exchange closes before being
+        available. If <acronym>NAV</acronym>s are downloaded before the current days <acronym>NAV</acronym>s are
+        determined, yesterday’s <acronym>NAV</acronym>s are retrieved.</para>
+      </sect3>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="invest-stockprice-view2">
+      <title>Displaying Share Value</title>
+
+      <para>The main account window, by default, only shows the quantity of
+      each commodity that you own, under the column heading
+      <guilabel>Total</guilabel>. In the case of stocks, this commodity is the
+      number of shares. Often, however, you will want to see the value of your
+      stocks expressed in terms of some monetary unit. This is easily
+      accomplished by entering the main window, selecting the <guilabel>Accounts</guilabel> tab,
+      by clicking on the <emphasis>Titlebar</emphasis> <guibutton>Options</guibutton> button (the small
+      down pointing arrow on the right side of the main account window titles bar), and
+      selecting the option to display the account total field <quote>Total
+      (USD)</quote>. You will see a new column in the main window entitled
+      <guilabel>Total (USD)</guilabel> that will express the value of all
+      commodities in the report currency.</para>
+
+      <screenshot id="invest-stockvalue">
+        <mediaobject>
+           <imageobject role="html">
+             <imagedata fileref="figures/invest_stockvalue.png" format="PNG"
+                        srccredit="Cristian Marchi" width="510px"></imagedata>
+           </imageobject>
+           <imageobject role="fo">
+             <imagedata fileref="figures/invest_stockvalue.png" format="PNG"
+                        srccredit="Cristian Marchi"></imagedata>
+           </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>Viewing Stock Value</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption><para>Viewing the value of a stock commodity in the main
+          window using the Total in Report Currency option.</para></caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="invest-stockprice-report">
+      <title>Selecting <quote>Price Source</quote> in Stock Value Reports</title>
+
+      <para>Most <application>&app;</application> Asset reports have options to set/modify a number of parameters for the report.  The
+       Options windows is displayed by selecting the report tab then clicking on either the <guibutton>Options</guibutton>
+       icon in the <emphasis>Menubar</emphasis> or selecting <menuchoice><guimenu>Edit</guimenu><guimenuitem>Report Options</guimenuitem></menuchoice>.
+       The <guilabel>General</guilabel> tab in the
+       resulting window contains various parameters for the report.  One of these is <quote>Price Source</quote> which of offers
+       three alternatives to determine stock prices in reports:</para>
+       <note>
+         <para>In the example below, the report is a customization of
+         the <emphasis role="strong">Average Balance</emphasis> report
+         in the Assets & Liabilities reports submenu.</para>
+       </note>
+      <screenshot id="invest-stockvalue-report-options">
+        <mediaobject>
+          <imageobject>
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/invest_stockvalue_report_options.png"
+                       format="PNG" srccredit="Dave Herman" ></imagedata>
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>Determining Stock Price Source in Reports</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption><para>Determining the value of a stock commodity in a
+          report by setting the Price Source option.</para></caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+
+      <itemizedlist>
+        <listitem>
+          <para><guilabel>Weighted Average</guilabel> - gives you a graph of
+          the weighted price of all <emphasis>transactions</emphasis>. It will
+          <emphasis>not</emphasis> take into account prices defined in the
+          price editor.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><guilabel>Most recent</guilabel> - displays the changing value
+          of your stocks based solely on <emphasis>the most recent</emphasis>
+          price available from the price editor. The price figuring in your
+          stock transactions is <emphasis>not</emphasis> considered.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><guilabel>Nearest in time</guilabel> - the graph is
+          exclusively based on the prices available from the price editor. The
+          value of your stock at each step and point in time is calculated
+          based on the nearest available price in the price editor.</para>
+        </listitem>
+      </itemizedlist>
+
+      <screenshot id="invest-stockvalue-report">
+        <mediaobject>
+          <imageobject>
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/invest_stockvalue_report.png"
+                       format="PNG" srccredit="Dave Herman" ></imagedata>
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>An Asset Barchart Report based on the <guilabel>Nearest in
+            time</guilabel> Price Source.</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption><para>Tracking what value your stocks would’ve had on the
+          stock exchanges.</para></caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+    </sect2>
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="invest-sell1">
+    <title>Selling Shares</title>
+
+    <para>Entering an investment sale transaction is done in a similar way to
+      entering a buy transaction (see <xref linkend="invest-buy-new2" />) except
+      the amount entered in the <emphasis>Shares</emphasis> column is negative
+      and the proceeds of the transaction is entered in the <emphasis>Sell
+      </emphasis> column. The net proceeds from the sale should be
+      transferred from the shares account to your bank or brokerage account.
+    </para>
+
+    <para>For information on handling <emphasis>commissions</emphasis> and the
+      use of <emphasis>Net Pricing</emphasis> or <emphasis>Gross Pricing</emphasis>,
+      please see <xref linkend="invest-buy-com" />.
+    </para>
+
+    <para>If you will be recording a capital gain or loss on the sale, please
+      see <xref linkend="chapter_capgain" /> and <xref linkend="chapter_dep" />
+      for more information on this topic.
+    </para>
+
+    <para>To use the <application>&app;</application><emphasis> Automatic
+      Calculation of Capital Gain or Loss Using Lots</emphasis> feature, please
+      see <xref linkend="invest-sellLots" /> otherwise continue to the next
+      section.
+    </para>
+
+    <sect2 id="invest-sell-man">
+      <title>Selling Shares with Manual Calculation of Capital Gain or Loss
+      </title>
+
+      <note>
+        <para>In order for <application>&app;</application> to commit the
+          zero-share, zero-price split for account <emphasis>Assets:Stock:SYMBOL
+          </emphasis> to the transaction in the following schemes, you *must*
+          <keycap>Tab</keycap> out of that split. If you use the
+          <keycap function="enter">Enter</keycap> key, <application>&app;
+          </application> will convert the split into shares of the commodity.
+        </para>
+      </note>
+
+      <para>In the schemes of transaction splits presented below, the
+        following symbols are used:
+      </para>
+
+      <itemizedlist>
+        <listitem><para>NUM_SHARES: number of shares you are selling</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem><para>COMMISSION: brokerage commissions or fees</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem><para>GROSS_SELL_PRICE: unit price for which you sold the
+          shares, not reduced by COMMISSION</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para>NET_SELL_PRICE: unit price for which you sold the shares,
+            reduced by COMMISSION</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para>GROSS_BUY_PRICE: unit price for which you bought the shares,
+            not increased by COMMISSION</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para>NET_BUY_PRICE: unit price for which you bought the shares,
+            increased by COMMISSION</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem><para>GROSS_BUY: total price for which you bought shares,
+          excluding COMMISSION, equal to NUM_SHARES * GROSS_BUY_PRICE</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para>NET_BUY: amount of money for which you bought shares
+            including COMMISSION, equal to GROSS_BUY + COMMISSION.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem><para>GROSS_SALE: total price for which you sold shares,
+          equal to NUM_SHARES * GROSS_SELL_PRICE</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para>NET_SALE: amount of money received from the sale, equal to
+            GROSS_SALE − COMMISSION</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para>GROSS_PROFIT: amount of money you made on the sale, not
+            reduced by COMMISSION</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para>NET_PROFIT: amount of money you made on the sale, reduced by
+            COMMISSION</para>
+        </listitem>
+      </itemizedlist>
+
+      <para>There are 2 ways of manually recording the capital gain or loss.
+        The capital gain/loss can be combined with the sale in one transaction
+        or it can be entered in a separate transaction.
+
+      </para>
+
+      <sect3 id="invest-sell-man-comb">
+        <title>Combine the Sale and Capital Gain/Loss in One Transaction</title>
+
+        <para>This has the advantage that all parts of the sale event are kept
+          together. This is <emphasis>not</emphasis> compatible with using
+          <emphasis>scrubbing</emphasis>
+          (see <xref linkend="invest-sellLots" />). If you may in future use
+          scrubbing on a specific security, save some work later by entering the
+          capital gain/loss splits in a separate transaction now.
+        </para>
+
+        <para>When the capital gain/loss splits are combined with the sale
+          splits in one transaction, there are 2 splits for the security
+          account in the same transaction, so the transaction must be entered
+          with the security register in <guilabel> Auto-Split Ledger</guilabel>
+          or <guilabel>Transaction Journal</guilabel> view. One of the splits
+          for the security account is for the sale and the other is for the
+          capital gain or loss. The security account split for the capital gain
+          or loss must be entered with 0 number of shares and 0 price per share
+          to stop the automatic recalculation of these fields.
+        </para>
+
+        <para>
+          Account for the profit or loss as coming from an
+          <emphasis>Income:Capital Gains</emphasis> or
+          <emphasis>Expenses:Capital Loss</emphasis> account.
+        </para>
+
+        <sect4 id="invest-sell-man-comb-gr">
+          <title>Combined, Gross Pricing</title>
+
+          <table>
+            <title>Selling Shares Split Scheme, Sale and Capital Gain/Loss Are
+              Combined, Gross Pricing</title>
+
+            <tgroup cols="5">
+                      <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="2*"/>
+                      <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="2*"/>
+                      <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="2*"/>
+                      <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="2*"/>
+                      <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="2*"/>
+              <tbody>
+                <row>
+                  <entry><emphasis>Account</emphasis></entry>
+                  <entry><emphasis>Number of Shares</emphasis></entry>
+                  <entry><emphasis>Share Price</emphasis></entry>
+                  <entry><emphasis>Total Buy</emphasis></entry>
+                  <entry><emphasis>Total Sell</emphasis></entry>
+                </row>
+
+                <row>
+                  <entry>Assets:Bank ABC</entry>
+                  <entry></entry>
+                  <entry></entry>
+                  <entry>NET_SALE</entry>
+                  <entry></entry>
+                </row>
+
+                <row>
+                  <entry>Assets:Stock:SYMBOL</entry>
+                  <entry>0</entry>
+                  <entry>0</entry>
+                  <entry>GROSS_PROFIT</entry>
+                  <entry>(Loss)</entry>
+                </row>
+
+                <row>
+                  <entry>Expenses:Commission</entry>
+                  <entry></entry>
+                  <entry></entry>
+                  <entry>COMMISSION</entry>
+                  <entry></entry>
+                </row>
+
+                <row>
+                  <entry>Assets:Stock:SYMBOL</entry>
+                  <entry>−NUM_SHARES</entry>
+                  <entry>GROSS_SELL_PRICE</entry>
+                  <entry></entry>
+                  <entry>GROSS_SALE</entry>
+                </row>
+
+                <row>
+                  <entry>Income:Capital Gains</entry>
+                  <entry></entry>
+                  <entry></entry>
+                  <entry>(Loss)</entry>
+                  <entry>GROSS_PROFIT</entry>
+                </row>
+              </tbody>
+            </tgroup>
+          </table>
+        </sect4>
+
+        <sect4 id="invest-sell-man-comb-net">
+          <title>Combined, Net Pricing</title>
+
+          <table>
+            <title>Selling Shares Split Scheme, Sale and Capital Gain/Loss Are
+              Combined, Net Pricing</title>
+
+            <tgroup cols="5">
+                      <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="2*"/>
+                      <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="2*"/>
+                      <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="2*"/>
+                      <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="2*"/>
+                      <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="2*"/>
+              <tbody>
+                <row>
+                  <entry><emphasis>Account</emphasis></entry>
+                  <entry><emphasis>Number of Shares</emphasis></entry>
+                  <entry><emphasis>Share Price</emphasis></entry>
+                  <entry><emphasis>Total Buy</emphasis></entry>
+                  <entry><emphasis>Total Sell</emphasis></entry>
+                </row>
+
+                <row>
+                  <entry>Assets:Bank ABC</entry>
+                  <entry></entry>
+                  <entry></entry>
+                  <entry>NET_SALE</entry>
+                  <entry></entry>
+                </row>
+
+                <row>
+                  <entry>Assets:Stock:SYMBOL</entry>
+                  <entry>0</entry>
+                  <entry>0</entry>
+                  <entry>NET_PROFIT</entry>
+                  <entry>(Loss)</entry>
+                </row>
+
+                <row>
+                  <entry>Assets:Stock:SYMBOL</entry>
+                  <entry>−NUM_SHARES</entry>
+                  <entry>NET_SELL_PRICE</entry>
+                  <entry></entry>
+                  <entry>NET_SALE</entry>
+                </row>
+
+                <row>
+                  <entry>Income:Capital Gain</entry>
+                  <entry></entry>
+                  <entry></entry>
+                  <entry>(Loss)</entry>
+                  <entry>NET_PROFIT</entry>
+                </row>
+
+              </tbody>
+            </tgroup>
+          </table>
+        </sect4>
+      </sect3>
+
+      <sect3 id="invest-sell-man-sep">
+        <title>Separate the Capital Gain/Loss Transaction from the Sale
+          Transaction.</title>
+
+        <para>This is <emphasis>required</emphasis> if using <emphasis>scrubbing
+          </emphasis> to automatically calculate and create capital gain/loss
+          transactions (otherwise scrubbing will not detect them and will create
+          an incorrectly valued gain/loss transaction).
+        </para>
+
+        <sect4 id="invest-sell-man-sep-gr">
+          <title>Separated, Gross Pricing</title>
+
+          <table>
+            <title>Selling Shares Split Scheme, Sale and Capital Gain/Loss Are
+              Separate Transactions, Sale Transaction</title>
+
+            <tgroup cols="5">
+                      <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="2*"/>
+                      <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="2*"/>
+                      <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="2*"/>
+                      <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="2*"/>
+                      <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="2*"/>
+              <tbody>
+                <row>
+                  <entry><emphasis>Account</emphasis></entry>
+                  <entry><emphasis>Number of Shares</emphasis></entry>
+                  <entry><emphasis>Share Price</emphasis></entry>
+                  <entry><emphasis>Total Buy</emphasis></entry>
+                  <entry><emphasis>Total Sell</emphasis></entry>
+                </row>
+
+                <row>
+                  <entry>Assets:Bank ABC</entry>
+                  <entry></entry>
+                  <entry></entry>
+                  <entry>NET_SALE</entry>
+                  <entry></entry>
+                </row>
+
+                <row>
+                  <entry>Expenses:Commission</entry>
+                  <entry></entry>
+                  <entry></entry>
+                  <entry>COMMISSION</entry>
+                  <entry></entry>
+                </row>
+
+                <row>
+                  <entry>Assets:Stock:SYMBOL</entry>
+                  <entry>−NUM_SHARES</entry>
+                  <entry>GROSS_SELL_PRICE</entry>
+                  <entry></entry>
+                  <entry>GROSS_SALE</entry>
+                </row>
+              </tbody>
+            </tgroup>
+          </table>
+
+          <table>
+            <title>Selling Shares Split Scheme, Sale and Capital Gain/Loss Are
+              Separate Transactions, Capital Gain/Loss Transaction</title>
+
+            <tgroup cols="5">
+                      <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="2*"/>
+                      <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="2*"/>
+                      <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="2*"/>
+                      <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="2*"/>
+                      <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="2*"/>
+              <tbody>
+                <row>
+                  <entry><emphasis>Account</emphasis></entry>
+                  <entry><emphasis>Number of Shares</emphasis></entry>
+                  <entry><emphasis>Share Price</emphasis></entry>
+                  <entry><emphasis>Total Buy</emphasis></entry>
+                  <entry><emphasis>Total Sell</emphasis></entry>
+                </row>
+
+                <row>
+                  <entry>Assets:Stock:SYMBOL</entry>
+                  <entry>0</entry>
+                  <entry>0</entry>
+                  <entry>GROSS_PROFIT</entry>
+                  <entry>(Loss)</entry>
+                </row>
+
+                <row>
+                  <entry>Income:Capital Gain</entry>
+                  <entry></entry>
+                  <entry></entry>
+                  <entry>(Loss)</entry>
+                  <entry>GROSS_PROFIT</entry>
+                </row>
+              </tbody>
+            </tgroup>
+          </table>
+        </sect4>
+
+        <sect4 id="invest-sell-man-sep-net">
+          <title>Separated, Net Pricing</title>
+
+          <table>
+            <title>Selling Shares Split Scheme, Sale and Capital Gain/Loss Are
+              Separate Transactions, Sale Transaction</title>
+
+            <tgroup cols="5">
+                      <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="2*"/>
+                      <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="2*"/>
+                      <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="2*"/>
+                      <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="2*"/>
+                      <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="2*"/>
+              <tbody>
+                <row>
+                  <entry><emphasis>Account</emphasis></entry>
+                  <entry><emphasis>Number of Shares</emphasis></entry>
+                  <entry><emphasis>Share Price</emphasis></entry>
+                  <entry><emphasis>Total Buy</emphasis></entry>
+                  <entry><emphasis>Total Sell</emphasis></entry>
+                </row>
+
+                <row>
+                  <entry>Assets:Bank ABC</entry>
+                  <entry></entry>
+                  <entry></entry>
+                  <entry>NET_SALE</entry>
+                  <entry></entry>
+                </row>
+
+                <row>
+                  <entry>Assets:Stock:SYMBOL</entry>
+                  <entry>−NUM_SHARES</entry>
+                  <entry>NET_SELL_PRICE</entry>
+                  <entry></entry>
+                  <entry>NET_SALE</entry>
+                </row>
+              </tbody>
+            </tgroup>
+          </table>
+
+          <table>
+            <title>Selling Shares Split Scheme, Sale and Capital Gain/Loss Are
+              Separate Transactions, Capital Gain/Loss Transaction</title>
+
+            <tgroup cols="5">
+                      <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="2*"/>
+                      <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="2*"/>
+                      <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="2*"/>
+                      <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="2*"/>
+                      <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="2*"/>
+              <tbody>
+                <row>
+                  <entry><emphasis>Account</emphasis></entry>
+                  <entry><emphasis>Number of Shares</emphasis></entry>
+                  <entry><emphasis>Share Price</emphasis></entry>
+                  <entry><emphasis>Total Buy</emphasis></entry>
+                  <entry><emphasis>Total Sell</emphasis></entry>
+                </row>
+
+                <row>
+                  <entry>Assets:Stock:SYMBOL</entry>
+                  <entry>0</entry>
+                  <entry>0</entry>
+                  <entry>NET_PROFIT</entry>
+                  <entry>(Loss)</entry>
+                </row>
+
+                <row>
+                  <entry>Income:Capital Gain</entry>
+                  <entry></entry>
+                  <entry></entry>
+                  <entry>(Loss)</entry>
+                  <entry>NET_PROFIT</entry>
+                </row>
+              </tbody>
+            </tgroup>
+          </table>
+        </sect4>
+      </sect3>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="invest-sell-man-examples">
+      <title>Examples of Selling Shares with Manually Entry of Capital Gain or
+        Loss</title>
+
+      <para>In these examples we will use the AMZN account created in the
+        previous section.
+      </para>
+
+      <sect3 id="invest-sell-man-prof-comb-gross">
+        <title>Example: Sale of Shares with Profit, Manual Profit/Loss
+          Calculation, Sale & Profit Combined, Gross Pricing</title>
+
+        <para>In this example you bought 100 shares of AMZN for $20 per share,
+          then later sell them all for $36 per share with a commission of $75.
+          In the split transaction scheme above, GROSS_BUY_PRICE is $20 (the
+          original buying price), NUM_SHARES is 100, GROSS_BUY is $2000 (the
+          original buying cost), GROSS_SALE is $3600, and finally GROSS_PROFIT
+          is $1600 (GROSS_SALE − GROSS_BUY).
+        </para>
+
+        <table>
+          <title>Selling Shares Split Scheme, Sale & Gain Combined, Gross
+            Pricing</title>
+
+          <?dbfo table-width="70%" ?>
+
+          <tgroup cols="5">
+                  <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="4*"/>
+                  <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="2*"/>
+                  <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="2*"/>
+                  <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="1*"/>
+                  <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="1*"/>
+            <tbody>
+              <row>
+                <entry><emphasis>Account</emphasis></entry>
+                <entry><emphasis>Shares</emphasis></entry>
+                <entry><emphasis>Price</emphasis></entry>
+                <entry><emphasis>Buy</emphasis></entry>
+                <entry><emphasis>Sell</emphasis></entry>
+              </row>
+
+              <row>
+                <entry>Assets:Bank ABC</entry>
+                <entry></entry>
+                <entry></entry>
+                <entry>3525.00</entry>
+                <entry></entry>
+              </row>
+
+              <row>
+                <entry>Assets:Brokerage Account:Stock:AMZN</entry>
+                <entry>0</entry>
+                <entry>0</entry>
+                <entry>1600.00</entry>
+                <entry></entry>
+              </row>
+
+              <row>
+                <entry>Expenses:Commission</entry>
+                <entry></entry>
+                <entry></entry>
+                <entry>75.00</entry>
+                <entry></entry>
+              </row>
+
+              <row>
+                <entry>Assets:Brokerage Account:Stock:AMZN</entry>
+                <entry>−100</entry>
+                <entry>36.00</entry>
+                <entry></entry>
+                <entry>3600.00</entry>
+              </row>
+
+              <row>
+                <entry>Income:Capital Gain (Long Term):AMZN</entry>
+                <entry></entry>
+                <entry></entry>
+                <entry></entry>
+                <entry>1600.00</entry>
+              </row>
+            </tbody>
+          </tgroup>
+        </table>
+
+        <screenshot id="invest-sellstockManProfComb">
+          <mediaobject>
+             <imageobject role="html">
+               <imagedata fileref="figures/invest_sellstock.png" format="PNG"
+                          srccredit="Chris Good" width="510px"></imagedata>
+             </imageobject>
+             <imageobject role="fo">
+               <imagedata fileref="figures/invest_sellstock.png" format="PNG"
+                          srccredit="Chris Good"></imagedata>
+             </imageobject>
+
+            <textobject>
+              <phrase>Selling Shares Example</phrase>
+            </textobject>
+
+            <caption><para>An example of selling shares for gain. You bought 100
+              shares of AMZN for $20 per share, and sold for $36.</para>
+            </caption>
+          </mediaobject>
+        </screenshot>
+
+        <note><para>In the above screenshot, it appears there are 2 transactions
+          for Mar 21st 2006. This is because the register is in <guilabel>
+          Auto-Split Ledger</guilabel> view and there are 2 splits for the
+          register account in the 1 transaction. <guilabel>Transaction Journal
+          </guilabel> view may be clearer. Refer to
+          <xref linkend="txns-registers-txntypes" />. As there are 2 splits for
+          the register account in the sale transaction, this transaction must be
+          entered in <guilabel>Auto-Split Ledger</guilabel> or <guilabel>
+          Transaction Journal</guilabel> view. It cannot be entered in
+          <guilabel>Basic Ledger</guilabel> view.</para>
+        </note>
+
+        <para> </para>
+
+        <screenshot id="invest-sellstockManProfComb2">
+          <mediaobject>
+            <imageobject role="html">
+               <imagedata fileref="figures/invest_sellstock2.png" format="PNG"
+                          srccredit="Chris Good" width="510px"></imagedata>
+             </imageobject>
+             <imageobject role="fo">
+               <imagedata fileref="figures/invest_sellstock2.png" format="PNG"
+                          srccredit="Chris Good"></imagedata>
+             </imageobject>
+
+            <textobject>
+              <phrase>Selling Shares Example</phrase>
+            </textobject>
+
+            <caption><para>An image of the account tree after the example of
+            selling shares for gain. </para></caption>
+          </mediaobject>
+        </screenshot>
+      </sect3>
+
+      <sect3 id="invest-sell-man-prof-comb-net">
+        <title>Example: Sale of Shares with Profit, Manual Profit/Loss
+          Calculation, Sale & Profit Combined, Net Pricing</title>
+
+        <para>In this example you bought 100 shares of AMZN for $20 per share
+          (including commissions), then later sell them all for $36 per share
+          with a commission of $75. In the split transaction scheme above,
+          NUM_SHARES is 100, NET_BUY_PRICE is $20 (the original buying price),
+          NET_BUY is $2000 (the original buying cost), NET_SELL_PRICE is $35.25
+          (($3600 − $75) / 100)), GROSS_SALE is $3600, NET_SALE is $3525,
+          and finally NET_PROFIT is $1525 (NET_SALE − NET_BUY).
+        </para>
+
+        <table>
+          <title>Selling Shares Split Scheme, Sale & Gain Combined, Net
+            Pricing</title>
+
+          <?dbfo table-width="70%" ?>
+
+          <tgroup cols="5">
+                  <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="4*"/>
+                  <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="2*"/>
+                  <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="2*"/>
+                  <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="1*"/>
+                  <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="1*"/>
+            <tbody>
+              <row>
+                <entry><emphasis>Account</emphasis></entry>
+                <entry><emphasis>Shares</emphasis></entry>
+                <entry><emphasis>Price</emphasis></entry>
+                <entry><emphasis>Buy</emphasis></entry>
+                <entry><emphasis>Sell</emphasis></entry>
+              </row>
+
+              <row>
+                <entry>Assets:Bank ABC</entry>
+                <entry></entry>
+                <entry></entry>
+                <entry>3525.00</entry>
+                <entry></entry>
+              </row>
+
+              <row>
+                <entry>Assets:Brokerage Account:Stock:AMZN</entry>
+                <entry>0</entry>
+                <entry>0</entry>
+                <entry>1525.00</entry>
+                <entry></entry>
+              </row>
+
+              <row>
+                <entry>Assets:Brokerage Account:Stock:AMZN</entry>
+                <entry>−100</entry>
+                <entry>35.25</entry>
+                <entry></entry>
+                <entry>3525.00</entry>
+              </row>
+
+              <row>
+                <entry>Income:Capital Gain (Long Term):AMZN</entry>
+                <entry></entry>
+                <entry></entry>
+                <entry></entry>
+                <entry>1525.00</entry>
+              </row>
+            </tbody>
+          </tgroup>
+        </table>
+
+        <screenshot id="invest-sellstockManProfCombNet">
+          <mediaobject>
+             <imageobject role="html">
+               <imagedata fileref="figures/invest_sellstockManProfCombNet.png" format="PNG"
+                          srccredit="Chris Good" width="510px"></imagedata>
+             </imageobject>
+             <imageobject role="fo">
+               <imagedata fileref="figures/invest_sellstockManProfCombNet.png" format="PNG"
+                          srccredit="Chris Good"></imagedata>
+             </imageobject>
+
+            <textobject>
+              <phrase>Selling Shares Example</phrase>
+            </textobject>
+
+            <caption><para>An example of selling shares for gain using net
+              pricing in transaction journal view. You bought 100 shares of AMZN
+              for $20 per share, and sold for $36.</para>
+            </caption>
+          </mediaobject>
+        </screenshot>
+
+        <para> </para>
+      </sect3>
+
+      <sect3 id="invest-sell-man-prof-sep-gross">
+        <title>Example: Sale of Shares with Profit, Manual Profit/Loss
+          Calculation, Sale & Profit Separated, Gross Pricing</title>
+
+        <para>You bought 100 shares of AMZN for $20 per share and commissions
+          $20, then later sell them all for $36 per share with a commission of
+          $75. In the split transaction scheme above, GROSS_BUY_PRICE is $20
+          (the original buying price), NUM_SHARES is 100, GROSS_BUY is $2000
+          (the original buying cost), GROSS_SALE is $3600, and finally
+          GROSS_PROFIT is $1600 (GROSS_SALE − GROSS_BUY).
+        </para>
+
+        <table>
+          <title>Selling Shares Split Scheme, Sale Transaction</title>
+
+          <?dbfo table-width="70%" ?>
+
+          <tgroup cols="5">
+                  <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="4*"/>
+                  <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="2*"/>
+                  <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="2*"/>
+                  <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="1*"/>
+                  <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="1*"/>
+            <tbody>
+              <row>
+                <entry><emphasis>Account</emphasis></entry>
+                <entry><emphasis>Shares</emphasis></entry>
+                <entry><emphasis>Price</emphasis></entry>
+                <entry><emphasis>Buy</emphasis></entry>
+                <entry><emphasis>Sell</emphasis></entry>
+              </row>
+
+              <row>
+                <entry>Assets:Bank ABC</entry>
+                <entry></entry>
+                <entry></entry>
+                <entry>3525.00</entry>
+                <entry></entry>
+              </row>
+
+              <row>
+                <entry>Expenses:Commission</entry>
+                <entry></entry>
+                <entry></entry>
+                <entry>75.00</entry>
+                <entry></entry>
+              </row>
+
+              <row>
+                <entry>Assets:Brokerage Account:Stock:AMZN</entry>
+                <entry>−100</entry>
+                <entry>36.00</entry>
+                <entry></entry>
+                <entry>3600.00</entry>
+              </row>
+            </tbody>
+          </tgroup>
+        </table>
+
+        <table>
+          <title>Selling Shares Split Scheme, Gain Transaction</title>
+
+          <?dbfo table-width="70%" ?>
+
+          <tgroup cols="5">
+                  <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="4*"/>
+                  <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="2*"/>
+                  <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="2*"/>
+                  <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="1*"/>
+                  <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="1*"/>
+            <tbody>
+              <row>
+                <entry><emphasis>Account</emphasis></entry>
+                <entry><emphasis>Shares</emphasis></entry>
+                <entry><emphasis>Price</emphasis></entry>
+                <entry><emphasis>Buy</emphasis></entry>
+                <entry><emphasis>Sell</emphasis></entry>
+              </row>
+
+              <row>
+                <entry>Assets:Brokerage Account:Stock:AMZN</entry>
+                <entry>0</entry>
+                <entry>0</entry>
+                <entry>1600.00</entry>
+                <entry></entry>
+              </row>
+
+              <row>
+                <entry>Income:Capital Gain (Long Term):AMZN</entry>
+                <entry></entry>
+                <entry></entry>
+                <entry></entry>
+                <entry>1600.00</entry>
+              </row>
+            </tbody>
+          </tgroup>
+        </table>
+
+        <screenshot id="invest-sellstockManProfSep">
+          <mediaobject>
+             <imageobject role="html">
+               <imagedata fileref="figures/invest_sellstockManProfSep.png" format="PNG"
+                          srccredit="Chris Good" width="510px"></imagedata>
+             </imageobject>
+             <imageobject role="fo">
+               <imagedata fileref="figures/invest_sellstockManProfSep.png" format="PNG"
+                          srccredit="Chris Good"></imagedata>
+             </imageobject>
+
+            <textobject>
+              <phrase>Selling Shares Example</phrase>
+            </textobject>
+
+            <caption><para>An example of selling shares for gain where the sale
+              and gain are recorded in separate transactions, in <guilabel>
+              Transaction Journal</guilabel> view. You bought 100 shares of AMZN
+              for $20 per share, and sold for $36.</para>
+            </caption>
+          </mediaobject>
+        </screenshot>
+      </sect3>
+
+      <sect3 id="invest-sell-man-prof-sep-net">
+        <title>Example: Sale of Shares with Profit, Manual Profit/Loss
+          Calculation, Sale & Profit Separated, Net Pricing</title>
+
+        <para>You bought 100 shares of AMZN for $20 per share (including
+          commissions), then later sell them all for $36 per share with a
+          commission of $75. In the split transaction scheme above, NUM_SHARES
+          is 100, NET_BUY_PRICE is $20 (the original buying price), NET_BUY is
+          $2000 (the original buying cost), NET_SELL_PRICE is $35.25
+          (($3600 − $75) / 100)), GROSS_SALE is $3600, NET_SALE is $3525,
+          and finally NET_PROFIT is $1525 (NET_SALE − NET_BUY).
+        </para>
+
+        <table>
+          <title>Selling Shares Split Scheme, Sale Transaction</title>
+
+          <?dbfo table-width="70%" ?>
+
+          <tgroup cols="5">
+                  <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="4*"/>
+                  <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="2*"/>
+                  <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="2*"/>
+                  <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="1*"/>
+                  <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="1*"/>
+            <tbody>
+              <row>
+                <entry><emphasis>Account</emphasis></entry>
+                <entry><emphasis>Shares</emphasis></entry>
+                <entry><emphasis>Price</emphasis></entry>
+                <entry><emphasis>Buy</emphasis></entry>
+                <entry><emphasis>Sell</emphasis></entry>
+              </row>
+
+              <row>
+                <entry>Assets:Bank ABC</entry>
+                <entry></entry>
+                <entry></entry>
+                <entry>3525.00</entry>
+                <entry></entry>
+              </row>
+
+              <row>
+                <entry>Assets:Brokerage Account:Stock:AMZN</entry>
+                <entry>−100</entry>
+                <entry>35.25</entry>
+                <entry></entry>
+                <entry>3525.00</entry>
+              </row>
+            </tbody>
+          </tgroup>
+        </table>
+
+        <table>
+          <title>Selling Shares Split Scheme, Gain Transaction</title>
+
+          <?dbfo table-width="70%" ?>
+
+          <tgroup cols="5">
+                  <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="4*"/>
+                  <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="2*"/>
+                  <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="2*"/>
+                  <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="1*"/>
+                  <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="1*"/>
+            <tbody>
+              <row>
+                <entry><emphasis>Account</emphasis></entry>
+                <entry><emphasis>Shares</emphasis></entry>
+                <entry><emphasis>Price</emphasis></entry>
+                <entry><emphasis>Buy</emphasis></entry>
+                <entry><emphasis>Sell</emphasis></entry>
+              </row>
+
+              <row>
+                <entry>Assets:Brokerage Account:Stock:AMZN</entry>
+                <entry>0</entry>
+                <entry>0</entry>
+                <entry>1525.00</entry>
+                <entry></entry>
+              </row>
+
+              <row>
+                <entry>Income:Capital Gain (Long Term):AMZN</entry>
+                <entry></entry>
+                <entry></entry>
+                <entry></entry>
+                <entry>1525.00</entry>
+              </row>
+            </tbody>
+          </tgroup>
+        </table>
+
+        <screenshot id="invest-sellstockManProfSepNet">
+          <mediaobject>
+             <imageobject role="html">
+               <imagedata fileref="figures/invest_sellstockManProfSepNet.png" format="PNG"
+                          srccredit="Chris Good" width="510px"></imagedata>
+             </imageobject>
+             <imageobject role="fo">
+               <imagedata fileref="figures/invest_sellstockManProfSep.png" format="PNG"
+                          srccredit="Chris Good"></imagedata>
+             </imageobject>
+
+            <textobject>
+              <phrase>Selling Shares Example</phrase>
+            </textobject>
+
+            <caption><para>An example of selling shares for gain where the sale and
+              gain are recorded in separate transactions, in <guilabel>Transaction
+              Journal</guilabel> view. You bought 100 shares of AMZN for $20 per
+              share, and sold for $36.</para>
+            </caption>
+          </mediaobject>
+        </screenshot>
+      </sect3>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="invest-sellLots">
+      <title>Selling Shares with Automatic Calculation of Capital Gain or Loss
+        Using Lots</title>
+
+      <sect3 id="invest-sellLotsIntro">
+        <title>Introduction</title>
+
+        <para>
+          <ulink url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lot">Wikipedia</ulink>
+          includes the following definition of a lot
+        </para>
+
+        <para><quote>a set of goods for sale together in an auction; or a
+          quantity of a financial instrument</quote>.
+        </para>
+
+        <para>
+          <application>&app;</application> has a built-in lot management
+          facility that can be used to keep track of capital gains or losses
+          resulting from security sales. Buy and sell transactions are put into
+          lots for the purpose of calculating the cost of the sale. More
+          specifically, a lot is used to link particular buy and sell
+          transaction splits. Lots can be automatically or manually created and
+          linked. Capital gain or loss can be automatically calculated and
+          transaction(s) created for the difference between the sale value and
+          the cost of the securities sold. <application>&app;</application>
+          refers to this process as <emphasis>scrubbing</emphasis>.
+        </para>
+
+        <para>The term <emphasis>scrub</emphasis> is used because security
+          accounts need to be cleaned after sales to ensure the difference
+          between the cost paid for securities, and value received from selling
+          them, is accounted for as capital gain or loss. If the capital
+          gain/loss is not correct, the Trial Balance
+          (<menuchoice>
+            <guimenu>Reports</guimenu>
+            <guisubmenu>Income & Expense</guisubmenu>
+            <guimenuitem>Trial Balance</guimenuitem>
+          </menuchoice>) bottom line total debits will not balance to
+            total credits.
+        </para>
+
+        <note><para>If you make an error, you can delete the lot(s) and capital
+          gain/loss transaction(s) and retry. Ensure you delete the lot, or at
+          least unlink sale transactions from the lot, before you delete a
+          capital gain/loss transaction. Otherwise, the <guilabel>Lots in
+          Account</guilabel> screen will recreate the capital gain/loss
+          transaction when you select the lot.</para>
+        </note>
+
+        <para>
+          If you are not familiar with FIFO, LIFO or Average costing, please see
+          Wikipedia <ulink
+            url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FIFO_and_LIFO_accounting">
+            FIFO and LIFO accounting</ulink> and <ulink
+            url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Average_cost_method">
+              Average cost method</ulink>.
+        </para>
+
+        <para>
+          If you are not familiar with the difference between <application>&app;
+          </application> transactions and splits, please see
+          <xref linkend="txns-registers-txntypes" />.
+        </para>
+
+        <para>
+          The <application>&app;</application> lot management facility can be a
+          useful feature, reducing manual calculation, especially if dividends
+          have been reinvested over years and there are many different costs
+          involved. It can automatically link buy transactions to sell
+          transactions using FIFO cost method and one can manually link specific
+          buy transactions to sell transactions in order to use LIFO.
+          Advanced Portfolio Report basis costs and gains/losses will agree with
+          the costs and gain/loss transactions created by scrubbing if either
+          the FIFO or LIFO cost methods are used.
+        </para>
+      </sect3>
+
+      <sect3 id="invest-sellLotsWin">
+        <title>Lots in Account Window</title>
+        <para>
+          The <guilabel>Lots in Account SSSS</guilabel> window, where SSSS is
+          a security account, is used to manually or automatically link
+          security transaction splits to lots and create capital gain/loss
+          transactions to account for the difference between the costs of buying
+          a security and the value received by selling it.
+        </para>
+
+        <para>To open the <guilabel>Lots in Account</guilabel> window, open the
+          security account register, then select
+          <menuchoice>
+            <guimenu>Actions</guimenu>
+            <guimenuitem>View Lots</guimenuitem>
+          </menuchoice>.
+        </para>
+
+        <figure pgwide="1">
+          <title>Selling Shares - Capital Gains - Lots in Account window
+          </title>
+          <screenshot id="tool-lotsInAcct">
+            <mediaobject>
+              <imageobject role="html">
+              <imagedata fileref="figures/investLots2_BeforeScrub1Lot.png"
+                format="PNG" srccredit="Chris Good" width="510px"></imagedata>
+              </imageobject>
+              <imageobject role="fo">
+                <imagedata fileref="figures/investLots2_BeforeScrub1Lot.png"
+                           format="PNG" srccredit="Chris Good" ></imagedata>
+              </imageobject>
+
+              <textobject>
+                <phrase>Example of Lots in Account window</phrase>
+              </textobject>
+
+              <caption><para>An image of the <emphasis>Lots in Account
+                </emphasis> window.</para>
+              </caption>
+            </mediaobject>
+          </screenshot>
+        </figure>
+
+        <para>Refer to the Help Manual, Chapter 8 Tools & Assistants,
+          <ulink
+url="https://www.gnucash.org/docs/v&series-stable;/C/gnucash-help/tool-lots.html">
+            Lots in Account
+          </ulink> for details of the Lots in Account screen elements.
+        </para>
+      </sect3>
+
+      <sect3 id="invest-sellProcedure">
+        <title>Procedure Summary</title>
+
+        <para>Using the lot management facility for the automatic calculation of
+          capital gain or loss typically follows these steps:
+        </para>
+
+        <orderedlist>
+          <listitem>
+            <para>Record the sale transaction using Net Pricing (but stop short
+              of entering the Capital Gain transaction as it will be created by
+              scrubbing). See <xref linkend="invest-sell-man-prof-sep-net" />.
+            </para>
+          </listitem>
+
+          <!-- Manual Lot Creation and Linking -->
+          <listitem><para><xref linkend="invest-sellManual" />  (Optional
+            depending on cost method)</para>
+          </listitem>
+
+          <listitem>
+            <!-- Automatic Creation of Capital Gain Or Loss Transactions -->
+            <para><xref linkend="invest-sellAuto" /></para>
+          </listitem>
+
+          <listitem>
+            <!-- Change Orphaned Gains-CCC to Gain/Loss Account -->
+            <para><xref linkend="invest-sellChgCapGainsAcct" /></para>
+          </listitem>
+
+          <listitem>
+            <!-- Run a Trial Balance  -->
+            <para><xref linkend="invest-sellTrialBal" /> report to ensure total
+              debits balance to total credits</para>
+          </listitem>
+
+        </orderedlist>
+      </sect3>
+
+      <sect3 id="invest-sellManual">
+        <title>Manual Lot Creation and Linking</title>
+
+        <para>Before using this feature, ensure you have read
+          <xref linkend="invest-sellConsiderations" />.
+        </para>
+
+        <para>This functionality allows the manual linking of specfic buy and
+          sell transactions. It may be used in the case where a user wishes to
+          use a different cost method than the automatic linking method (FIFO).
+          Effectively, if one wishes the cost basis and capital gains in the
+          Advanced Portfolio Report to be consistent with the capital gains
+          transactions created by scrubbing, manual lot creation only needs to
+          be used when using LIFO or <quote>sale of designated lots</quote>
+          (the same thing for securities as far as US personal tax law is
+          concerned). This is because the scrub function can automatically do
+          FIFO linking so there is no need to do it manually and scrubbing
+          cannot be used for average costing.
+        </para>
+
+        <para>See <xref linkend="invest-sellManualExample" />.
+        </para>
+      </sect3>
+
+      <sect3 id="invest-sellAuto">
+        <title>Automatic Creation of Capital Gain Or Loss Transactions</title>
+        <note><para>Do <emphasis>NOT</emphasis> do this unless you are using
+          FIFO or LIFO to cost sales. See
+          <xref linkend="invest-sellConsiderations" /></para>
+        </note>
+
+        <para><application>&app;</application> can automatically calculate and
+          create security sale capital gain/loss transactions. Lots are used to
+          link buy transaction splits with sell transaction splits so the
+          correct cost of the securities sold can be determined.
+          <application>&app;</application> will use any existing lots, and
+          create new lots for any buy transaction splits not already linked to a
+          lot. Buy and sell transaction splits are linked to lots using FIFO
+          method.
+        </para>
+
+        <para>See:</para>
+        <para><xref linkend="invest-sellAutoExample" /></para>
+        <para><xref linkend="invest-sellAutoExample2" /></para>
+        <para><xref linkend="invest-sellFifoSplit" /></para>
+      </sect3>
+
+      <sect3 id="invest-sellChgCapGainsAcct">
+        <title>Change Orphaned Gains-CCC to Gain/Loss Account</title>
+
+        <para>
+          The capital gain/loss transaction(s) created by scrubbing uses an
+          automatically created generic <emphasis>Orphaned Gains-CCC</emphasis>
+          account (where CCC is the security currency) because <application>
+          &app;</application> doesn't know which capital gain or loss account
+          should be used. After scrubbing, the user should edit the <emphasis>
+          Orphaned Gains-CCC</emphasis> transaction split to re-assign the
+          income account to a more meaningful income (or expense) gain or loss
+          account (e.g. <emphasis>Income:Long Term Capital Gain:IBM</emphasis>).
+        </para>
+
+        <para>See <xref linkend="invest-sellChgCapGainsAcctExample" />.
+        </para>
+      </sect3>
+
+      <sect3 id="invest-sellTrialBal">
+        <title>Run a Trial Balance</title>
+        <para>Running a Trial Balance report
+          (<menuchoice>
+            <guimenu>Reports</guimenu>
+            <guisubmenu>Income & Expense</guisubmenu>
+            <guimenuitem>Trial Balance</guimenuitem>
+          </menuchoice>) after creating capital gain/loss
+          transactions, is a basic check that capital gains/losses are
+          correctly accounting for the difference between the cost paid for
+          securities, and value received from selling them. At the end of the
+          report, total debits should equal total credits.
+        </para>
+
+        <tip>
+          <para>A Trial Balance may not balance due to some other problem. To
+            determine if the cause of an imbalance is from incorrectly
+            accounting for capital gain/loss:
+          </para>
+
+          <para>If necessary, temporarily change the date of the sell
+            transaction and the capital gain/loss transaction, so they are
+            the only transactions for a particular date, then run the Trial
+            Balance as at the day before. If the Trial Balance is still out
+            by the same amount, it is not the capital gain/loss that is
+            causing the problem.
+          </para>
+
+          <para>If you find a prior <emphasis>out of balance
+            </emphasis> Trial Balance, keep running the Trial Balance
+            report with different dates until you find the date it starts
+            being out of balance. Temporarily change the transaction dates
+            for each transaction on the problem date to the following
+            day, then change the dates back to the correct date 1 at a time,
+            running the Trial Balance each time, until you identify the
+            problem transaction. When you change the date of a security
+            sell transaction, you also need to change the date of the
+            corresponding capital gain transaction as it is only the
+            sum of these that will balance in the Trial Balance.
+          </para>
+        </tip>
+      </sect3>
+
+      <sect3 id="invest-sellConsiderations">
+        <title>Considerations</title>
+
+        <para>There are some points that should be considered before using the
+          lot management facility.
+        </para>
+
+        <orderedlist>
+          <listitem>
+            <para><application>&app;</application> implements only the First In/
+              First Out (FIFO) cost method when automatically linking buy
+              transactions to sell transactions. I.e. The oldest securities are
+              always sold first. The Last In First Out (LIFO) cost method may be
+              used by manually linking the most recent buy security splits to
+              the sell split before scrubbing.
+            </para>
+          </listitem>
+
+          <listitem>
+            <para>The Advanced Portfolio Report does not use lot information
+              when calculating costs, just the security transaction splits. It
+              calculates the cost basis and gains or losses using the selected
+              <emphasis>Basis calculation method</emphasis> report option
+              (Average, FIFO or LIFO). If one wishes the Advanced Portfolio
+              Report costs and gains/losses to be consistent with the capital
+              gain/loss transactions created by scrubbing, the same cost model
+              must be used in both places.
+            </para>
+         </listitem>
+
+         <listitem>
+           <para>
+             Scrubbing does not recognize commissions or fees so makes no
+             allowance for them in the calculation of gain or loss. Therefore
+             you must use <emphasis>Net Pricing</emphasis> rather than
+             <emphasis>Gross Pricing</emphasis> if you wish to use scrubbing.
+             See <xref linkend="invest-buy-com" />.
+           </para>
+
+         </listitem>
+
+          <listitem>
+            <para>Scrubbing does not recognize capital gain/loss transaction
+              splits if they have been manually entered as part of the sale
+              transaction. Therefore ensure previous sales are recorded as 2
+              transactions:
+            </para>
+
+            <table>
+              <title>Transaction 1 dealing with value received and the reduction
+                of the number of shares
+              </title>
+              <tgroup cols="5">
+                <tbody>
+                  <row>
+                    <entry><emphasis>Account</emphasis></entry>
+                    <entry><emphasis>Tot Shares</emphasis></entry>
+                    <entry><emphasis>(Unit) Price</emphasis></entry>
+                    <entry><emphasis>Buy (Debit)</emphasis></entry>
+                    <entry><emphasis>Sell (Credit)</emphasis></entry>
+                  </row>
+                  <row>
+                    <entry>Brokerage or Bank</entry>
+                    <entry></entry>
+                    <entry></entry>
+                    <entry>Debit</entry>
+                   <entry></entry>
+                  </row>
+                  <row>
+                    <entry>Security</entry>
+                    <entry>−NumSold</entry>
+                    <entry>SaleUnitPrice</entry>
+                    <entry></entry>
+                    <entry>SaleValue</entry>
+                  </row>
+                </tbody>
+              </tgroup>
+            </table>
+
+            <table>
+              <title>Transaction 2 capital gain/loss (loss in this example)
+              </title>
+              <tgroup cols="5">
+                <tbody>
+                  <row>
+                    <entry><emphasis>Account</emphasis></entry>
+                    <entry><emphasis>Tot Shares</emphasis></entry>
+                    <entry><emphasis>(Unit) Price</emphasis></entry>
+                    <entry><emphasis>Buy (Debit)</emphasis></entry>
+                    <entry><emphasis>Sell (Credit)</emphasis></entry>
+                  </row>
+                  <row>
+                      <entry>Capital Loss</entry>
+                      <entry></entry>
+                      <entry></entry>
+                      <entry>Debit</entry>
+                      <entry></entry>
+                  </row>
+                  <row>
+                      <entry>Security</entry>
+                      <entry>0</entry>
+                      <entry>0</entry>
+                      <entry></entry>
+                      <entry>Credit</entry>
+                  </row>
+                </tbody>
+              </tgroup>
+            </table>
+          </listitem>
+
+          <listitem>
+            <para>The automatic capital gains calculations can handle
+              straightforward buy, sell, and return of capital transactions but
+              any transaction that affect the number of shares, even simple
+              splits, will cause it to produce wrong answers so those cases must
+              be handled manually.
+            </para>
+          </listitem>
+        </orderedlist>
+      </sect3>
+
+      <sect3 id="invest-sellManualExample">
+        <title>Example 1: Manual Lot Creation and Linking</title>
+
+        <para>Here is an example of selling part of a security holding using
+          the LIFO method. In this example, the most recent buy transaction
+          (dated 01/07/2016, a reinvested dividend), is linked to a lot, along
+          with the sell transaction, and the <application>&app;</application>
+          scrub function is used to calculate capital gain or loss and create
+          the capital gain/loss transaction.
+        </para>
+
+        <orderedlist>
+          <listitem><para>Open the security account's register.</para>
+            <figure pgwide="1">
+              <title>Selling Shares - Capital Gains - Security register before
+                scrubbing a single lot
+              </title>
+              <screenshot id="invest-lots0reg">
+                <mediaobject>
+                  <imageobject role="html">
+                  <imagedata fileref="figures/investLots0_RegB4Scrub.png"
+                    format="PNG" srccredit="Chris Good" width="510px"></imagedata>
+                  </imageobject>
+                  <imageobject role="fo">
+                    <imagedata fileref="figures/investLots0_RegB4Scrub.png"
+                               format="PNG" srccredit="Chris Good" ></imagedata>
+                  </imageobject>
+
+                  <textobject>
+                    <phrase>Example of security register before lot scrubbing
+                    </phrase>
+                  </textobject>
+
+                  <caption><para>An image of the Security Account register in
+                    transaction journal view, before lot scrubbing.</para>
+                  </caption>
+                </mediaobject>
+              </screenshot>
+            </figure>
+          </listitem>
+
+          <listitem><para>Ensure all previous capital gain/loss transactions
+            are separate transactions to the sell transactions which record the
+            reduction in the number of shares and the value received.</para>
+
+          </listitem>
+
+          <listitem>
+            <para>Select
+            <menuchoice>
+              <guimenu>Actions</guimenu>
+              <guimenuitem>View Lots</guimenuitem>
+            </menuchoice> to open the <guilabel>Lots in Account SSSS</guilabel>
+            window where SSSS is the security account.
+            </para>
+
+            <figure pgwide="1">
+              <title>Selling Shares - Capital Gains - Lots before scrubbing a
+                single lot
+              </title>
+              <screenshot id="invest-lots1B4CreateLot">
+                <mediaobject>
+                  <imageobject role="html">
+                  <imagedata fileref="figures/investLots1_BeforeCreateLot.png"
+                    format="PNG" srccredit="Chris Good" width="510px"></imagedata>
+                  </imageobject>
+                  <imageobject role="fo">
+                    <imagedata fileref="figures/investLots1_BeforeCreateLot.png"
+                               format="PNG" srccredit="Chris Good" ></imagedata>
+                  </imageobject>
+
+                  <textobject>
+                    <phrase>Example of Lots in Account window before lot
+                      scrubbing
+                    </phrase>
+                  </textobject>
+
+                  <caption><para>An image of the <emphasis>Lots in Account
+                    </emphasis> window before lot scrubbing.</para></caption>
+                </mediaobject>
+              </screenshot>
+            </figure>
+          </listitem>
+
+          <listitem>
+            <para>Create a new lot using the <guimenu>New Lot</guimenu> button.
+            Initially this lot is not linked to any buy or sell split.</para>
+          </listitem>
+
+          <listitem><para>Highlight the new lot in the <guilabel>Lots in This
+            Account</guilabel> panel.</para>
+          </listitem>
+
+          <listitem>
+            <para>Highlight the buy split (dated 01/07/2016) of the
+              security to be sold in the <guilabel>Splits free</guilabel> panel.
+            </para>
+          </listitem>
+
+          <listitem>
+            <para>Click the <guilabel> >> </guilabel> button to link the buy
+            split with the highlighted lot. The split moves from the <guilabel>
+            Splits free</guilabel> panel to the <guilabel>Splits in Lot
+            </guilabel> panel.</para>
+          </listitem>
+
+          <listitem><para>Repeat the previous 2 steps for any other buy splits
+            that should be included in the lot (in this example, there is only
+            1 buy split in the sale).</para>
+          </listitem>
+
+          <listitem>
+            <para>Highlight the sell split in the <guilabel>Splits free
+              </guilabel> panel.</para>
+          </listitem>
+
+          <listitem>
+            <para>Click the <guilabel> >> </guilabel> button to link the sell
+              split with the highlighted lot.</para>
+          </listitem>
+
+          <listitem>
+            <para>Check the lot <guilabel>Balance</guilabel> is as expected.
+              I.e. in this example the lot balance should be zero as the number
+              of securities sold in the lot, is matched with the same number of
+              security buys.
+            </para>
+
+            <figure pgwide="1">
+              <title>Selling Shares - Capital Gains - Lots before scrubbing a
+                single lot, after manual linking
+              </title>
+              <screenshot id="invest-lots2B4Scrub1Lot">
+                <mediaobject>
+                  <imageobject role="html">
+                  <imagedata fileref="figures/investLots2_BeforeScrub1Lot.png"
+                    format="PNG" srccredit="Chris Good" width="510px"></imagedata>
+                  </imageobject>
+                  <imageobject role="fo">
+                    <imagedata fileref="figures/investLots2_BeforeScrub1Lot.png"
+                               format="PNG" srccredit="Chris Good" ></imagedata>
+                  </imageobject>
+
+                  <textobject>
+                    <phrase>Example of Lots in Account window before scrubbing a
+                      single lot
+                    </phrase>
+                  </textobject>
+
+                  <caption><para>An image of the <emphasis>Lots in Account
+                    </emphasis> window before scrubbing a single lot.</para>
+                  </caption>
+                </mediaobject>
+              </screenshot>
+            </figure>
+          </listitem>
+
+          <listitem>
+            <para>Click the <guilabel>Scrub</guilabel> button (<emphasis>NOT
+              </emphasis> the <guilabel>Scrub Account</guilabel> button).
+            </para>
+
+            <para>The <guilabel>Lots in Account</guilabel> window has not
+              changed after using the <guilabel>Scrub</guilabel> button
+              so no example screen image is supplied.
+            </para>
+          </listitem>
+
+          <listitem>
+            <para>Close the <guilabel>Lots in Account SSSS</guilabel> window and
+              return to the security account register.
+            </para>
+
+            <figure pgwide="1">
+              <title>Selling Shares - Capital Gains - Register after manual
+                linking and scrubbing a single lot
+              </title>
+              <screenshot id="invest-lots2RegAftScrub1Lot">
+                <mediaobject>
+                  <imageobject role="html">
+                  <imagedata fileref="figures/investLots2_RegAfterScrub1Lot.png"
+                    format="PNG" srccredit="Chris Good" width="510px"></imagedata>
+                  </imageobject>
+                  <imageobject role="fo">
+                    <imagedata fileref="figures/investLots2_RegAfterScrub1Lot.png"
+                               format="PNG" srccredit="Chris Good" ></imagedata>
+                  </imageobject>
+
+                  <textobject>
+                    <phrase>Example of Register after scrubbing a
+                      single lot
+                    </phrase>
+                  </textobject>
+
+                  <caption><para>An image of the Register after scrubbing a
+                    single lot.</para>
+                  </caption>
+                </mediaobject>
+              </screenshot>
+            </figure>
+          </listitem>
+
+          <listitem><para>Continue to
+            <xref linkend="invest-sellChgCapGainsAcct" /></para>
+          </listitem>
+        </orderedlist>
+      </sect3>
+
+      <sect3 id="invest-sellAutoExample">
+        <title>Example 2: Automatic Creation of Capital Gain Or Loss
+          Transactions</title>
+
+        <para>Create the capital gains transaction by following these steps:
+        </para>
+
+        <orderedlist>
+          <listitem>
+            <para>Open the security account's register.</para>
+          </listitem>
+
+          <listitem><para>Ensure any previous manually entered capital gain/loss
+            transaction splits have been entered in separate transactions to the
+            the sell transactions.</para>
+          </listitem>
+
+          <listitem><para>Select <menuchoice><guimenu>Actions</guimenu>
+            <guimenuitem>View Lots</guimenuitem></menuchoice> to open the
+            <guilabel>Lots in Account SSSS</guilabel> window where SSSS is the
+            security account.</para>
+          </listitem>
+
+          <listitem><para>If using LIFO, use the above procedure
+            <xref linkend="invest-sellManual" /> to create a lot for each sell
+            transaction, link the lot with the sell transaction and each of
+            the buy transactions that make up the sale.</para>
+          </listitem>
+
+          <listitem>
+            <para>Click the <guilabel>Scrub Account</guilabel> button which:
+            </para>
+
+            <itemizedlist>
+              <listitem>
+                <para>Creates lots for any buy transactions that are not already
+                  linked to a lot and links them to sell transactions splits
+                  using the FIFO method. As a transaction split can only
+                  be linked to 1 lot, if a sell transaction needs to be linked
+                  to multiple lots, the sell transaction split is itself split
+                  into multiple subsplits. In the case of multiple subsplits,
+                  it is possible to have different splits from the same
+                  transaction in both the <guilabel>Splits free</guilabel> and
+                  <guilabel>Splits in lot</guilabel> panels.
+                </para>
+              </listitem>
+
+              <listitem><para>Creates a separate transaction per lot for
+                capital gain/loss.</para>
+              </listitem>
+            </itemizedlist>
+          </listitem>
+
+          <listitem><para>Continue to
+            <xref linkend="invest-sellChgCapGainsAcct" /></para>
+          </listitem>
+        </orderedlist>
+      </sect3>
+
+      <sect3 id="invest-sellAutoExample2">
+        <title>Example 3: Automatic Creation of Capital Gain Or Loss
+            Transactions, 2 Sales at Once</title>
+
+        <para>Here is an example of FIFO scrubbing without manual lot creation.
+          In this example, the transactions for 2 sales are scrubbed at once
+          but usually scrubbing would be performed after each sale. One reason
+          for scrubbing 2 sales at once, could be because there were multiple
+          sales on the same day.
+        </para>
+
+        <figure pgwide="1">
+          <title>Selling Shares - Capital Gains - Register before Scrub Account
+          </title>
+          <screenshot id="invest2-lots0reg">
+            <mediaobject>
+              <imageobject role="html">
+              <imagedata fileref="figures/invest2Lots0RegB4Scrub.png"
+                format="PNG" srccredit="Chris Good" width="510px"></imagedata>
+              </imageobject>
+              <imageobject role="fo">
+                <imagedata fileref="figures/invest2Lots0RegB4Scrub.png"
+                           format="PNG" srccredit="Chris Good" ></imagedata>
+              </imageobject>
+
+              <textobject>
+                <phrase>Example of security register before Scrub Account is used.
+                </phrase>
+              </textobject>
+
+              <caption><para>An image of the Security Account register in
+                transaction journal view, before Scrub Account is used.</para>
+              </caption>
+            </mediaobject>
+          </screenshot>
+        </figure>
+
+        <orderedlist>
+          <listitem>
+            <para>Select <menuchoice>
+              <guimenu>Actions</guimenu>
+              <guimenuitem>View Lots</guimenuitem></menuchoice> to open the
+              <guilabel>Lots in Account SSSS</guilabel> window where SSSS is the
+              security account.
+            </para>
+
+            <figure pgwide="1">
+              <title>Selling Shares - Capital Gains - Lots before Scrub Account
+              </title>
+              <screenshot id="invest2-lots1B4ScrubAcct">
+                <mediaobject>
+                  <imageobject role="html">
+                  <imagedata fileref="figures/invest2Lots1B4Scrub.png"
+                    format="PNG" srccredit="Chris Good" width="510px"></imagedata>
+                  </imageobject>
+                  <imageobject role="fo">
+                    <imagedata fileref="figures/invest2Lots1B4Scrub.png"
+                               format="PNG" srccredit="Chris Good" ></imagedata>
+                  </imageobject>
+
+                  <textobject>
+                    <phrase>Example of Lots in Account window before Scrub Account
+                      is used.
+                    </phrase>
+                  </textobject>
+
+                  <caption><para>An image of the <emphasis>Lots in Account
+                    </emphasis> window before Scrub Account is used.</para>
+                  </caption>
+                </mediaobject>
+              </screenshot>
+            </figure>
+          </listitem>
+
+          <listitem>
+            <para>Click the <guilabel>Scrub Account</guilabel> button.</para>
+
+            <figure pgwide="1">
+              <title>Selling Shares - Capital Gains - Lots after Scrub Account
+              </title>
+              <screenshot id="invest2-lots2AftScrubAcct">
+                <mediaobject>
+                  <imageobject role="html">
+                  <imagedata fileref="figures/invest2Lots2LotsAftScrubAcct.png"
+                    format="PNG" srccredit="Chris Good" width="510px"></imagedata>
+                  </imageobject>
+                  <imageobject role="fo">
+                    <imagedata fileref="figures/invest2Lots2LotsAftScrubAcct.png"
+                               format="PNG" srccredit="Chris Good" ></imagedata>
+                  </imageobject>
+
+                  <textobject>
+                    <phrase>Example of Lots in Account window after using Scrub
+                      Account
+                    </phrase>
+                  </textobject>
+
+                  <caption><para>An image of the <emphasis>Lots in Account
+                    </emphasis> window after using Scrub Account.</para>
+                  </caption>
+                </mediaobject>
+              </screenshot>
+            </figure>
+
+            <note>
+              <para>After using the <guilabel>Scrub Account</guilabel> button
+                only the last lot is shown, so the above image is after the
+                <guilabel>Lots in Account</guilabel> window has been closed and
+                reopened so all the lots show.
+              </para>
+            </note>
+          </listitem>
+
+          <listitem>
+            <para>Close the <guilabel>Lots in Account SSSS</guilabel> window and
+              return to the security account register.
+            </para>
+
+            <figure pgwide="1">
+              <title>Selling Shares - Capital Gains - Register after Scrub
+                Account
+              </title>
+              <screenshot id="invest2-lots3AftScrubAcct">
+                <mediaobject>
+                  <imageobject role="html">
+                  <imagedata fileref="figures/invest2Lots3RegAftScrubAcct.png"
+                    format="PNG" srccredit="Chris Good" width="510px"></imagedata>
+                  </imageobject>
+                  <imageobject role="fo">
+                    <imagedata fileref="figures/invest2Lots3RegAftScrubAcct.png"
+                               format="PNG" srccredit="Chris Good" ></imagedata>
+                  </imageobject>
+
+                  <textobject>
+                    <phrase>Example of security register after using Scrub
+                      Account
+                    </phrase>
+                  </textobject>
+
+                  <caption><para>An image of the <emphasis>security register
+                    </emphasis> after using Scrub Account.</para>
+                  </caption>
+                </mediaobject>
+              </screenshot>
+            </figure>
+
+            <note>
+              <para>The security splits in the sell transactions have been split
+                into subsplits, one subsplit per lot, and a capital gain
+                transaction has been created for each security subsplit of each
+                sell transaction.
+              </para>
+            </note>
+          </listitem>
+
+          <listitem>
+            <para>Continue to <xref linkend="invest-sellChgCapGainsAcct" />
+            </para>
+          </listitem>
+        </orderedlist>
+      </sect3>
+
+      <sect3 id="invest-sellFifoSplit">
+        <title>Example 4: Automatic Creation of Capital Gain Or Loss
+            Transactions - After a Simple Stock Split</title>
+        <para>Here is an example of FIFO scrubbing without manual lot
+          creation/linking, where the Stock Split Assistant has been used for a
+          simple stock split. In this example, 100 shares of security XYZ were
+          bought for $10.00 each, there was a simple 2 for 1 stock split for
+          zero cost (so the holding was then 200 shares @ $5.00 each), then all
+          200 shares were sold for $6.00 each.
+        </para>
+
+        <figure pgwide="1">
+          <title>Selling Shares - Capital Gains - Register after Scrub Account
+          </title>
+          <screenshot id="investLotsSplitReg">
+            <mediaobject>
+              <imageobject role="html">
+              <imagedata fileref="figures/investLotsSplitReg.png"
+                format="PNG" srccredit="Chris Good" width="510px"></imagedata>
+              </imageobject>
+              <imageobject role="fo">
+                <imagedata fileref="figures/investLotsSplitReg.png"
+                           format="PNG" srccredit="Chris Good" ></imagedata>
+              </imageobject>
+
+              <textobject>
+                <phrase>Example of security register after Scrub Account is
+                  used.
+                </phrase>
+              </textobject>
+
+              <caption><para>An image of the Security Account register in
+                transaction journal view, after Scrub Account is used.</para>
+              </caption>
+            </mediaobject>
+          </screenshot>
+        </figure>
+
+        <figure pgwide="1">
+          <title>Selling Shares - Capital Gains - Lot 0 after Scrub Account
+          </title>
+          <screenshot id="investLotsSplitLot0">
+            <mediaobject>
+              <imageobject role="html">
+              <imagedata fileref="figures/investLotsSplitLot0.png"
+                format="PNG" srccredit="Chris Good" width="510px"></imagedata>
+              </imageobject>
+              <imageobject role="fo">
+                <imagedata fileref="figures/investLotsSplitLot0.png"
+                           format="PNG" srccredit="Chris Good" ></imagedata>
+              </imageobject>
+
+              <textobject>
+                <phrase>Example of security register after Scrub Account is used.
+                </phrase>
+              </textobject>
+
+              <caption><para>An image of the Security Account register in
+                transaction journal view, after Scrub Account is used.</para>
+              </caption>
+            </mediaobject>
+          </screenshot>
+        </figure>
+
+        <figure pgwide="1">
+          <title>Selling Shares - Capital Gains - Lot 1 after Scrub Account
+          </title>
+          <screenshot id="investLotsSplitLot1">
+            <mediaobject>
+              <imageobject role="html">
+              <imagedata fileref="figures/investLotsSplitLot1.png"
+                format="PNG" srccredit="Chris Good" width="510px"></imagedata>
+              </imageobject>
+              <imageobject role="fo">
+                <imagedata fileref="figures/investLotsSplitLot1.png"
+                           format="PNG" srccredit="Chris Good" ></imagedata>
+              </imageobject>
+
+              <textobject>
+                <phrase>Example of security register after Scrub Account is
+                  used.
+                </phrase>
+              </textobject>
+
+              <caption><para>An image of the Security Account register in
+                transaction journal view, after Scrub Account is used.</para>
+              </caption>
+            </mediaobject>
+          </screenshot>
+        </figure>
+
+        <para>The above screen shots show that scrubbing created:</para>
+
+        <para>2 lots. A separate lot for each buy (it essentially treats the
+          stock split as a buy of 100 for no cost)
+        </para>
+
+        <para>2 capital gain transactions (one for each lot) on the date of the
+          sale:
+        </para>
+
+        <itemizedlist>
+          <listitem><para>
+            Lot 0: 1/7/2009 loss $400 (sale $600 − cost $1000)</para>
+          </listitem>
+          <listitem><para>
+            Lot 1: 1/7/2009 gain $600 (sale $600 − cost $0)</para>
+          </listitem>
+        </itemizedlist>
+
+        <para>Total gain $200 is correct. Whether the gain is a single long-term
+          one or one each of long-term and short-term or whether there's even a
+          distinction depends on the user's tax jurisdiction and the way the
+          split is structured. If the user needs help figuring it out they
+          should consult a professional.
+        </para>
+
+      </sect3>
+
+      <sect3 id="invest-sellChgCapGainsAcctExample">
+        <title>
+            Example 5: Changing the Orphaned Gains-CCC to Gain/Loss Account
+          </title>
+
+        <orderedlist>
+          <listitem>
+            <para>Close the <guilabel>Lots in Account SSSS</guilabel> window if
+              open and return to the security account register.
+            </para>
+
+            <figure pgwide="1">
+              <title>Selling Shares - Capital Gains - Register after scrubbing a
+                single lot
+              </title>
+              <screenshot id="invest-lots4AftScrub1LotReg">
+                <mediaobject>
+                  <imageobject role="html">
+                  <imagedata fileref="figures/investLots2_RegAfterScrub1Lot.png"
+                    format="PNG" srccredit="Chris Good" width="510px"></imagedata>
+                  </imageobject>
+                  <imageobject role="fo">
+                    <imagedata fileref="figures/investLots2_RegAfterScrub1Lot.png"
+                               format="PNG" srccredit="Chris Good" ></imagedata>
+                  </imageobject>
+
+                  <textobject>
+                    <phrase>Example of security register after scrubbing a
+                      single lot
+                    </phrase>
+                  </textobject>
+
+                  <caption><para>An image of the <emphasis>security register
+                    </emphasis> after scrubbing a single lot.</para>
+                  </caption>
+                </mediaobject>
+              </screenshot>
+            </figure>
+          </listitem>
+
+          <listitem>
+            <para>Find each new <emphasis>Realized Gain/Loss</emphasis>
+              transaction in the security account register (they will
+              have the same date as the sell transactions). Edit the <emphasis>
+              Orphaned Gains-CCC</emphasis> transaction split to re-assign the
+              income account to a more meaningful income (or expense) gain or
+              loss account (e.g. <emphasis>Income:Long Term Capital
+              Gain:IBM</emphasis>).
+            </para>
+
+            <tip>
+              <para>You may like to split the capital gain/loss into
+                taxable and non taxable parts if that is in accord with your
+                tax laws.
+              </para>
+            </tip>
+          </listitem>
+        </orderedlist>
+      </sect3>
+    </sect2>
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="invest-dividends1">
+    <title>Dividends</title>
+
+    <para>Some companies or mutual funds pay periodic dividends to
+    shareholders. Dividends are typically given in one of two ways, either
+    they are automatically reinvested into the commodity or they are given as
+    cash. Mutual funds are often setup to automatically reinvest the dividend,
+    while common stock dividends usually pay cash.</para>
+
+      <sect2 id="invest-dividendcash">
+        <title>Dividends in Cash</title>
+
+      <para>If the dividend is presented as cash, you should record the
+      transaction in the asset account that received the money, as income
+      from <emphasis>Income:Dividends</emphasis>. Additionally if you want to tie
+      the cash dividend to a particular stock holding then add a dummy
+      transaction split to the stock account with quantity 0 price 1 value 0.</para>
+
+      <para>As an example consider the following; the dividends
+      deposited as cash into the <emphasis>Broker</emphasis> Account with a tie
+      to the stock account.</para>
+
+      <screenshot id="invest-dividendcash1">
+        <mediaobject>
+          <imageobject role="html">
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/invest_dividendcash.png"
+                       format="PNG" srccredit="Daniel Dodson" width="510px"></imagedata>
+          </imageobject>
+          <imageobject role="fo">
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/invest_dividendcash.png"
+                       format="PNG" srccredit="Daniel Dodson" ></imagedata>
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>Example of cash dividend transactions</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption><para>An image of the <emphasis>Brokerage</emphasis> Account register after a series of cash
+          dividends. </para></caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+
+    <note>
+      <para>If you want to track dividends on a per-stock basis, you would
+      need to create an <emphasis>Income:Dividends:STOCKSYMBOL</emphasis> account for each stock
+      you own that pays dividends.</para>
+    </note>
+
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="invest-dividendreinvest">
+      <title>Dividends Re-Invested</title>
+
+      <para>If you receive the dividend in the form of an automatic
+      reinvestment, the transaction for this should be handled within
+      the stock or mutual fund account as income from <quote>Income:Dividend</quote> for the
+      appropriate number of reinvested shares. This type of reinvest account is often referred
+      to as a DRIP (Dividend Re-Investment Program).</para>
+
+      <para>As an example consider the following purchase of NSTAR (NST) stock with the
+      dividends reinvested into a DRIP Account. Mutual fund re-investments would be the same.
+      </para>
+
+      <para>Starting with the purchase of 100 shares on Jan. 3, 2005, all dividends will be
+      reinvested and an account is created to track the dividend to the specific stock. <application>&app;</application>
+      simplifies the entry by allowing calculations within the cells of the transaction. If the
+      first dividend is $.29/share, enter $53.28 (purchase price + dividend) in the share <guilabel>Price</guilabel>
+      cell and 100*.29 in the <guilabel>Buy</guilabel> cell. <application>&app;</application> will calculate for you the
+      corresponding numer of <guilabel>Shares</guilabel></para>
+
+      <screenshot id="invest-dividendreinvest1">
+        <mediaobject>
+          <imageobject role="html">
+             <imagedata fileref="figures/invest_dividendreinvest1.png" format="PNG"
+                        srccredit="Cristian Marchi" width="510px"></imagedata>
+           </imageobject>
+           <imageobject role="fo">
+             <imagedata fileref="figures/invest_dividendreinvest1.png" format="PNG"
+                        srccredit="Cristian Marchi"></imagedata>
+           </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>Example of dividend reinvestment transactions</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption><para>An image of the NST Stock Account register after a dividend
+          reinvestment. </para></caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+
+    </sect2>
+
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="invest-retofcap">
+    <title>Return of Capital</title>
+
+    <para>This refers to a transaction where an investment returns capital to
+      the investor and doesn't have any accounting implications other than
+      reducing the cost basis. The number of shares held is not changed.
+    </para>
+
+    <para>A Return of Capital transaction can be entered in the stock register
+      by entering the stock split with
+    </para>
+
+    <informaltable>
+      <tgroup cols="2">
+        <tbody>
+          <row>
+            <entry>Shares</entry><entry>0</entry>
+          </row>
+
+          <row>
+            <entry>Price</entry><entry>0</entry>
+          </row>
+
+          <row>
+            <entry>Sell</entry><entry>Return of Capital value</entry>
+          </row>
+
+        </tbody>
+      </tgroup>
+    </informaltable>
+
+    <para>The other side of the double entry would usually be a debit to the
+      brokerage bank account.
+    </para>
+
+    <screenshot id="invest-ret-of-cap">
+      <mediaobject>
+        <imageobject role="html">
+           <imagedata fileref="figures/invest_ret_of_cap.png" format="PNG"
+                      srccredit="Chris Good" width="510px"></imagedata>
+         </imageobject>
+         <imageobject role="fo">
+           <imagedata fileref="figures/invest_ret_of_cap.png" format="PNG"
+                      srccredit="Chris Good"></imagedata>
+         </imageobject>
+         <textobject>
+          <phrase>Example of return of capital transactions</phrase>
+        </textobject>
+
+        <caption><para>An image of the Stock Account register after a return
+          of capital.</para></caption>
+      </mediaobject>
+    </screenshot>
+
+  <note><para>It is not possible to use the Stock Split Assistant to do this
+    type of transaction.</para>
+  </note>
+
+  <tip><para>If you accidentally entered a non-zero price in the stock split,
+    <application>&app;</application> may have created an unwanted price database
+    entry which could cause reports to be wrong. Check for and remove such an
+    unwanted entry from the price database using <menuchoice><guimenu>Tools
+    </guimenu><guimenuitem>Price Editor</guimenuitem></menuchoice>.</para>
+  </tip>
+
+  </sect1>
+
+<!--  Stock Splits - Simple
+
+-->
+
+  <sect1 id="invest-splitsnmergers1">
+    <title>Splits and Mergers</title>
+
+    <para>Companies may split their stock for many reasons but the most common
+    is that the price has risen higher than management thinks is a reasonable price for
+    many investors. Some of these splits are simple exchanges (eg 2 for 1 or 3 for 2)
+    and some are complex exchanges with cash distributions.  Splits may also result in
+    fewer shares if the exchange rate is a reverse split (1 for 3 or .75 for 1).
+
+    </para>
+
+      <sect2 id="invest-simplesplit">
+        <title>Simple Stock Split</title>
+
+      <para>As an example, our holding of NST stock declared a 2 for 1 stock split effective
+      June 6, 2005.  The process for entering this transaction is; select
+      <menuchoice><guimenu>Actions</guimenu><guimenuitem>Stock Split</guimenuitem></menuchoice> to start
+      the assistant.</para>
+
+      <screenshot id="invest-split1">
+        <mediaobject>
+          <imageobject>
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/invest_split1.png"
+                       format="PNG" srccredit="Dave Herman" ></imagedata>
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>An image of the stock split assistant at step 1. </phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption><para>An image of the selection of the stock split assistant. </para></caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+
+      <para>The first screen is an Introduction, select <guibutton>Forward</guibutton> to
+      display the selection of the account and stock for the split.  You will need to
+      create an entry for each <emphasis>Account:Stock</emphasis> combination you hold.</para>
+
+      <screenshot id="invest-split2">
+        <mediaobject>
+          <imageobject>
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/invest_split2.png"
+                       format="PNG" srccredit="Dave Herman" ></imagedata>
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>An image of the stock split assistant at step 2 - Selection of Account/Stock.
+            </phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption><para>An image of the stock split assistant at step 2 - Selection of
+           Account/Stock.</para></caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+
+
+      <para>Select the <emphasis>Assets:Investments:DRIPs:NST</emphasis> and click on
+      <guibutton>Forward</guibutton>.</para>
+
+      <para>The next screen presents 5 fields in the Stock Splits Details window:</para>
+
+      <itemizedlist>
+        <listitem>
+          <para><guilabel>Date</guilabel> - Enter the date of the split.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><guilabel>Shares</guilabel> -  The number of shares increased (or decreased)
+          in the transaction.</para>
+          <para>In our example it is a 2 for 1 split so the number of additional shares
+          is the number of shares currently in the register.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><guilabel>Description</guilabel> - The Description should give a brief
+          explanation of the transaction.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><guilabel>New Price</guilabel> - If desired the new price of the stock,
+          after the split, may be entered.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><guilabel>Currency</guilabel> - The currency of the transaction
+          is required.  This should be the same as the stock purchase currency.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+      </itemizedlist>
+
+      <para>Click on the <guibutton>Forward</guibutton> button.</para>
+
+      <screenshot id="invest-split3">
+        <mediaobject>
+          <imageobject>
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/invest_split3.png"
+                       format="PNG" srccredit="Dave Herman" ></imagedata>
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>An image of the stock split assistant at step 3 - Split Details. </phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption><para>An image of the stock split assistant at step 3 - Split Details. </para>
+          </caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+
+
+      <para>The next screen will be skipped in this example as there was no
+      <quote>Cash in Lieu</quote>.
+      </para>
+
+      <screenshot id="invest-split4">
+        <mediaobject>
+          <imageobject>
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/invest_split4.png"
+                       format="PNG" srccredit="Dave Herman" ></imagedata>
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>An image of the stock split assistant at step 4 - Cash in Lieu. </phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption><para>An image of the stock split assistant at step 4 - Cash in Lieu. </para>
+          </caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+
+      <para>A final <guilabel>Finish</guilabel> screen will give a last option to;
+       <guibutton>Cancel</guibutton>, <guibutton>Back</guibutton> to modify any data entered or
+       <guibutton>Apply</guibutton> to complete the stock split with the data entered. </para>
+
+      <screenshot id="invest-simplesplit1">
+        <mediaobject>
+          <imageobject>
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/invest_simplesplit1.png"
+                       format="PNG" srccredit="Dave Herman" ></imagedata>
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>Example of simple stock split transaction in the stock’s register</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption><para>An image of the <emphasis>Assets:Investments:DRIPs:NST</emphasis>
+          register after a simple stock split transaction. </para></caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+
+    </sect2>
+
+<!--  Moderately Complex Stock Merger
+
+-->
+
+      <sect2 id="invest-merger1">
+        <title>Moderately Complex Stock Merger</title>
+
+      <para>As an example, assume you held AT&T stock during the Nov. 18, 2005 merger of SBC
+      with AT&T. For this example you will have purchased AT&T on April 1, 2005, any
+      dividends will have been paid in cash, therefore not entered into the AT&T
+      stock register. </para>
+
+      <para> The conditions of the merger were .77942 share of SBC stock were exchanged for
+      each share of AT&T stock.  The merged company continued to use the symbol
+      <quote>T</quote> from AT&T.</para>
+
+      <para>AT&T paid a <quote>dividend</quote> of $1.20/share on the transaction date,
+      however this will not appear in the stock account as it was a cash distribution.</para>
+
+      <para>The process for entering this transaction is identical to the simple split until
+      the <quote>Details</quote> screen.  You will need to create an split entry in each
+      <emphasis>Investment Account:Stock</emphasis> account combination that has shares
+      splitting.</para>
+
+      <screenshot id="invest-merge2">
+        <mediaobject>
+          <imageobject>
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/invest_merge2.png"
+                       format="PNG" srccredit="Dave Herman" ></imagedata>
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>An image of the stock split assistant at step 2. </phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption><para>An image of the stock split assistant at step 2 - Selection of
+           Account/Stock (<emphasis>Investment Account:T</emphasis>).</para></caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+
+
+      <para>Select the <emphasis>Assets:Investments:Brokerage Account:Stock:T</emphasis> and click on
+      <guibutton>Forward</guibutton>.</para>
+
+      <para>The next screen presents 5 fields in the Stock Splits Details window:</para>
+
+      <itemizedlist>
+        <listitem>
+          <para><guilabel>Date</guilabel> - Enter the date of the split.  Here we’ll enter
+           November 18, 2005.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><guilabel>Shares</guilabel> -  The number of shares increased (or decreased)
+          in the transaction.</para>
+          <para>In our example it is a .77942 for 1 split so the number of shares will
+          decrease from the number of shares currently in the register.  You may use <application>&app;</application>’s
+          ability to perform calculations on an entry form by entering data directly
+          (E.g. <quote>(.77942*100)−100</quote>) to calculate the decrease in shares
+          from the split.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><guilabel>Description</guilabel> - The Description should give a brief
+          explanation of the transaction.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><guilabel>New Price</guilabel> - If desired the new price of the stock,
+          after the split, may be entered.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><guilabel>Currency</guilabel> - The currency of the transaction
+          is required.  This should be the same as the stock purchase currency.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+      </itemizedlist>
+
+      <para>Click on the <guibutton>Forward</guibutton> button.</para>
+
+      <screenshot id="invest-merge3">
+        <mediaobject>
+          <imageobject>
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/invest_merge3.png"
+                       format="PNG" srccredit="Dave Herman" ></imagedata>
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>An image of the stock split assistant at step 3. </phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption><para>An image of the stock split assistant at step 3 - Split Details. </para></caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+
+      <para>The next screen will be skipped in this example as there was no
+      <quote>Cash in Lieu</quote>.
+      </para>
+
+      <para>A final <quote>Finish</quote> screen will give a last option to
+      <guimenu>Back</guimenu> to modify any data entered or <guimenu>Apply</guimenu>
+      to complete the stock split with the data entered. </para>
+
+      <screenshot id="invest-stockmerge1">
+        <mediaobject>
+          <imageobject>
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/invest_stockmerge1.png"
+                       format="PNG" srccredit="Dave Herman" ></imagedata>
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>Example of moderate stock split transaction in the stock’s register</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption><para>An image of the <emphasis>Investment Account:T</emphasis> register after a
+           stock split transaction that decreases the shares. </para></caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+
+    </sect2>
+
+  </sect1>
+
+
+<!--  Working Location  !!!!!!!!!!!!
+  <sect1 id="invest-todo1">
+    <title>To-do</title>
+
+    <para>These are the remaining documentation sections that originally
+    appeared in the 1.8.4 documentation which require being written up.</para>
+
+    <itemizedlist>
+
+
+
+-->
+
+<!--
+      <listitem>
+        <para>Recording Stock Splits and Mergers (How-To)</para>
+      </listitem>
+      <listitem>
+        <para>Reconciling with the Brokerage Statement (How-To)</para>
+      </listitem>
+
+      <listitem>
+        <para>Recording Employee Stock Plans (Discussion)</para>
+      </listitem>
+
+      <listitem>
+        <para>Stock Options (How-To)</para>
+      </listitem>
+
+    </itemizedlist>
+  </sect1>
+-->
+</chapter>
diff --git a/guide/ru/ch_loans.xml b/guide/ru/ch_loans.xml
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..ef8cd79
--- /dev/null
+++ b/guide/ru/ch_loans.xml
@@ -0,0 +1,1152 @@
+<!--
+      (Do not remove this comment block.)
+  Version: 2.0.0
+  Last modified: July 9th 2006
+  Maintainers:
+               Chris Lyttle <chris at wilddev.net>
+  Author:
+  		Jon Lapham <lapham at extracta.com.br>
+  	Updated	Bengt Thuree <bengt at thuree.com>
+  Originally designed by Carol Champagne.
+  Translators:
+               (translators put your name and email here)
+-->
+<chapter id="chapter_loans">
+  <title>Loans</title>
+
+  <para>This chapter explains how to manage your loans with <application>&app;</application>.</para>
+
+  <sect1 id="loans_concepts1">
+    <title>Basic Concepts</title>
+
+    <para>A loan is defined as a financial transaction in which someone pays
+    for the use of someone else’s money. There are many familiar examples of
+    loans: credits cards, auto loans, house mortgages, or a business
+    loan.</para>
+
+    <sect2 id="loans_conceptsterms2">
+      <title>Terminology</title>
+
+      <para>Before discussing tracking loan in <application>&app;</application> specifically, it will
+      be helpful to present a glossary of terminology. The terms presented
+      below represent some of the basic concepts found concerning loans. It is
+      a good idea to become familiar with these terms, or at least, refer back
+      to this list if you encounter an unfamiliar word in the later
+      sections.</para>
+
+      <itemizedlist>
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>Amortization</emphasis> - the repayment plan which
+          will insure that a loan is eventually paid off, typically utilizing
+          equal valued monthly payments. These payments are usually split into
+          principal and interest, where the amount of principal per payment
+          increases (and interest decreases) as the amortization period
+          elapses.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>Borrower</emphasis> - the person or company that
+          receives the money from a loan.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>Default</emphasis> - when a borrower fails to repay
+          a loan according to the terms agreed upon with the lender.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>Deferment</emphasis> - a temporary delay in the
+          repayment of a loan.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>Delinquency</emphasis> - is the term that refers to
+          late payments.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>Disbursement</emphasis> - amount of the loan paid to
+          the borrower. Some loans have multiple disbursements, meaning the
+          borrower does not receive the full amount of the loan at one
+          time.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>Interest</emphasis> - the expense charged by the
+          lender to the borrower for the use of the money loaned. This is
+          typically expressed in terms of a yearly percentage charged on the
+          principal borrowed, known as the <emphasis>Annual Percentage
+          Rate</emphasis> or APR.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>Lender</emphasis> - the company or person who lends
+          money to a borrower.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>Loan Fee</emphasis> - a processing fee removed from
+          the principal at the time the borrower receives a loan.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>Principal</emphasis> - the original amount of the
+          loan, or the amount of the original loan that is still owed. When
+          you make a monthly payment on a loan, part of the money pays the
+          interest, and part pays the principal.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>Promissory Note</emphasis> - the legal agreement
+          between the borrower and lender concerning the loan.</para>
+        </listitem>
+      </itemizedlist>
+    </sect2>
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="loans_accounts1">
+    <title>Setting Up Accounts</title>
+
+    <para>When a borrower obtains a loan, it is usually with the intention to
+    make a purchase of something of value. In fact, most loans require the
+    borrower to buy some predetermined asset, such as a house. This asset is
+    insurance against the borrower defaulting on the loan. There are, of
+    course, examples of loans which do not necessarily have an associated high
+    value asset, such as educational loans.</para>
+
+    <para>For the account structure presented here, we will assume the loan
+    was used to purchase a compensating asset.</para>
+
+    <para>A loan is a liability, the interest you accrue on the loan is an
+    on-going expense, and any administrative fees you may have to pay would be
+    another expense. The thing purchased with the money from a loan is an
+    asset. With these parameters, we can now present a basic loan account
+    structure:</para>
+
+    <literallayout>
+Basic Loan Account Structure
+
+-Asset
+    -Current Assets
+        -Savings Account
+    -Fixed Assets
+        -Asset Purchased
+-Liability
+   -Loans
+       -Mortgage Loan
+-Expenses
+   -Interest
+       -Mortgage Interest
+   -Mortgage Adm Fees
+  </literallayout>
+
+    <para><application>&app;</application> has a number of predefined loan account hierarchies
+    available, including Car Loans and Home Mortgage Loans. To access these
+    predefined account structures, click on
+    <menuchoice>
+        <guimenu>Actions</guimenu>
+        <guimenuitem>New Account Hierarchy...</guimenuitem>
+      </menuchoice> and select the loan types in which you are interested.</para>
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="loans_calcs1">
+    <title>Calculations</title>
+
+    <para>Determining loan amortization schedules, periodic payment amounts,
+    total payment value, or interest rates can be somewhat complex. To help
+    facilitate these kinds of calculations, <application>&app;</application> has a built-in
+    <guilabel>Loan Repayment Calculator</guilabel>. To access the calculator, go to <menuchoice>
+        <guimenu>Tools</guimenu>
+
+        <guimenuitem>Loan Repayment Calculator</guimenuitem>
+      </menuchoice>.</para>
+
+    <screenshot id="loans_fcalc">
+      <mediaobject>
+        <imageobject>
+          <imagedata fileref="figures/loans_fcalc.png" format="PNG"
+                     srccredit="Bengt Thuree" />
+        </imageobject>
+
+        <textobject>
+          <phrase>Loan Repayment Calculator</phrase>
+        </textobject>
+
+        <caption><para>The <application>&app;</application> <guilabel>Loan Repayment Calculator</guilabel>.</para></caption>
+      </mediaobject>
+    </screenshot>
+
+    <para>The <guilabel>Loan Repayment Calculator</guilabel> can be used to calculate any one of the
+    parameters: <guilabel>Payment Periods</guilabel>, <guilabel>Interest
+    Rate</guilabel>, <guilabel>Present Value</guilabel>, <guilabel>Periodic
+    Payment</guilabel>, or <guilabel>Future Value</guilabel> given that the
+    other 4 have been defined. You will also need to specify the compounding
+    and payment methods.</para>
+
+    <itemizedlist>
+      <listitem>
+        <para><emphasis>Payment Periods</emphasis> - the number of payment
+        periods.</para>
+      </listitem>
+
+      <listitem>
+        <para><emphasis>Interest Rate</emphasis> - the nominal interest rate
+        of the loan, ie: the yearly interest rate.</para>
+      </listitem>
+
+      <listitem>
+        <para><emphasis>Present Value</emphasis> - the present value of the
+        loan, ie: current amount owed on the loan.</para>
+      </listitem>
+
+      <listitem>
+        <para><emphasis>Periodic Payment</emphasis> - the amount to pay per
+        period.</para>
+      </listitem>
+
+      <listitem>
+        <para><emphasis>Future Value</emphasis> - the future value of the
+        loan, ie: the amount owed after all payment periods are over.</para>
+      </listitem>
+
+      <listitem>
+        <para><emphasis>Compounding</emphasis> - two interest compounding
+        methods exist, discrete or continuous. For discrete compounding select
+        the compounding frequency from the popup menu with a range from yearly
+        to daily.</para>
+      </listitem>
+
+      <listitem>
+        <para><emphasis>Payments</emphasis> - the popup menu allows you to
+        select the payment frequency with a range from yearly to daily. You
+        can also select whether your payments occur at the beginning or end of
+        the period. Payments made at the beginning of the payment period have
+        interest applied to the payment as well as any previous money paid or
+        money still owed.</para>
+      </listitem>
+    </itemizedlist>
+
+    <sect2 id="loans_calcsexample1_2">
+      <title>Example: Monthly Payments</title>
+
+      <para>What is your monthly payment on a $100000 30 year loan at a fixed
+      rate of 4% compounded monthly?</para>
+
+      <para>This scenario is shown in the example image above. To perform this
+      calculation, set Payment Periods to 360 (12 months x 30 years), Interest
+      Rate to 4, Present Value to 100000, leave Periodic Payment empty and set
+      Future Value to 0 (you do not want to owe anything at the end of the
+      loan). Compounding is Monthly, Payments are Monthly, assume End of
+      Period Payments, and Discrete Compounding. Now, click on the
+      <guibutton>Calculate</guibutton> button next to the Periodic Payment
+      area. You should see $-477.42.</para>
+
+      <para>Answer: You must make monthly payments of 477.42.</para>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="loans_calcsexample2_2">
+      <title>Example: Length of Loan</title>
+
+      <para>How long will you be paying back a $20000 loan at 10% fixed rate
+      interest compounded monthly if you pay $500 per month?</para>
+
+      <para>To perform this calculation, leave <guilabel>Payment Periods</guilabel> empty, set
+      <guilabel>Interest Rate</guilabel> to <emphasis>10</emphasis>, <guilabel>Present Value</guilabel>
+      to <emphasis>20000</emphasis>, <guilabel>Periodic Payment</guilabel> is <emphasis>-500</emphasis>,
+      and <guilabel>Future Value</guilabel> is <emphasis>0</emphasis> (you do not want to owe anything
+      at the end of the loan). <guilabel>Compounding</guilabel> is <emphasis>Monthly</emphasis>,
+      <guilabel>Payments</guilabel> are <emphasis>Monthly</emphasis>, assume <guilabel>End</guilabel>
+      of <guilabel>Period</guilabel> payments, and <guilabel>Discrete</guilabel> <guilabel>Compounding</guilabel>.
+      Now, click on the <guibutton>Calculate</guibutton>. You should see 49 in the
+      <guilabel>Payment Periods</guilabel> field.</para>
+
+      <para>Answer: You will pay off the loan in 4 years and 1 month (49 months).</para>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="loans_calcsdetails2">
+      <title>Advanced: Calculation Details</title>
+
+      <para>In order to discuss the mathematical formulas used by the
+      <guilabel>Loan Repayment Calculator</guilabel>, we first must define some
+      variables.
+<literallayout>
+ n  == number of payment periods
+ %i  == nominal interest rate, NAR, charged
+ PV  == Present Value
+ PMT == Periodic Payment
+ FV  == Future Value
+ CF == Compounding Frequency per year
+ PF == Payment Frequency per year
+
+Normal values for CF and PF are:
+   1   == annual
+   2   == semi-annual
+   3   == tri-annual
+   4   == quaterly
+   6   == bi-monthly
+   12  == monthly
+   24  == semi-monthly
+   26  == bi-weekly
+   52  == weekly
+   360 == daily
+   365 == daily
+</literallayout>
+      </para>
+
+      <sect3 id="loans_calcsdetails_i2">
+        <title>Converting between nominal and effective interest rate</title>
+
+        <para>When a solution for n, PV, PMT or FV is required, the nominal
+        interest rate (i) must first be converted to the effective
+        interest rate per payment period (ieff). This rate,
+        ieff, is then used to compute the selected variable. When a solution
+        for i is required, the computation produces the effective interest
+        rate (ieff). Thus, we need functions which convert from i to ieff, and
+        from ieff to i.</para>
+
+        <literallayout>
+To convert from i to ieff, the following expressions are used:
+Discrete Interest:     <emphasis>ieff = (1 + i/CF)^(CF/PF) - 1</emphasis>
+Continuous Interest: <emphasis>ieff = e^(i/PF) - 1 = exp(i/PF) - 1</emphasis>
+
+To convert from ieff to i, the following expressions are used:
+Discrete Interst:      <emphasis>i = CF*[(1+ieff)^(PF/CF) - 1]</emphasis>
+Continuous Interest: <emphasis>i = ln[(1+ieff)^PF]</emphasis>
+</literallayout>
+
+        <note>
+          <para>NOTE: in the equations below for the financial transaction,
+          all interest rates are the effective interest rate, <quote>ieff</quote>. For the
+          sake of brevity, the symbol will be shortened to just <quote>i</quote>.</para>
+        </note>
+      </sect3>
+
+      <sect3 id="loans_calcsdetails_basic2">
+        <title>The basic financial equation</title>
+
+        <para>One equation fundamentally links all the 5 variables. This is
+        known as the fundamental financial equation:</para>
+
+        <literallayout>
+<emphasis>PV*(1 + i)^n + PMT*(1 + iX)*[(1+i)^n - 1]/i + FV = 0</emphasis>
+
+  Where: X = 0 for end of period payments, and
+         X = 1 for beginning of period payments
+</literallayout>
+
+        <para>From this equation, functions which solve for the individual
+        variables can be derived. For a detailed explanation of the derivation
+        of this equation, see the comments in the file src/calculation/fin.c
+        from the <application>&app;</application> source code. The A, B, and C variables are defined
+        first, to make the later equations simpler to read.</para>
+
+        <literallayout>
+<emphasis>A = (1 + i)^n - 1</emphasis>
+<emphasis>B = (1 + iX)/i</emphasis>
+<emphasis>C = PMT*B</emphasis>
+
+<emphasis>n = ln[(C - FV)/(C + PV)]/ln((1 + i)</emphasis>
+<emphasis>PV = -[FV + A*C]/(A + 1)</emphasis>
+<emphasis>PMT = -[FV + PV*(A + 1)]/[A*B]</emphasis>
+<emphasis>FV = -[PV + A*(PV + C)] </emphasis>
+
+The solution for interest is broken into two cases.
+The simple case for when  PMT == 0 gives the solution:
+<emphasis>i = [FV/PV]^(1/n) - 1</emphasis>
+
+</literallayout>
+
+        <para>The case where PMT != 0 is fairly complex and will not be
+        presented here. Rather than involving an exactly solvable function,
+        determining the interest rate when PMT !=0 involves an iterative
+        process. Please see the src/calculation/fin.c source file for a
+        detailed explanation.</para>
+      </sect3>
+
+      <sect3 id="loans_calcsdetails_ex2">
+        <title>Example: Monthly Payments</title>
+
+        <para>Let’s recalculate <xref linkend="loans_calcsexample1_2"/>,
+        this time using the
+        mathematical formulas rather than the <guilabel>Loan Repayment Calculator</guilabel>. What is
+        your monthly payment on a $100000 30 year loan at a fixed rate of 4%
+        compounded monthly?</para>
+
+        <para>First, let’s define the variables: n = (30*12) = 360, PV =
+        100000, PMT = unknown, FV = 0, i = 4%=4/100=0.04, CF = PF = 12, X = 0
+        (end of payment periods).</para>
+
+        <para>The second step is to convert the nominal interest rate (i) to
+        the effective interest rate (ieff). Since the interest rate is
+        compounded monthly, it is discrete, and we use: ieff = (1 +
+        i/CF)^(CF/PF) - 1, which gives ieff = (1 + 0.04/12)^(12/12) - 1, thus
+        ieff = 1/300 = 0.0033333.</para>
+
+        <para>Now we can calculate A and B. A = (1 + i)^n - 1 = (1 +
+        1/300)^360 - 1 = 2.313498. B = (1 + iX)/i = (1 + (1/300)*0)/(1/300) =
+        300.</para>
+
+        <para>With A and B, we can calculate PMT. PMT = -[FV + PV*(A +
+        1)]/[A*B] = -[0 + 100000*(2.313498 + 1)] / [2.313498 * 300] =
+        -331349.8 / 694.0494 = -477.415296 = -477.42.</para>
+
+        <para>Answer: You must make monthly payments of 477.42.</para>
+
+      </sect3>
+    </sect2>
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="loans_mortgage1">
+    <title>House Mortgage (How-To)</title>
+
+    <para>A house mortgage can be setup using the account structure present in
+    <xref linkend="loans_accounts1" />.</para>
+
+    <para>As an example, assume you have $60k in you bank account, and you buy
+    a $150k house. The mortgage is charging 6% APR, and has administrative
+    fees (closing costs, etc) of 3%. You decide to put $50k down, and thus
+    will need to borrow $103k, which will give you $100 after the closing
+    costs are paid (3% of $100k).</para>
+
+    <para>Your accounts before borrowing the money:</para>
+
+    <screenshot id="loans_mortgage">
+      <mediaobject>
+        <imageobject>
+          <imagedata fileref="figures/loans_mortgage1.png" format="PNG"
+                     srccredit="Bengt Thuree" />
+        </imageobject>
+
+        <textobject>
+          <phrase>Accounts Before Receiving Loan</phrase>
+        </textobject>
+
+        <caption><para>Accounts Before Receiving Loan</para></caption>
+      </mediaobject>
+    </screenshot>
+
+    <para>The purchase of the house is recorded with a split transaction in
+    the <emphasis>Assets:House</emphasis> account, with $50k coming from the bank (IE: your down
+    payment), and $100k coming from the Mortgage. You can place the $3k
+    closing costs in the same split, and we increase the house loan to $103k
+    to include the closing costs as well.</para>
+
+    <para><table>
+        <title>Buying a House Split Transaction</title>
+
+        <tgroup cols="3">
+          <tbody>
+            <row>
+              <entry>Account</entry>
+
+              <entry>Increase</entry>
+
+              <entry>Decrease</entry>
+            </row>
+
+            <row>
+              <entry>Assets:Fixed Assets:House</entry>
+
+              <entry>$150,000</entry>
+
+              <entry></entry>
+            </row>
+
+            <row>
+              <entry>Assets:Current Assets:Bank</entry>
+
+              <entry></entry>
+
+              <entry>$50,000</entry>
+            </row>
+
+            <row>
+              <entry>Liabilities:Loans:Mortgage Loan</entry>
+
+              <entry></entry>
+
+              <entry>$103,000</entry>
+            </row>
+
+            <row>
+              <entry>Expenses:Mortgage Adm Fees</entry>
+
+              <entry>$3000</entry>
+
+              <entry></entry>
+            </row>
+          </tbody>
+        </tgroup>
+      </table></para>
+
+    <para>The split will look like this in the <emphasis>Assets:Fixed Assets:House</emphasis>
+    Account:</para>
+
+    <screenshot id="loans_mortgage2.png">
+      <mediaobject>
+        <imageobject>
+          <imagedata fileref="figures/loans_mortgage2.png" format="PNG"
+                     srccredit="Bengt Thuree" />
+        </imageobject>
+
+        <textobject>
+          <phrase>Mortgage Split Transaction</phrase>
+        </textobject>
+
+        <caption><para>Mortgage Split Transaction</para></caption>
+      </mediaobject>
+    </screenshot>
+
+    <para>Which will give a Chart of Accounts like this:</para>
+
+    <screenshot id="loans_mortgage3">
+      <mediaobject>
+        <imageobject>
+          <imagedata fileref="figures/loans_mortgage3.png" format="PNG"
+                     srccredit="Bengt Thuree" />
+        </imageobject>
+
+        <textobject>
+          <phrase>Mortgage Accounts</phrase>
+        </textobject>
+
+        <caption><para>Mortgage Account</para></caption>
+      </mediaobject>
+    </screenshot>
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="loans_personalLoanToSomeOne">
+    <title>A Personal Loan to a friend (How-To)</title>
+
+    <para>It is not always you are borrowing money from the bank, sometimes
+    you borrow money from your family, or perhaps even lend money to a friend.
+    This How-To chapter will describe one way to handle lending money to a
+    friend.</para>
+
+    <para>We are basing this How-To on the following generic account
+    structure.</para>
+
+    <literallayout>
+-Asset
+   -Bank
+        -Bank Account
+   -Money owed to you
+        -Person
+-Income
+   -Interest Income
+        -Person
+  </literallayout>
+
+    <para>This example will show how to track a personal loan of 2,000 USD
+    (default currency) to your friend Peter</para>
+
+    <sect2 id="loans_personalLoanToSomeOne_loan">
+      <title>Loan Specifications</title>
+
+      <para>Peter wants to borrow $2,000 dollars from you and plans to pay you
+      back monthly for the next 18 months. Since he is your friend, (but not
+      that close) you both agree on a yearly interest rate of 5%.</para>
+
+      <para>In summary we have the below details. Peter’s loan details:
+      <itemizedlist>
+          <listitem>
+            <para>Pinciple Amount - $2,000</para>
+          </listitem>
+
+          <listitem>
+            <para>Term - 18 months with 12 payments per year</para>
+          </listitem>
+
+          <listitem>
+            <para>Annual Percentage Rate: 5%</para>
+          </listitem>
+
+          <listitem>
+            <para>Monthly Payment : ??</para>
+          </listitem>
+        </itemizedlist></para>
+
+      <para>So how do you calculate the Monthly Payment?</para>
+
+      <para>You have a number of different options, like paper and pen,
+      Linux Calculator, Open Office’s Calc module, but the easiest is to use
+      <application>&app;</application> <guilabel>Loan Repayment Calculator</guilabel>. This tells you that the Monthly Payment
+      should be $115.56.</para>
+
+      <para>But you need to know how much of this is Interest and how much is
+      Principal to be able to do a proper bookkeeping. For this you need a
+      more powerful tool, something like the <application>Calc</application> module in
+      <application>OpenOffice.org</application>, and
+      in particular the <acronym>PMT</acronym> function.</para>
+
+      <screenshot id="loans_OpenOfficePrivateLoanDetails">
+        <mediaobject>
+          <imageobject>
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/loans_PrivateLoanCalculation.png"
+                       format="PNG" srccredit="Bengt Thuree" />
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>Calculation of Private Loan details</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption><para>Detailed view over the private loan to
+          Peter</para></caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="loans_personalLoanToSomeOne_accounts">
+      <title>Accounts for the loan</title>
+
+      <para>Let’s start with the following accounts (all accounts have the
+      same currency, in this case USD)</para>
+
+      <literallayout>
+Assets:Bank:USD
+Assets:Money owed to you:Peter
+Income:Interest Income:Peter
+Equity:Opening Balances:USD
+  </literallayout>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="loans_personalLoanToSomeOne_InitialSetup">
+      <title>Lending the money</title>
+
+      <para>When you have lent money to your friend, you have in fact moved
+      money from an Asset account (like Bank, Checking or similar) to your
+      Asset account <emphasis>Money owed to you</emphasis>. To record this you enter the
+      following transaction into the <emphasis>Assets:Money owed to you:Friend</emphasis>
+      account.</para>
+
+      <para><table>
+          <title>Personal loan to a Friend</title>
+
+          <tgroup cols="3">
+            <tbody>
+              <row>
+                <entry>Account</entry>
+
+                <entry>Increase</entry>
+
+                <entry>Decrease</entry>
+              </row>
+
+              <row>
+                <entry>Assets:Money owed to you:Friend</entry>
+
+                <entry>$2,000</entry>
+
+                <entry></entry>
+              </row>
+
+              <row>
+                <entry>Assets:Bank:USD</entry>
+
+                <entry></entry>
+
+                <entry>$2,000</entry>
+              </row>
+            </tbody>
+          </tgroup>
+        </table></para>
+
+      <screenshot id="loans_PrivateLoanInitial">
+        <mediaobject>
+          <imageobject>
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/loans_PrivateLoanInitial.png"
+                       format="PNG" srccredit="Bengt Thuree" />
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>Lended money</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption><para>Chart of Accounts after lending
+          money</para></caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="loans_personalLoanToSomeOne_FirstPayment">
+      <title>Receiving first payment</title>
+
+      <para>When the first payment ($115.56) is received, you will need to
+      determine how much is for the principal loan, and how much is for the
+      loan interest.</para>
+
+      <itemizedlist>
+        <listitem>
+          <para>Outstanding loan amount this period = $2,000</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para>Payment per month = $115.56</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para>Payment breakdown</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para>5%/12 * $2,000 = $8.33 Interest</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para>$115.56 - $8.33 = $107.23 Principal</para>
+        </listitem>
+      </itemizedlist>
+
+      <para>This can be translated to the following <application>&app;</application> entry</para>
+
+      <screenshot id="loans_PrivateLoanFirstPayment">
+        <mediaobject>
+          <imageobject>
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/loans_PrivateLoanFirstPayment.png"
+                       format="PNG" srccredit="Bengt Thuree" />
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>First payment</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption><para>Detailed view over first payment</para></caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+
+      <para>The balance on Peter’s loan is now $2,000 - $107.23 =
+      $1,892.77</para>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="loans_personalLoanToSomeOne_SecondPayment">
+      <title>Receiving second payment</title>
+
+      <para>When the second payment ($115.56) is received, you will again need
+      to determine how much is for the principal loan, and how much is for the
+      loan interest.</para>
+
+      <itemizedlist>
+        <listitem>
+          <para>Outstanding loan amount this period = $1,892.77</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para>Payment per month = $115.56</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para>Payment breakdown</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para>5%/12 * $1,892.77 = $7.89 Interest</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para>$115.56 - $7.89 = $107.67 Principal</para>
+        </listitem>
+      </itemizedlist>
+
+      <para>This can be translated to the following <application>&app;</application> entry</para>
+
+      <screenshot id="loans_PrivateLoanSecondPayment">
+        <mediaobject>
+          <imageobject>
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/loans_PrivateLoanSecondPayment.png"
+                       format="PNG" srccredit="Bengt Thuree" />
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>Second payment</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption><para>Detailed view over the second
+          payment</para></caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+
+      <para>The balance on Peter’s loan is now $1,892.77 - $107.67 =
+      $1,785.10</para>
+
+      <para>The Chart of accounts looks now like this</para>
+
+      <screenshot id="loans_PrivateLoanSecondPaymentAccounts">
+        <mediaobject>
+          <imageobject>
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/loans_PrivateLoanSecondPaymentAccounts.png"
+                       format="PNG" srccredit="Bengt Thuree" />
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>Chart of Accounts after second payment</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption><para>Chart of Accounts after second
+          payment</para></caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+
+      <para>As you can see, the interest varies for every month, as well as
+      the principal amount. So for every payment you receive you need to
+      calculate the proper amounts for your various split entries.</para>
+
+      <para>The interest amount will be less and less for every payment (since
+      it is calculated on a smaller loan amount all the time), until the last
+      payment where it is more or less 0. Please review the Figure of Detailed
+      view over private loan to Peter for more details</para>
+    </sect2>
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="loans_CarLoan">
+    <title>Automobile Loan (How-To)</title>
+
+    <para>The Automobile Loan, or in common terms, Car Loan, is treated more
+    or less exactly as the House loan. The only difference is different
+    accounts, and different interest rates.</para>
+
+    <para><literallayout>Basic Car Loan Account Structure
+
+-Asset
+    -Current Assets
+        -Savings Account
+    -Fixed Assets
+        -Car
+-Liability
+   -Loans
+       -Car Loan
+-Expenses
+   -Interest
+       -Car Loan Interest
+   -Car Loan Adm Fees</literallayout></para>
+
+    <para>For more information, please check <xref
+    linkend="loans_mortgage1" /></para>
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="loans_Reconciling">
+    <title>Reconciling with the Loan Statements (How-To)</title>
+
+    <para>Reconciling a loan statement is no different from reconciling a bank
+    or credit card statement.</para>
+
+    <para>During the period you should have recorded all the various loan
+    related transactions, and every one of them are touching the
+    <guilabel>Liability:Loans:<replaceable>Loan</replaceable></guilabel> account. For instance,
+    paying off a bit of the loan decreases your <emphasis>Bank
+    Account,</emphasis> and increases the <emphasis>Loan account</emphasis>,
+    <emphasis>Loan Interest</emphasis> as well as perhaps <emphasis>Loan
+    administration fee</emphasis>.</para>
+
+    <para>With the loan statement in your hands, open the Loan account, start
+    the reconcile assistant, and tick of all the various transaction you have
+    recorded. When you have finished, the reconciling difference should be 0,
+    and if it is not, then you will have to go through the account and compare
+    it with the loan statement to find the difference. When you have reached a
+    0 in difference, then your loan account is reconciled and you can finish
+    the Reconcile assistant.</para>
+
+    <para>For more information on how to Reconcile, please check <xref
+    linkend="txns-reconcile1" /></para>
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1>
+    <title>Selling a house or a car (How-To)</title>
+
+    <para>When you will record the selling of your house in <application>&app;</application> you have
+    some different options. Here we will go through two of them, one in which
+    you only recorded the purchase amount, and now the selling amount. The other
+    where you have followed the ups and downs on the property market and registered
+    various Unrealized gains over the time.</para>
+
+    <para></para>
+
+    <sect2>
+      <title>Simple Transaction</title>
+
+      <para>In this way you only record the proper sale amount.</para>
+
+      <para>Let’s work through two samples of selling a house, one with a
+      profit, and one with a loss. If you want to sell a car instead, just
+      substitute the house account with a car account.</para>
+
+      <para><literallayout>
+-Assets
+  -Fixed Assets
+    -House
+  -Current Assets
+    -Saving
+-Income
+  -Capital Gains Long
+    -House
+    </literallayout></para>
+
+      <itemizedlist>
+        <listitem>
+          <para>You bought a house for $300,000 once upon a time, and now managed
+          to sell it for $600,000. How do you record this?</para>
+
+          <para>To record this you need to increase our bank account with the
+          $600k, and decrease some other accounts with $600k. The house
+          account only contains $300k which is what you bought it for, so you
+          move this amount to your bank account. That means you are lacking
+          $300k. This amount you fetch from the <emphasis>Income:Captial Gains Long:House</emphasis>
+          account. The split transaction you enter into your
+          <emphasis>bank</emphasis> account
+          (<emphasis>Assets:Current Assets:Saving</emphasis>)
+          should look like this.</para>
+
+          <para><table>
+              <title>Selling an asset (house) with a profit</title>
+
+              <tgroup cols="3">
+                <tbody>
+                  <row>
+                    <entry>Account</entry>
+
+                    <entry>Increase</entry>
+
+                    <entry>Decrease</entry>
+                  </row>
+
+                  <row>
+                    <entry>Assets:Current Assets:Saving</entry>
+
+                    <entry>$600,000</entry>
+
+                    <entry></entry>
+                  </row>
+
+                  <row>
+                    <entry>Assets:Fixed Assets:House</entry>
+
+                    <entry></entry>
+
+                    <entry>$300,000</entry>
+                  </row>
+
+                  <row>
+                    <entry>Income:Capital Gains Long:House</entry>
+
+                    <entry></entry>
+
+                    <entry>$300,000</entry>
+                  </row>
+                </tbody>
+              </tgroup>
+            </table></para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para>You bought a house for $300,000 once upon a time, but due to a
+          newly created airport, could only sell it for $230,000. How do you
+          record this?</para>
+
+          <para>To record this you need to increase your bank account with the
+          $230k, and decrease some other accounts with $230k. The house
+          account contains $300k which is more than what you sold it for. So
+          let’s move $230k of it to your bank account. After this you have $70k
+          remaining in your house account which needs to be removed. You move it
+          to our <emphasis>Income:Capital Gains Long:House</emphasis> account, which will indicate
+          a loss. The split transaction you enter into your
+          <emphasis>house</emphasis> account
+          (<emphasis>Assets:Fixed Assets:House</emphasis>) should look like this.</para>
+
+          <para><table>
+              <title>Selling an asset (house) with a loss</title>
+
+              <tgroup cols="3">
+                <tbody>
+                  <row>
+                    <entry>Account</entry>
+
+                    <entry>Increase</entry>
+
+                    <entry>Decrease</entry>
+                  </row>
+
+                  <row>
+                    <entry>Assets:Fixed Assets:House</entry>
+
+                    <entry></entry>
+
+                    <entry>$300,000</entry>
+                  </row>
+
+                  <row>
+                    <entry>Assets:Current Assets:Saving</entry>
+
+                    <entry>$230,000</entry>
+
+                    <entry></entry>
+                  </row>
+
+                  <row>
+                    <entry>Income:Capital Gains Long:House</entry>
+
+                    <entry>$70,000</entry>
+
+                    <entry></entry>
+                  </row>
+                </tbody>
+              </tgroup>
+            </table></para>
+        </listitem>
+      </itemizedlist>
+
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2>
+      <title>A More Complex Transaction</title>
+
+      <para>In this example, we will touch a little on some more complicated
+      accounting principles. For more details on this subject, please check
+      <xref linkend="chapter_capgain"></xref></para>
+
+      <para>Here we will only touch on the case when you have accurately estimated
+      the current value of your house. For the other cases (over-, and
+      under-estimated), please check <xref linkend="chapter_capgain"></xref>.</para>
+
+      <para><literallayout>
+-Assets
+    -Fixed Assets
+        -House
+            -Cost
+            -Unrealized Gain
+    -Current Assets
+        -Saving
+-Income
+    -Realized Gain
+        -House
+    -Unrealized Gain
+        -House
+    </literallayout></para>
+
+          <para>You bought a house for $300,000 once upon a time, and over
+          the years kept a close look on the market and updated your
+          records with the estimated current value of your house. At the time
+          you want to sell it, you have determined that the current market
+          value is $600,000. </para>
+
+          <para>The difference between $600,000 (estimated market value) and
+          $300,000 (purchase value) is the current Unrealized Gain value. Therefore
+          you have a total of $300,000 in your
+          <emphasis>Assets:Fixed Assets:House:Unrealized Gain</emphasis> account</para>
+
+          <para>How do you record this sell transaction?</para>
+
+          <para>To record this you need to increase your bank account with the
+          $600k, and decrease some other accounts with $600k.
+          You must first change from unrealized gain to realized gain
+          for your <emphasis>Income</emphasis> accounts.
+          Lastly you need to transfer the full amounts from the <emphasis>Assets:Fixed Assets:House</emphasis>
+          sub-accounts.</para>
+
+          <para>The transaction you enter into your
+          <emphasis>Income:Realized Gain:House</emphasis> account
+          account should look like this.</para>
+
+          <para><table>
+              <title>Selling an asset (house) with a profit</title>
+
+              <tgroup cols="3">
+                <tbody>
+                  <row>
+                    <entry>Account</entry>
+
+                    <entry>Increase</entry>
+
+                    <entry>Decrease</entry>
+                  </row>
+
+                  <row>
+                    <entry>Income:Realized Gain:House</entry>
+
+                    <entry>$300,000</entry>
+
+                    <entry></entry>
+                  </row>
+
+                  <row>
+                    <entry>Income:Unrealized Gain:House</entry>
+
+                    <entry></entry>
+
+                    <entry>$300,000</entry>
+                  </row>
+
+                </tbody>
+              </tgroup>
+            </table></para>
+
+          <para>The transaction you enter into your
+          <emphasis>Assets:Current Assets:Saving</emphasis> account
+          should look like this.</para>
+
+          <para><table>
+              <title>Selling an asset (house) with a profit 2</title>
+
+              <tgroup cols="3">
+                <tbody>
+                  <row>
+                    <entry>Account</entry>
+
+                    <entry>Increase</entry>
+
+                    <entry>Decrease</entry>
+                  </row>
+
+                  <row>
+                    <entry>Assets:Current Assets:Saving</entry>
+
+                    <entry>$600,000</entry>
+
+                    <entry></entry>
+                  </row>
+
+                  <row>
+                    <entry>Assets:Fixed Assets:House:Cost</entry>
+
+                    <entry></entry>
+
+                    <entry>$300,000</entry>
+                  </row>
+
+                  <row>
+                    <entry>Assets:Fixed Assets:House:Unrealized Gain</entry>
+
+                    <entry></entry>
+
+                    <entry>$300,000</entry>
+                  </row>
+
+                </tbody>
+              </tgroup>
+            </table></para>
+            <para>After having recorded these transactions you see that your House
+            Asset have a value of 0, your Savings account have increased with $600,000,
+            and lastly, the <emphasis>Income:Realized Gain</emphasis> have increased to $300,000.</para>
+
+    </sect2>
+
+
+
+  </sect1>
+<!--
+  <sect1 id="loans_missing1">
+    <title>Missing Loan Documentation</title>
+
+    <literallayout>
+ -Entering a Payment Schedule
+     -Monthly Payments (How-To)
+       -See the Mortgage assistant
+        -ARM 10/1 means 10 year fixed interest rate, then changes every year
+        -ARM 10/3 means 10 year fixed interest rate, then changes every third year
+     -Final Payment (How-To)
+       -Same as a normal payment, but you get the figures from the bank
+       -How to fix 10 amortization and then a final bulk payment setup?
+
+ -Putting It All Together
+ </literallayout>
+  </sect1>
+-->
+</chapter>
diff --git a/guide/ru/ch_oth_assets.xml b/guide/ru/ch_oth_assets.xml
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..692b5b0
--- /dev/null
+++ b/guide/ru/ch_oth_assets.xml
@@ -0,0 +1,442 @@
+<!--
+      (Do not remove this comment block.)
+  Version: 2.2.9
+  Last modified: October 19, 2010
+
+  Maintainers:
+               Tom Bullock <tbullock at nd.edu>
+
+  Author:
+               Tom Bullock <tbullock at nd.edu>
+
+Translators:
+       (translators put your name and email here)
+-->
+
+<chapter id="chapter_other_assets">
+  <title>Other Assets</title>
+  <sect1 id="accts-oa1">
+    <title>General Concepts</title>
+    <para>This chapter presents many additional accounting treatments for
+    frequently encountered business and less-frequently found personal activities
+    that need recording in accounting books. The explanations below cover both the
+    description and purpose of the activity, and they include also the usual
+    accounting treatments (bookings or recordings) for these transactions.</para>
+
+    <para>These concepts have evolved over centuries of experience by those
+    keeping accounting records and will help you maximize your record keeping’s
+    utility and meaningfulness.</para>
+
+    <para>This section introduces categorization of assets in the balance sheet
+    based on time or the asset’s useful life (current and long-term). Sometimes
+    assets are also considered from the standpoint of their <emphasis>liquidity
+    </emphasis>, which is regarded as how close or distant the asset is from
+    being turned into cash. Near-cash assets are relatively quickly converted
+    to cash (e.g., accounts receivable), while assets requiring rather a long
+    time to convert to cash are considered to be relatively <emphasis>fixed
+    </emphasis> in their non-cash state (e.g., heavy equipment, buildings, land).
+    (Fixed does not mean they were repaired!)</para>
+
+    <para>You should find that current assets parallel those with more liquidity,
+     while long-term and fixed assets are those with much less liquidity. Finally,
+     below you will find a few assets that could be either current or long-term
+     based on the nature of the facts constituting them.</para>
+    </sect1>
+    <sect1 id="accts-oa2">
+      <title>Other Assets Described</title>
+        <sect2 id="accts-oa3">
+          <title>Current Assets</title>
+          <para>Current Assets are those activities whose
+          normal expected life would be one year or less. Such activities could
+          be tracking reimbursable expenses, travel advances, short-term loans
+          to a friend or family member, prepaid expenses, annual insurance
+          premium amortization, and so on. The individual entity could have
+          many other kinds of short term activities that reflect what it is
+          doing. (These asset types are explained individually below.)
+          </para>
+          </sect2>
+          <sect2 id="accts-oa4">
+          <title>Long-term (Fixed) Assets</title>
+          <para>Long-term (Fixed) Assets are those
+          activities whose normal expected life exceeds one or more years. This
+          grouping covers both tangible and intangible assets. Examples of
+          tangible assets are land, buildings, and vehicles (cars, trucks,
+          construction equipment, factory presses, etc.) Intangible assets
+          include such things as patents, copy rights, goodwill, etc. Because
+          the lives of some of these assets show wear and tear and deterioration
+          in value over time, businesses and individuals can allow for that
+          diminution in value by calculating depreciation on such assets. For
+          example, land normally does not depreciate, but buildings do, as do
+          equipment and vehicles. (These asset types are explained individually
+           below.)</para>
+         </sect2>
+    </sect1>
+    <sect1 id="accts-oa5">
+      <title>Current Assets</title>
+          <para>This section explains short-term receivables, reimbursable expenses,
+          travel advances, prepaid premiums, prepaid rent, suspense or wash accounts.
+          </para>
+     <sect2 id="accts-oa6">
+      <title>Short-term Receivables</title>
+          <para>This kind of account
+          is useful to reflect an agreement made with someone you trust.
+          Suppose you lent someone $500 and he agreed to repay you $50 a month.
+          If he paid on time, the loan you made would be paid off within a year,
+          which is why it is classified as a short-term receivable. So you
+          could record that loan initially in this account tree: <emphasis>OtherAssets:Current Assets:LoanToJoe.</emphasis>
+          At the time you give him the money: your
+          entry is debit (increase) LoanToJoe $500 and credit (decrease) Bank
+          $500. Each time you receive Joe’s payment you record $50 debit
+          (increase) to Bank and credit (decrease) LoanToJoe.</para>
+
+          <tip>
+          <para>Don’t become confused by the use of the word <quote>Loan</quote>.
+          <quote>Loan-To</quote> is the tipoff that you really have a receivable, that is,
+          you will receive from Joe, the money you previously loaned. Until he
+          actually pays the money owed you, you reflect his debt in your books
+          by an account describing your expectation–you will receive the
+          money owed you, hence the word <quote>receivable</quote>.</para>
+          </tip>
+        </sect2>
+     <sect2 id="accts-oa7">
+      <title>Reimbursable Expenses</title>
+          <para>This kind of activity
+          is one in which you spend your own money on behalf of someone else
+          (your employer, perhaps) and later you receive repayment of what you
+          spent. The case might be a business trip. The employer has a policy
+          of covering (paying for) all authorized expenses. After the
+          trip is over, the employee submits a report listing dates and amounts
+          spent with receipts for all the expenditures. The employer reviews
+          the report and pays for all items that it considers as having a valid business reason.
+          (Normally, employees know in advance what the employer will
+          reimburse, so only those items are recorded as a reimbursable expense
+          on the employee’s books.)</para>
+
+          <para>Because a business trip can involve different kinds of expenditures
+          (air travel, lodging, transportation at the destination, etc.),
+          different kinds of expenditures would be recorded in the one account
+          as long as the expenditures all related to the same trip. In other
+          words, if a second trip is made before the first is fully settled, a
+          second account for a different event could be set up. It would make
+          sense to do this, if it would help to keep separate all the details of
+          one trip from those of another. It is up to the person making the
+          trip to decide how much trouble it would be to put separate trips in
+          separate accounts or to put them all in the same account. The trip
+          taker should remember that the account must be reconciled in order to
+          know with certainty that all expenses have been reimbursed.</para>
+
+          <para>Recording the expenditures on the trip would be much the same.
+          That is, if you paid trip expenses by cash you would debit (increase) the
+          reimburseable expense account for the money paid in cash, because it
+          is a receivable to you until it has been reimbursed to you. The credit
+          offsetting your expenditure would decrease the account that shows the
+          cash in your pocket or the account from which you drew the cash for
+          the payment made. If you paid by credit card, the debit side would be
+          the same as just described, but the credit would be an increase to the
+          credit card company account on your books.</para>
+
+          <para>When you received your reimbursement, then the journal entry (or
+          transaction) to record receipt of the funds from the employer would be:
+          debit (increase) Bank for the check amount and credit (decrease) the
+          reimbursable expense account for the check amount.</para>
+
+          <para>If it turns out that the reimbursable expense account is not
+          zero balance after processing the employer’s payment, then it means that
+          there is a difference between you and the employer in handling the expense,
+          which needs to be investigated. If the balance is a debit
+          (a positive balance), your account has some money that was not reimbursed.
+          If the balance is a credit (a negative balance), you were paid for more
+          than what you recorded as due you. In both of those situations you should
+          reconcile the difference between what you recorded and what was paid.
+          That effort should disclose exactly what is causing the discrepancy.
+          You will need to contact the employer’s bookkeeper to know what was paid,
+          if the reimbursement check was not accompanied by a detailed list of the
+          items being paid you.</para>
+
+          <para>In the event the employer refused to reimburse you for an
+          expenditure, that effectively makes it your expense. In that case, you
+          would make this entry: debit (increase) your own Expense
+          (appropriately named) and credit (decrease) the Reimbursable Expense
+          account. That entry should result in a zero balance in the
+          Reimbursable Expense account. If not, reconcile until you identify
+          the difference.</para>
+
+          <tip>
+          <para>Sometimes there are small differences that don’t match an
+          individual entry. In those cases divide the amount by 2 or by 9. If
+          the unresolved amount is divisible by two, it suggests that both you
+          and the employer entered the item in the same manner: both as debits
+          or both as credits. If it is divisible by 9, then likely one of you
+          transposed adjoining numbers; e.g., one entered 69 and the other
+          entered 96. If the difference is divisible neither by 2 or by 9, then
+          it could be that more than one error is present.</para>
+          </tip>
+        </sect2>
+     <sect2 id="accts-oa8">
+      <title>Travel Advances</title>
+          <para>These are very similar to
+          Reimbursable Expenses. The difference is that someone gives you
+          money first; you spend it, and then you give a report accounting for
+          what you spent it on. The report is supported by invoices establishing
+          who, what, where, when, and how much for each expenditure. In the
+          Reimbursable Expense case, you spent your money first and later
+          recovered it.</para>
+
+          <para>In the Travel Advance case when you receive the advance, you
+          record on your books this entry: debit (increase) Bank for the travel
+          advance amount received (say, $500); credit (increase) the short-term
+          liability Travel Advance ($500). This is a liability, because
+          you are not gifted with the money, but only loaned it for the purpose
+          of having funds to spend when doing the employer’s business.</para>
+
+          <para>Frequently, the way these monetary arrangements work is that at
+          the beginning of for example a salesperson’s employment, he or she receives the advance
+          and monthly (or more frequently) turns in a report about who, what,
+          where, when, and how much he spent. The money in the report is
+          reimbursed if approved.
+          </para>
+
+          <para>During the period after receiving the advance and before filing
+          a request for reimbursement report, the salesperson can record his or her expenditures into
+          the advance liability account. In that case, the balance
+          in the account will show how much of the advance has not yet been spent
+          (assuming the Travel Advance balance is a credit). If no mistakes have
+          been made and all expenses are approved, then the sum of the unspent
+          account balance and the reimbursing check amount will equal the original
+          travel advance amount.</para>
+
+          <para>It makes sense for the salesperson to record the travel expenses to this advance account (and
+          not to his or her own expense accounts), because the money is being spent
+          on behalf of the employer, for the employer’s authorized expenses. It
+          is not the employee’s own money, and therefore not his or her own expense.
+          </para>
+
+          <para>When the salesperson receives the report reimbursement (say, $350), he or she debits
+          (increases) Bank, and credits (increases) again the Travel Advance
+          liability account, assuming that previously he or she had been recording
+          expenditures to the travel advance account. Tracking activity in this
+          manner causes the account to always show the amount that is owed the
+          employer.</para>
+
+          <para>See <xref linkend="accts-oa7"/> above for what to do if
+          the employer does not accept an item the employee put on the travel
+          advance reimbursement request report. The difference resolution effort
+          is essentially the same for both types of accounts.</para>
+        </sect2>
+     <sect2 id="accts-oa9">
+      <title>Prepaid Premiums or Prepaid Rent</title>
+          <para>Some types of
+          expenses are usually billed as semi-annual or annual amounts. For
+          example, the insurance industry will bill home insurance annually,
+          while car insurance premiums can be annual or semi-annual. For those
+          that pay an amount that covers several months or a full year, the
+          proper accounting treatment is to reflect in each accounting period
+          the amount that expresses the benefit applying to that period.</para>
+
+          <para>In the case of someone who pays a full-year’s insurance premium
+          at the beginning of the insurance period, the entry to record this is
+          debit (increase) Prepaid Insurance Premium for say, $1,200, and credit
+          (decrease) Bank for $1,200.</para>
+
+          <para>Then a monthly recurring journal entry (scheduled transaction)
+          is created that debits (increases) Insurance Expense $100 and credits
+          (decreases) Prepaid Insurance Premium $100. This technique spreads
+          the cost over the periods that receive the insurance coverage benefit.
+          Businesses following generally accepted accounting practices would
+          normally use this technique, especially if they had to present
+          financial statements to banks or other lenders. Whether individuals do
+          depends on the person and how concerned they are to match cost with
+          benefit across time periods. Another factor influencing use of this
+          technique would be the number of such situations the person encounters.
+          It is relatively easy to remember one or two, but more difficult if
+          having to manage 10 to 20. You would set up as many or as few as proved
+          useful and important to you.</para>
+        </sect2>
+     <sect2 id="accts-oa10">
+      <title>Suspense or Wash Accounts</title>
+          <para>The purpose of
+          these accounts is to provide a device to track <quote>change of mind</quote> situations.
+          The objective of these accounts is to provide a temporary location to
+          record charges and credits that are not to be included permanently in
+          your books of record. When the transactions reflected in these accounts
+          have been fully completed, Wash/Suspense accounts will normally carry
+          a zero balance.</para>
+
+          <para>For example, say in the grocery store you see canned vegetables on sale,
+          so you buy 6 cans at $1 per can. Say that the total purchases were $50.
+          When you come home and are putting things in the cupboard you discover
+          you already had 12 cans. You decide to return the 6 you just bought.
+          Some persons in this situation would charge (increase) the whole bill
+          to Grocery Expense; and when they returned the cans, they would credit
+          (decrease) Grocery Expense. That is one way of handling that. The effect
+          of this method is to leave recorded on your books the cost of items that
+          you really did not purchase from a permanent standpoint. It is only
+          when the items have actually been returned and the vendor’s return
+          receipt has also been recorded that the distortion this method generates
+          will then be removed.</para>
+
+         <para>Actually, there are several treatments, depending on when and how
+         the original transaction was booked/recorded and when you decided to
+         return the items purchased. Basically, did you change your mind before
+         you recorded the transaction or after doing so?</para>
+
+         <para>If you decided to return the items after recording the purchase
+         transaction, you may originally have charged Grocery Expense for the full
+         amount ($50) of all items. In that scenario, what you kept and the amount of
+         the items to be returned were grouped into one account. You could edit the
+         original transaction and restate the amount charged to the Grocery Expense
+         account to be the difference ($44) between the total paid ($50) for groceries
+         and the value of the items to be returned. That leaves the returned-item
+         value as the amount ($6) you should record to the Suspense account.</para>
+
+         <para>Obviously, if you decided to return items before you recorded your
+         purchase, then you would book the original entry as a charge to Grocery
+         Expense for the amount kept ($44) and as a charge to Suspense for the
+         amount returned ($6). The off-setting credit ($50) to cash or credit
+         card is not affected by these treatments.</para>
+
+         <para>When there are several persons shopping and at different vendors,
+         there can be a case where there are several returns happening at once
+         and in overlapping time frames. In that case the Wash Account is
+         charged (increased) at time of changing the mind, and either Bank or
+         Credit Card is credited. When the return occurs, the reverse happens:
+         Bank or Credit Card is debited for the cash value of the returned items
+         and the Wash/Suspense Account is credited in the same amount.</para>
+
+         <para>If the wash account has a non-zero balance, scanning the debit
+         and credit entries in the account will show the non-matched items.
+         That is, debits not matched by offsetting credits indicate items
+         intended to be returned but not actually returned yet. The reverse
+         (credits not matched by offsetting debits) indicates that returns were
+         made but the original charge was not recorded in the Wash Account.</para>
+
+         <para>These differences can be cleared up by returning unreturned items
+         or recording charges (debits) for items already returned. The mechanics
+         of doing that likely will be finding the original expense account the
+         item was charged to and making an entry like: debit Wash Account, credit
+         original expense. It also could be as described above where the original
+         recording is adjusted by adding a charge to Wash/Suspense account and
+         decreasing the amount charged to the original account.</para>
+     </sect2>
+    </sect1>
+    <sect1 id="accts-oa11">
+      <title>Short or Long-term Assets</title>
+          <para>This section explains why some types of assets may be short or
+          long-term and presents an example.</para>
+
+         <para>An example is deposits (e.g., utility, rental, security). If the
+         deposit agreement contains a provision to recover the deposit at the
+         end of a year, the treatment could be that of a short-term asset.
+         However, when the agreement is that the deposit holder returns the
+         funds only upon successful inspection at the end of the relationship,
+         then at the start of the relationship or agreement, the person paying
+         the deposit has to decide whether to write it off as a current expense
+         or to track it for eventual recovery at the end of the agreement
+         (not infrequently, moving to a new location).</para>
+
+         <para>Whichever decision is made, the accounting treatment is to debit
+         (increase) expense (assuming the write-off decision) or debit (increase)
+         Deposits Receivable (assuming the intent is to recover the deposit in
+         the future) and credit (decrease) Bank for the amount of the deposit
+         (if paid by cash) or credit (increase) credit card if  paid using that
+         payment method.</para>
+      </sect1>
+    <sect1 id="accts-oa12">
+      <title>Long-term (Fixed) Assets</title>
+          <para>This section illustrates long-term assets (those whose useful lives
+          exceed a year) and discusses these types: land, buildings, leasehold
+          improvements, intangibles, vehicles and other equipment.</para>
+     <sect2 id="accts-oa13">
+      <title>Land</title>
+         <para>Land is not a wasting asset. That is, it
+         does not get used up over time and rarely suffers damage such that it
+         loses value. For that reason, it usually is recorded at cost at the
+         time of purchase. Appreciation in its value over decades is not recorded
+         and is not recognized in any way on the books of the owner. It is only
+         after land has been sold that sale price and purchase cost are compared
+         to calculate gain or loss on sale.</para>
+
+         <para>Land is frequently sold/purchased in combination with structures
+         upon it. That means that the cost has to become separated from the
+         cost of structures on it. Land valuation is usually part of the transfer
+         of ownership process and its value is shown on the purchase documents
+         separately from that of any structures it supports.</para>
+
+         <para>Land values shown on purchase documents frequently arise from the
+         process of value determination managed by assessors whose job it is
+         to assign values to land for tax purposes. Local and regional areas of
+         a state or province use the values determined by assessors in their tax
+         formulas, which provide revenues for local and regional governing
+         authorities to finance their required community services.</para>
+
+         <para>Should land be acquired in a situation not subject to a history of
+         land valuation by a formal valuation system, then the purchaser can appeal
+         to real estate agents and an examination of recent sale transactions for
+         information that would allow calculating a reasonable amount to express
+         the value of the land.</para>
+        </sect2>
+     <sect2 id="accts-oa14">
+      <title>Buildings</title>
+         <para>Buildings are the man-made <quote>caves</quote> in which
+         much of life’s human interaction occurs. These structures are wasting
+         assets, because in their use they or their components gradually wear.
+         Over time they begin to lose some of their function and they can suffer
+         damage due to planetary elements or human action.</para>
+
+         <para>Accepted accounting practice is to record the cost of the building
+         determined at time of ownership transfer (purchase) or at conclusion of all
+         costs of construction. Because buildings are frequently used for decades,
+         and due to the need to be able to calculate gain or loss on sale,
+         accounting practice preserves the original cost by not recording declines
+         in value in the account containing the original purchase or construction
+         cost.</para>
+
+         <para>Instead, the depreciation technique is used to show (in the
+         balance sheet) the structure’s net book value (original cost reduced by
+         accumulated depreciation). Depreciation is a separate topic treated
+         elsewhere in this Guide.</para>
+        </sect2>
+     <sect2 id="accts-oa15">
+      <title>Leasehold Improvements</title>
+         <para>When a business does
+         not own the building where it operates, and instead has a long-term
+         lease, it is not uncommon for the business tenant to make improvements to
+         the premises so that the structure obtains both function and appearance
+         that enhances conducting its business activities.</para>
+
+         <para>In these cases, the expenditures that the business incurs are recorded
+         in a Leasehold Improvements account: increase (debit) Leasehold Improvements,
+         decrease (credit) Bank or increase (credit) a suitable liability account
+         (which could be a liability to a contractor or a bank or a credit card,
+         etc.).</para>
+         </sect2>
+
+     <sect2 id="accts-oa16">
+      <title>Vehicles or Equipment</title>
+         <para>Vehicles or Equipment of all kinds usually
+         last for several years, but their useful lives are much shorter than
+         that of assets that have little movement in their functioning. Because
+         they do wear out over time, common accounting practice in business is
+         to record depreciation using life spans and depreciation methods
+         appropriate to the nature and use of the asset. Frequently, the life
+         and depreciation methods chosen are influenced by what is permitted per
+         national tax regulations for the kind of asset being depreciated.</para>
+
+         <para>Usually, businesses depreciate their assets. Individuals can
+         do so as well to the degree that taxing authorities permit. Very wealthy
+         persons employ accountants and attorneys to track and manage their
+         investments and assets holdings to take advantage of all tax benefits
+         permitted by law.</para>
+         </sect2>
+     <sect2 id="accts-oa17">
+      <title>Intangibles</title>
+         <para>The mechanics of accounting (debiting
+         and crediting appropriate accounts) for these assets are relatively simple,
+         much the same as for any of the above assets. Where the difficulty lies
+         is in their valuation, which is an advanced topic and not something that
+         individual persons and small businesses would likely encounter. For that
+         reason further discussion of items such as patents, copyrights, goodwill,
+         etc. are left out of this Guide.</para>
+      </sect2>
+     </sect1>
+    </chapter>
diff --git a/guide/ru/ch_oview.xml b/guide/ru/ch_oview.xml
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..37a2eaf
--- /dev/null
+++ b/guide/ru/ch_oview.xml
@@ -0,0 +1,482 @@
+<!--
+  (Do not remove this comment block.)
+  Version: 2.2.0 / 2.6 maint
+  Last modified: 2017-06-22
+
+  Maintainers:  
+        Tom Bullock <tbullock at nd.edu>
+        Chris Lyttle <chris at wilddev.net>
+  Author:
+        Jon Lapham <lapham at extracta.com.br>
+        Updated Bengt Thuree <bengt at thuree.com>
+        Originally written by Carol Champagne.
+  Translators (en => ru):
+        Anton Tarasov (ant0 at mail.ru) (2017)
+        Dmitriy Mangul (dimang.freetime at gmail.com) (2017)
+-->
+
+<!-- Translation based on maint as of 2017-06-20 -->
+
+<chapter id="chapter_oview">
+  <title>Обзор</title>
+
+  <sect1 id="oview-intro1">
+    <title>Вступление</title>
+
+    <para><application>&app;</application> это пакет программного обеспечения для учета личных финансов, разработанный для вас.
+    Его вполне достаточно для хранения всей вашей финансовой информации, от простой до очень сложной. 
+    Это один из немногих пакетов финансовых программ, который поддерживает глобальный валюты и это единственная программа
+    с открытым исходным кодом в своём роде. Но самое главное, что <application>&app;</application> проста в изучении и использовании!
+    </para>
+
+    <para>Итак, что же умеет <application>&app;</application>? 
+    Она может вести учет ваших личных финансов, причем количество параметров учета определяется вами.
+    Если вы только начинаете пользоваться <application>&app;</application>, то попробуйте с ее помощью контролировать вашу чековую книжку.
+    Затем, возможно, вы решите отслеживать ваши наличные траты и расходы по кредитной карте, чтобы лучше определять, куда вы тратите свои деньги.
+    Когда вы займётесь инвестициями, вы можете использовать <application>&app;</application>, чтобы проводить мониторинг вашего инвестиционного портфеля. 
+    Вы купили машину или дом? <application>&app;</application> поможет вам спланировать инвестиции и отследить выплаты по ссуде.
+    Если круг ваших финансовых интересов охватывает весь земной шар, то <application>&app;</application> предоставит вам необходимую мультивалютную поддержку.
+    </para>
+
+    <screenshot id="oview-intro">
+      <mediaobject>
+        <imageobject role="html">
+          <imagedata fileref="figures/oview_intro.png" format="PNG"
+                     srccredit="Bengt Thuree" width="510"></imagedata>
+        </imageobject>
+
+        <imageobject role="fo">
+          <imagedata fileref="figures/oview_intro.png" format="PNG"
+                     srccredit="Bengt Thuree"></imagedata>
+        </imageobject>
+
+       <textobject>
+          <phrase><application>&app;</application> Номенклатура Счетов с мультивалютами и инвестициями</phrase>
+       </textobject>
+
+        <caption>
+          <para>На рисунке показана Номенклатура Счетов с мультивалютами и инвестициями.</para>
+        </caption>
+      </mediaobject>
+    </screenshot>
+
+    <para>
+    <application>&app;</application>, являясь хорошим приложением для учета личных финансов, 
+    также обладает достаточной функциональностью для применения в бизнесе. 
+    В нее включено много бизнес-функций, от интегрированных счетов по дебету и кредиту, до составления налогового портфеля. 
+    Вы найдете эти и другие бизнес-функции удивительно мощными и простыми в применении.
+    </para>
+    
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="oview-features1">
+    <title>Характерные особенности</title>
+
+    <sect2 id="oview-featureseasy2">
+      <title>Легкость в использовании</title>
+
+      <para>
+      За считанные минуты вы сможете ввести информацию о личных финансах и создать цветные графики описывающие ваш финансовый статус. 
+      Если вы можете использовать реестр на обратной стороне вашей чековой книжки - то вы сможете использовать <application>&app;</application>! 
+      Вносите данные непосредственно в реестр, переключайтесь между полями ввода и используйте быстрое заполнение для автоматического завершения транзакций.
+      Интерфейс может быть подстроен под ваши нужды непосредственно внутри приложения.
+      </para>
+
+      <itemizedlist>
+       
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>Простые в использовании меню</emphasis>: меню <application>&app;</application> соответствуют требованиям интерфейсов для GNOME. 
+          Это значит, что они просты и схожи по виду со многими другими приложениями GNOME.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>Документация</emphasis>: <application>&app;</application> имеет встроенный раздел Помощи и подробное Руководство пользователя.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          
+          <para><emphasis>Способы импорта</emphasis>: кроме ручного ввода <application>&app;</application> поддерживает также много других способов ввода транзакций. 
+          Если вы имеете онлайн доступ к своим банковским счетам, то это особенно удобно, так как большинство банков и компаний-владельцев кредитных карт
+          поддерживают один из следующих методов импорта. Вы потратите меньше времени на ввод данных, и у вас останется больше времени на анализ результатов.
+          </para>
+
+          <itemizedlist>
+            
+            <listitem>
+              <para><emphasis>Протокол Quicken Import File (QIF) (Быстрый импорт файлов)</emphasis>: этот протокол поддерживает файлы типа <acronym>QIF</acronym>, 
+              популярный формат, который используется во многих коммерческих пакетах финансовых программ.</para>
+            </listitem>
+
+            <listitem>
+              <para><emphasis>Протокол Open Financial Exchange (OFX) (Открытый финансовый обмен)</emphasis>: <application>&app;</application> является первой 
+              бесплатной программой, которая поддерживает протокол Открытого финансового обмена. Многие финансовые учреждения двигаются по направлению 
+              к использованию этого формата.</para>
+            </listitem>
+
+            <listitem>
+              <para><emphasis>Протокол Home Banking Computer Interface (HBCI) (Компьютерный интерфейс домашнего банка)</emphasis>: 
+              <application>&app;</application> является первой программой, которая поддерживает немецкий протокол HBCI. 
+              Этот протокол поддерживает загрузку банковских выписок, создание банковских переводов и делает возможными прямые вклады.</para>
+            </listitem>
+          </itemizedlist>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>Отчеты</emphasis>: <application>&app;</application> имеет более 30 предварительно настроенных отчетов, включая Баланс по счетам, 
+          Доходы, Расходы, Отчет по транзакциям, Балансовый отчет, Доходы и убытки, Оценка стоимости портфеля и многие другие. 
+          Отчеты поддерживают графическое отображение данных, включая круговые и линейные диаграммы и графики. 
+          Отчеты можно экспортировать в <acronym>HTML</acronym> файлы и легко настраивать под свои требования.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>Транзакции по расписанию</emphasis>: <application>&app;</application> может автоматически создавать и выполнять транзакции или 
+          напомнить вам когда следует произвести эти транзакции. Программа дает возможность выбора между вводом, переносом или отменой автоматических транзакций.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>Ассистент по погашению ипотеки и кредита</emphasis>: поможет вам при создании транзакций для различных выплат по кредитам.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>Возможность легкой сверки счетов</emphasis>: встроенная подпрограмма поможет вам сверить ваши <application>&app;</application> 
+          счета с банковскими выписками просто и эффективно.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>Мультиплатформенная совместимость</emphasis>: <application>&app;</application> поддерживает множество платформ и операционных систем. 
+          Список полностью поддерживаемых операционных систем (и платформ) для <application>&app;</application> &vers-stable; следующий: 
+          GNU/Linux (x86, x86_64, Sparc, PPC), FreeBSD (x86, x86_64), OpenBSD (x86, x86_64), Solaris (Sparc) и MacOS X (Intel, PPC). 
+          Предыдущие версии <application>&app;</application>, насколько известно, работали с  SGI IRIX (MIPS), IBM AIX 4.1.5
+          (RS/6000), Unixware 7 (Intel) и SCO OpenServer 5.0.4 (Intel), но сейчас их текущее состояние не известно.</para>
+        </listitem>
+        
+      </itemizedlist>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="oview-featuresinvest2">
+      <title>Учет ваших инвестиций</title>
+
+      <para><application>&app;</application> обладает рядом функций для контроля ваших инвестиций. При помощи <application>&app;</application> вы можете отслеживать 
+      каждую акцию индивидуально (одна акция про счет) или в портфеле счетов (группа счетов, которая показывается вместе).</para>
+      
+      <para><application>&app;</application> поддерживает онлайн котировки акций и инвестиционных фондов. Это значит, что вам больше не нужно будет искать 
+      стоимость ваших акций по отдельности. Процесс может быть автоматизирован и вы сможете видеть последние котировки ваших акций.</para>
+    </sect2>
+
+
+    <sect2 id="oview-featuresintl2">
+      <title>Международная поддержка</title>
+
+      <para><application>&app;</application> это приложение, которое действительно работает и понимает пользователей по всему миру. 
+      Имеется много встроенных особенностей для облегчения взаимодействия со всем глобализованным миром, в котором мы сегодня живем.</para>
+
+      <itemizedlist>
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>Родные языки</emphasis>: <application>&app;</application> полностью переведен на 12 языков: 
+          китайский, чешский, голландский, английский, французский, немецкий, итальянский, португальский, русский, словацкий, испанский и шведский. 
+          Более 25 других языков поддерживаются частично.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>Поддержка интернацинальных форматов данных</emphasis>: <application>&app;</application> понимает, 
+          что в разных странах дату и числа отображают по-разному. Вы можете работать с тем форматом даты и чисел, к которому вы привыкли.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>Мультивалюты и торговля валютами</emphasis>: программой поддерживаются мультивалюты, которые можно покупать и продавать (торговать). 
+          <!-- FIXME: проверить перевод - "Currency movements between accounts remain fully balanced if "Trading Accounts" is enabled." -->
+          Движение валют между счетами полностью заносится на баланс, если разрешены операции дублированного ввода.
+          </para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>Текущие курсы обмена</emphasis>: с <application>&app;</application> вам больше не нужно искать курсы обмена валют по отдельности. 
+          Процесс может быть автоматизирован, чтобы всегда предоставлять вам суммы на ваших счетах, конвертированные в предпочитаемую вами валюту 
+          с использованием последних обменных курсов.</para>
+        </listitem>
+      </itemizedlist>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="oview-featuresbus2">
+      <title>Поддержка бизнеса</title>
+
+      <para><application>&app;</application> имеет много различных функций для поддержки учета коммерческих операций.</para>
+
+      <itemizedlist>
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>Дебиторская/Кредиторская задолженности</emphasis>: <application>&app;</application> имеет интегрированную 
+          систему дебиторской и кредиторской задолженностей. Вы можете учитывать клиентов, поставщиков, накладные и оплату по счетам, 
+          используя различные налоговые и бухгалтерские особенности малого бизнеса.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>Амортизация</emphasis>: <application>&app;</application> может учитывать амортизацию разных активов.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>Отчеты</emphasis>: <application>&app;</application> предлагает широкий спектр разнообразных, готовых к использованию бизнес-отчетов.</para>
+        </listitem>
+      </itemizedlist>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="oview-featuresaccounting2">
+      <title>Особенности бухгалтерского учета</title>
+
+      <para>Для хорошо разбирающихся в бухгалтерском учете, ниже приведен список имеющихся в <application>&app;</application> особенностей бухгалтерии.</para>
+
+      <itemizedlist>
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>Двойная запись</emphasis>: каждая транзакция должна дебетовать один счет и кредитовать другой на равную сумму. 
+          Это гарантирует <quote>книжный баланс</quote> - что разница между доходами и расходами точно равна сумме всех банковских активов, 
+          наличных, акций и других активов.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>Разделённые транзакции</emphasis>: единичная транзакция может быть разделена на несколько частей для записи налогов, 
+          денежных сборов и других составляющих.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>Иерархия счетов</emphasis>: главный счет может иметь иерархию детализированных счетов под ним. 
+          Это позволяет похожим типам счетов, таким как Банк, Наличные или Акции, группироваться в главный счет, такой как <quote>Активы</quote>.
+          </para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>Общий журнал</emphasis>: одно окно реестра может показывать множество счетов одновременно. 
+          Это облегчает нахождение ошибок неправильного ввода. Также это помогает удобно просматривать портфель состоящий из нескольких акций, 
+          показывая все сделки в этом портфеле.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>Типы счетов Доходы/Расходы (категории)</emphasis>: это поможет правильно показать движение денежных средств и, 
+          при правильном использовании концепта двойной записи, обеспечит точный отчет по Прибыли/Убытку.</para>
+        </listitem>
+      </itemizedlist>
+    </sect2>
+
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="oview-about1">
+    <title>Об этой документации</title>
+
+    <para>Целью этой документации является экономия вашего времени. 
+    Она поможет вам как можно быстрее начать использовать <application>&app;</application>.</para>
+
+    <para>Каждая глава имеет довольно простую структуру. Глава начинается с обсуждения <quote>Понятий</quote>, 
+    которые представляют общие темы и терминологию, использующиеся в пределах этой главы.  
+    Далее следуют разделы <quote>Как</quote>, в которых описываются специфичные процедуры, 
+    раздел <quote>Объединяя все вместе</quote> заканчивает главу, предоставляя детальные конкретные примеры.
+    </para>
+
+    <para>Начинающие пользователи найдут разделы <quote>Понятия</quote> очень полезными для себя. 
+    Они обеспечат ссылки на правильные методы учета ваших финансов и послужат общим вступлением в финансы и терминологию. 
+    Опытные пользователи могут перейти к разделам с практическими рекомендациями, чтобы быстро ознакомится с процедурами. 
+    Эти разделы описывают пошаговые процедуры для выполнения специфичных задач. 
+    Разделы <quote>Объединяя все вместе</quote> представляют реальные примеры в форме руководства. 
+    Начиная с создания файла в Главе <xref linkend="chapter_basics"></xref>, 
+    каждая последующая глава добавляется к обучающей программе предыдущей главы.
+
+    <!-- TODO: Перевод переделать  --> 
+    <!--
+    Beginning users will find the <quote>Concepts</quote> sections very
+    helpful. They provide a reference for good ways to track your finances,
+    and serve as a general introduction to financial background and
+    terminology. Experienced users can flip to the <quote>How-To</quote>
+    sections to quickly scan procedures. These sections provide to-the-point
+    steps for accomplishing specific tasks. The <quote>Putting It All
+    Together</quote> sections present real-world examples in the form of a
+    tutorial. Beginning with creation of a file in <xref linkend="chapter_basics"></xref>,
+    each successive chapter builds on the previous chapter’s tutorial.
+    -->
+    
+    </para>
+
+    <para>
+        Эта документация поделена на три главные части: <itemizedlist>
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>Введение</emphasis></para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>Организация личных финансов</emphasis></para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><emphasis>Организация бизнес финансов</emphasis></para>
+        </listitem>
+      </itemizedlist>
+    </para>
+
+    <para>Первая часть <emphasis>Введение</emphasis> предоставит вам наиболее общую информацию, 
+    необходимую для начала использования <application>&app;</application>. 
+    В главах этой части объясняются основы использования <application>&app;</application>.
+    Начинающие пользователи <application>&app;</application> должны хорошо ознакомиться с этой информацией.
+    Используйте эту часть как руководство по быстрому старту:
+    
+    <itemizedlist>
+        <listitem>
+           <para><xref linkend="chapter_oview"></xref> - (эта глава) предоставляет общий обзор по <application>&app;</application></para>
+       </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><xref linkend="chapter_basics"></xref> - дает пользователям очень краткое введение в принципы бухгалтерского учета, 
+          а затем предоставляет информацию о структуре данных в <application>&app;</application>.
+          Также здесь описываются базовые элементы интерфейса в <application>&app;</application>.
+          Наконец, в этой главе объясняется, как <application>&app;</application> сохраняет и обрабатывает данные.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><xref linkend="chapter_accts"></xref> - дополнительная информация о счетах и ​​порядке их организации.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><xref linkend="chapter_txns"></xref> - основная информацию о транзакциях и о том, как их заносить.</para>
+        </listitem>
+      </itemizedlist>
+    </para>
+
+    <para>Вторая часть <emphasis>Организация личных финансов</emphasis> описывает общее применение и особенности <application>&app;</application> более подробно. 
+    Здесь вы найдете конкретные примеры, основанные на часто задаваемых вопросах о применении <application>&app;</application> в ежедневных ситуациях. 
+    Применение и особенности описываются в следующих главах:
+
+    <itemizedlist>
+        <listitem>
+          <para><xref linkend="chapter_cbook"></xref></para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><xref linkend="chapter_cc"></xref></para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><xref linkend="chapter_loans"></xref></para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><xref linkend="chapter_invest"></xref></para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><xref linkend="chapter_capgain"></xref></para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><xref linkend="chapter_currency"></xref></para>
+        </listitem>
+      </itemizedlist></para>
+
+    <para>В третьей части <emphasis>Организация бизнес финансов</emphasis> обсуждается применение <application>&app;</application> в деловом учете.
+    
+    <itemizedlist>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><xref linkend="chapter_bus_features"></xref></para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><xref linkend="chapter_budgets"/></para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><xref linkend="chapter_other_assets"></xref></para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><xref linkend="chapter_dep"></xref></para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><xref linkend="ch_python_bindings"></xref></para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para><xref linkend="ch_import_bus_data"></xref></para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        </itemizedlist></para>
+
+    <para>Это руководство также имеет некоторые приложения, 
+    содержащие дополнительную информацию, которая вам возможно тоже будет интересна:</para>
+
+    <itemizedlist>
+       <listitem>
+          <para><xref linkend="gnc-gloss"></xref> - Глоссарий терминов, используемых в <application>&app;</application></para>
+       </listitem>
+       
+       <listitem>
+          <para><xref linkend="appendixa"></xref> - руководство для бывших пользователей программ 
+          <trademark class="registered">Quicken</trademark>, MS Money или других <acronym>QIF</acronym>-программ</para>
+       </listitem>
+       
+      <listitem>
+          <para><xref linkend="appendixb"></xref></para>
+      </listitem>
+
+      <listitem>
+        <para><xref linkend="appendixc"></xref></para>
+      </listitem>
+
+      <listitem>
+        <para><xref linkend="appendixd"></xref></para>
+      </listitem>
+
+      <listitem>
+        <para><xref linkend="fdl"></xref> - Лицензия свободной документации GNU</para>
+      </listitem>
+    </itemizedlist>
+
+    <para>Глоссарий и индекс помогут вам в быстром поиске интересующих вас тем.</para>
+    
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="more_help">
+    <title>Дополнительная помощь</title>
+
+    <sect2 id="online_help">
+      <title>Онлайн справка</title>
+      <para>Онлайн справка является аналогом этого руководства.
+      Здесь вы найдете подробные инструкции по использованию <application>&app;</application>: меню, интерфейса и элементов управления.
+      Чтобы открыть интерактивную справку выберите <menuchoice><guimenu>Помощь</guimenu><guimenuitem>Содержание</guimenuitem></menuchoice>.</para>
+   </sect2>
+
+   <sect2 id="wiki">
+     <title><application>&app;</application> Wiki</title>
+     <para>Огромное количество неформальной документации, как о <application>&app;</application>, 
+     так и о его поддержке и разработки можно найти в <ulink url="https://wiki.gnucash.org/wiki"><application>&app;</application>
+     Wiki (english)</ulink>; Если вы сталкнетесь с трудностями при использовании <application>&app;</application>, то посетите пожалуйста
+     одной из первых страницу <ulink url="https://wiki.gnucash.org/wiki/FAQ">Часто задаваемые вопросы (english)</ulink>.</para>
+   </sect2>
+
+   <sect2 id="on-line-assistance">
+    <title><application>&app;</application> онлайн помощь</title>
+    <bridgehead>Список рассылки (mailing list)</bridgehead><para>Основным источником поддержки пользователей 
+    является <ulink url="mailto:gnucash-user at gnucash.org"> пользовательский список рассылки (english)</ulink>.
+    Если вы предпочитаете читать список рассылки в виде веб-форума, вы можете сделать это при помощи 
+    <ulink url="http://gnucash.1415818.n4.nabble.com/GnuCash-User-f1415819.html">Nabble</ulink>. 
+    Для того чтобы участвовать в списке рассылки и задавать вопросы, вам необходимо сначала 
+    <ulink url="https://lists.gnucash.org/mailman/listinfo/gnucash-user">подписаться</ulink> на него.</para>
+
+    <bridgehead>IRC</bridgehead><para>
+    Некоторые из разработчиков мониторят канал #gnucash на irc.gnome.org. 
+    Они обычно заняты чем-то еще в это время, и конечно, не всегда находятся у компьютеров. 
+    Войдите в систему, задайте свой вопрос и оставайтесь в системе; 
+    Иногда может пройти несколько часов, пока ваш вопрос будет замечен и кто-нибудь ответит на него.
+    Чтобы увидеть, пропустили ли вы что-нибудь, вы можете проверить 
+    <ulink url="https://code.gnucash.org/logs">IRC протоколы</ulink>.</para>
+
+    <para>На <ulink url="http://www.gnucash.org"><application>&app;</application> странице</ulink>   
+    вы найдете более подробную информацию об этих каналах. Вы также найдете там ссылки на другие полезные ресурсы, 
+    например на такие как <application>&app;</application> wiki и система отслеживания ошибок.</para>
+  </sect2>
+    
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="oview-install1">
+    <title>Установка</title>
+    <para>Установить <application>&app;</application> обычно довольно просто.</para>
+    <para>На странице <ulink url="http://www.gnucash.org/download.phtml"><citetitle>Скачать <application>&app;</application></citetitle></ulink> 
+    вы найдете подробное описание по установке <application>&app;</application> для каждой поддерживаемой операционной системы.</para>
+  </sect1>
+  
+</chapter>
diff --git a/guide/ru/ch_python_bindings.xml b/guide/ru/ch_python_bindings.xml
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..43fc129
--- /dev/null
+++ b/guide/ru/ch_python_bindings.xml
@@ -0,0 +1,52 @@
+<!-- (Do not remove this comment block.)
+
+Version: 2.4.0
+Last modified: 2011-01-01
+
+Maintainers:
+
+Author:
+  Mike Evans <mikee at saxicola.co.uk>
+
+    Translators:
+    (translators put your name and email here)
+-->
+
+<chapter id="ch_python_bindings">
+  <title>Python Bindings</title>
+  <para>
+    <application>&app;</application> historically has always been a
+    traditional application in the sense that you open it, use it to
+    manipulate your financial data via the windows it presents, save your
+    data and close the windows again. This has the inherent limitation that
+    you can only do whatever the windows, menus and toolbars allow you to do.
+  </para>
+  <para>
+    Sometimes you might need a little more flexibility. For example, you
+    need a report with just a little different information than what the
+    built-in reports provide, or you want to automate a frequently recurring
+    action. Such custom manipulations are ideal candidates to write in one
+    or the other scripting language.
+  </para>
+  <para>
+    Starting with <application>&app;</application> version 2.4 you can
+    write <application>Python</application> scripts to manipulate your financial data.
+  </para>
+  <note>
+    <para>The <application>Python</application> extensions are an optional feature in the source code.
+      To be able to use <application>Python</application> scripts, <application>&app;</application> must
+      have been compiled with this option enabled, otherwise all what follows
+      won’t work. At present this option is not enabled by default, so if you
+      need this, you may have to compile <application>&app;</application> from
+      source yourself.
+    </para>
+  </note>
+  <para>The <application>Python</application> extensions come with a couple of ready to use scripts. This
+    chapter will show you how to use some of these.
+  </para>
+  <note>
+    <para>This chapter is not about how to write your own <application>Python</application> scripts.
+      Refer to the developer documentation for that instead.
+    </para>
+  </note>
+</chapter>
diff --git a/guide/ru/ch_reports.xml b/guide/ru/ch_reports.xml
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..7d4e3e4
--- /dev/null
+++ b/guide/ru/ch_reports.xml
@@ -0,0 +1,616 @@
+<!--
+      (Do not remove this comment block.)
+  Version: 2.6.15
+  Last modified: October 31, 2016
+  Maintainers:
+               Chris Lyttle <chris at wilddev.net>
+               Chris Good <chris.good at ozemail.com.au>
+  Author:
+  		Jon Lapham <lapham at extracta.com.br>
+  Originally designed by Carol Champagne.
+  Translators:
+               (translators put your name and email here)
+-->
+ <chapter id="ch_reports">
+ <title>Reports</title>
+ <para><application>&app;</application> is a powerful double entry accounting software package that allows
+users to enter and track their money in a reliable manner. However, putting
+this information into <application>&app;</application> is only a part of the process. To be truly
+helpful, you need to be able to extract this information in meaningful ways.
+<application>&app;</application>'s reporting features allow you to just that.</para>
+<para><application>&app;</application>'s reporting features allow you to display nearly any group of
+transactions in a wide variety of formats. This makes it easy to answer
+questions about your finances, such as "How much did I spend on groceries
+last month?" or "How much did I earn in the previous six months?"</para>
+<para><application>&app;</application> includes a number of common report types, which can be modified to
+meet your specific needs. If these common reports are insufficient, it is
+possible to modify or even write your own custom reports (although this is
+not recommended for beginners).</para>
+
+ <sect1 id="rpt_concepts">
+ <title>Overview</title>
+ <para>There are many standard reports pre-built in <application>&app;</application>,
+ all available from the <guimenu>Reports</guimenu> pulldown menu in the main account window.</para>
+ <para>When you select a report from the list of reports, that report is first run
+ with its default settings. Once you have opened the report, you can modify its parameters by clicking on
+the Options button on the toolbar. Under Options, you will see the different
+settings that you can change for each report. Note that for different reports,
+the options will be different. </para>
+</sect1>
+
+<sect1 id="rpt_savedconfigsinfo">
+  <title>Saved Reports Configurations Concepts</title>
+  <para>Once you have modified a report to meet your needs, you may wish to save
+  that report for reuse at a later point. <application>&app;</application> allows custom
+  reports to be saved, using the Save Report Configuration command.</para>
+  <para>To save a report configuration:</para>
+<itemizedlist>
+<listitem><para>Go to the Reports Menu and choose the desired report.</para></listitem>
+<listitem><para>Change the settings on the report until it includes what is needed.</para></listitem>
+<listitem><para>Go to the General tab of the report's options and change the Report Name
+to something meaningful (Do not confuse this with the Report Title).</para></listitem>
+<listitem><para>Apply the changes and close the dialog.</para></listitem>
+<listitem><para>Click the Save Report Configuration or Save Report Configuration As... button</para></listitem>
+</itemizedlist>
+<para>This will store the report options in a file in your home directory.</para>
+<para>The first time you save a report with a name that has not already been saved,
+you can use either the Save Report Configuration or the Save Report
+Configuration As... button. You can modify the report name before saving it.</para>
+<para>Once a report has been saved with the current name, the Save Report Configuration button will immediately update the saved report configuration.
+Use the Save Report Configuration As button to save the current report
+configuration with a new name.</para>
+<para>Saved report configurations are available for use under the
+Reports->Saved Report Configurations entry. They will also be available for
+use on multicolumn reports.</para>
+<para>Saved report configurations can be deleted in the Saved Report Configurations
+dialog by clicking the trashcan icon.</para>
+<para>To edit saved report configurations, open the report via Reports->Saved Report
+Configurations, edit and apply the new options, and click Save Report
+Configuration.</para>
+</sect1>
+
+<sect1 id="rpt_standardrpts">
+  <title>Standard Reports Overview</title>
+ <para>The standard reports that are included in <application>&app;</application> are presented here
+ in the order that they appear in the <guimenu>Reports</guimenu> menu. In each section, a short
+ description for each report is given, which explains what the report is
+ intended to show, and its primary purpose.</para>
+
+<sect2 id="rpt_grp_assetsliabs">
+<title>Assets & Liabilities Group</title>
+<para>Reports in this group provide general information about assets and liabilities.</para>
+
+<sect3 id="rpt_advport">
+<title>Advanced Portfolio</title>
+<para>The Advanced Portfolio produces a report on commodity accounts
+(stock and mutual fund type accounts) using price information stored in the
+<application>&app;</application> price database and within the
+<application>&app;</application> transaction data. If you do not have stock
+price information in your file, the report will indicate an error. This report
+includes extended information about commodity holdings, including information
+about the basis, gain, and return of individual commodities.</para>
+
+  <sect4 id="rpt-advport-capgains">
+    <title>Advanced Portfolio Capital Gains</title>
+    <para>
+      The Advanced Portfolio report doesn’t use the capital gain splits to
+      calculate capital gains. It calculates the gains from the various buy and
+      sell transactions in the account without regard to whether the gains and
+      losses are recorded or not. Any realized gain splits are ignored.
+      Realized gain splits are recognized as two splits, one in the stock’s
+      account with a zero number of shares and a non-zero value, the other in an
+      income or expense account with a value that is the negative of the split
+      in the stock account. These two splits can be in a separate transaction
+      (as created by scrubbing) or in the same transaction as the sale (this
+      will cause incorrect future scrubbing). The income or expense split can
+      be split into multiple splits, say for taxable/non-taxable or
+      short/long term gains, without affecting this report.
+    </para>
+  </sect4>
+</sect3>
+
+<sect3 id="rpt_assetbarchart">
+<title>Asset Barchart</title>
+<para>The Asset Barchart presents the value of assets on a monthly basis in
+barchart form. By default, the report displays the eight largest accounts that
+have specific asset types assigned to them, and it displays bars for
+the current financial period.</para>
+<para>Several settings on this report can greatly affect the information included.</para>
+<itemizedlist>
+<listitem><para>On the Accounts tab, the "Show Accounts until level" option changes how
+the report aggregates account totals. Change this value to see information at
+deeper levels of the account structure.</para></listitem>
+<listitem><para>On the Display tab, the "Maximum Bars" option will display more bars in
+the chart, allowing information for more accounts to display. Additionally,
+the "Show table" option enables the display of chart information in tabular
+form below the chart.</para></listitem>
+<listitem><para>On the General tab, the "Price Source" option can significantly
+affect the reported value of various commodities included in the report.</para></listitem>
+</itemizedlist>
+</sect3>
+
+<sect3 id="rpt_assetpiechart">
+<title>Asset Piechart</title>
+<para>The Asset Piechart presents the value of assets on a monthly basis in
+piechart form. By default, the report shows the seven largest accounts, that
+have specific asset types assigned to them, arranged in descending order by
+value as of the end of the current accounting period.</para>
+<para>Several settings on this report can greatly affect the information included.</para>
+<itemizedlist>
+<listitem><para>On the Accounts tab, the "Show Accounts until level" option changes how
+the report aggregates account totals. Change this value to see information at
+deeper levels of the account structure.</para></listitem>
+<listitem><para>On the Display tab, the "Maximum Slices" option will display more
+slices in the chart, allowing information for more accounts to display.</para></listitem>
+<listitem><para>On the General tab, the "Price Source" option can significantly
+affect the reported value of various commodities included in the report.</para></listitem>
+</itemizedlist>
+</sect3>
+
+<sect3 id="rpt_avgbalance">
+<title>Average Balance</title>
+<para>The Average Balance report displays monthly averages for the current accounting period.</para>
+</sect3>
+
+<sect3 id="rpt_balancesheet">
+<title>Balance Sheet</title>
+<para>The Balance Sheet lists Asset, Liability, and Equity account balances
+for all such accounts, and provides totals as of a given date. Balance sheets
+are commonly run for the last day of each fiscal year to give an overall sense
+of the financial condition of the entity.</para>
+</sect3>
+
+<sect3 id="rpt_generaljournal">
+<title>General Journal</title>
+<para>The General Journal produces a register of all transactions (beginning
+to end) in order by date, showing the accounts and the amounts involved, and
+totals the Net Change by all currencies and assets.</para>
+<para>This report is not customizable by date or account, though you can
+include more or fewer details about the individual transactions, and whether
+to include running balances and totals for the credits and debits. If you
+need a report restricted to particular accounts, consider the Transaction
+Report or open a particular account and choose the Account Transaction Report.</para>
+</sect3>
+
+<sect3 id="rpt_generalledger">
+<title>General Ledger</title>
+<para>The General Ledger produces information about all transactions
+for a selected set of accounts. When first run, this report loads no data,
+and the report options must be changed to retrieve information from the file.</para>
+</sect3>
+
+<sect3 id="rpt_investport">
+<title>Investment Portfolio</title>
+<para>The Investment Portfolio produces a report of commodity accounts (that
+is, accounts with type "Stock" or "Mutual Fund"), giving holdings, price and
+value information about commodities in the file.</para>
+</sect3>
+
+<sect3 id="rpt_liabbarchart">
+<title>Liability Barchart</title>
+<para>The Liability Barchart presents the value of liabilities on a monthly basis in
+barchart form. By default, the report displays the eight largest accounts that
+have specific asset types assigned to them, and it displays bars for
+the current financial period.</para>
+<para>Several settings on this report can greatly affect the information included.</para>
+<itemizedlist>
+<listitem><para>On the Accounts tab, the "Show Accounts until level" option changes how
+the report aggregates account totals. Change this value to see information at
+deeper levels of the account structure.</para></listitem>
+<listitem><para>On the Display tab, the "Maximum Bars" option will display more bars in
+the chart, allowing information for more accounts to display. Additionally,
+the "Show table" option enables the display of chart information in tabular
+form below the chart.</para></listitem>
+<listitem><para>On the General tab, the "Price Source" option can significantly
+affect the reported value of various commodities included in the report.</para></listitem>
+</itemizedlist>
+</sect3>
+
+<sect3 id="rpt_liabpiechart">
+<title>Liability Piechart</title>
+<para>The Liability Piechart presents the value of liabilities on a monthly basis in
+piechart form. By default, the report shows the seven largest accounts, that
+have specific asset types assigned to them, arranged in descending order by
+value as of the end of the current accounting period.</para>
+<para>Several settings on this report can greatly affect the information included.</para>
+<itemizedlist>
+<listitem><para>On the Accounts tab, the "Show Accounts until level" option changes how
+the report aggregates account totals. Change this value to see information at
+deeper levels of the account structure.</para></listitem>
+<listitem><para>On the Display tab, the "Maximum Slices" option will display more
+slices in the chart, allowing information for more accounts to display.</para></listitem>
+<listitem><para>On the General tab, the "Price Source" option can significantly
+affect the reported value of various commodities included in the report.</para></listitem>
+</itemizedlist>
+</sect3>
+
+<sect3 id="rpt_networthbar">
+<title>Net Worth Barchart</title>
+<para>The Net Worth Barchart summarizes Asset accounts, Liability accounts, and
+overall Net Worth as bars on a graph on a monthly basis for the current
+financial period. This report provides a graphic overview of the file over time.</para>
+</sect3>
+
+<sect3 id="rpt_networthline">
+<title>Net Worth Linechart</title>
+<para>The Net Worth Linechart summarizes Asset accounts, Liability accounts, and
+overall Net Worth as a line graph on a monthly basis for the current financial
+period. This report provides a graphic overview of the file over time.</para>
+</sect3>
+
+<sect3 id="rpt_pricescatter">
+<title>Price Scatterplot</title>
+<para>The Price Scatterplot displays the value of one commodity relative to
+another commodity, for example the value of a stock relative to a currency.
+When first run, this report loads no data, and the report options must be
+changed to retrieve information from the file. Specifically, the "Price of
+Commodity" setting on the Price options tab must be changed to a specific
+commodity.</para>
+</sect3>
+</sect2>
+
+<sect2 id="rpt_grp_budget">
+<title>Budget Group</title>
+<para> Budget reports in <application>&app;</application> allow you to gather
+summary information related to budgets you may have created. In order for
+these reports to work, you must first create a budget. The reports in this
+group are specifically based on budget information. To use these reports, you
+need to have a budget saved in your file.</para>
+
+<sect3 id="rpt_budbalsht">
+<title>Budget Balance Sheet</title>
+<para></para>
+</sect3>
+
+<sect3 id="rpt_budbarchart">
+<title>Budget Barchart</title>
+<para></para>
+</sect3>
+
+<sect3 id="rpt_budflow">
+<title>Budget Flow</title>
+<para></para>
+</sect3>
+
+<sect3 id="rpt_budincstate">
+<title>Budget Income Statement</title>
+<para></para>
+</sect3>
+
+<sect3 id="rpt_budprofloss">
+<title>Budget Profit & Loss</title>
+<para></para>
+</sect3>
+
+<sect3 id="rpt_budreport">
+<title>Budget Report</title>
+<para></para>
+</sect3>
+</sect2>
+
+<sect2 id="rpt_grp_business">
+<title>Business Group</title>
+<para>Reports in this group provide general information about activities related
+to a business.</para>
+
+<sect3 id="rpt_customer">
+<title>Customer Report</title>
+<para></para>
+</sect3>
+
+<sect3 id="rpt_custsummary">
+<title>Customer Summary</title>
+<para>Customer Summary is a customer profit report that can help with job analysis by
+comparing the income and expenses for a specific customer.</para>
+<para>All invoices have an Owner in <application>&app;</application>, so invoices that are
+made will show a customer and show in the report. When creating a Bill, the Default
+Chargeback Customer is blank. To use the profit report, this field needs an entry,
+since this is the tag that decides the line to which
+to attach the expense. Left blank, the bill will be assigned to "No Customer."
+Similarly, when income is entered directly in a register rather than creating an
+invoice, it will also be assigned to "No Customer."</para>
+<para>Thus, if this report includes an entry for "No Customer", this means that the report
+may be inaccurate, as the results are not all properly labeled.</para>
+<para>Possible use scenarios include:</para>
+<itemizedlist>
+<listitem><para>Tracking retail sales from different cities</para></listitem>
+<listitem><para>Tracking rental properties</para></listitem>
+<listitem><para>Tracking types of business</para></listitem>
+<listitem><para>Tracking commission sales</para></listitem>
+</itemizedlist>
+<para>Each of these scenarios assumes that the account structure includes breakdowns
+for individual tracked categories. Changing settings on the Income and Expense
+tabs under Options can hone the information displayed. By default all income and
+expense accounts are included; however, since <application>&app;</application> can't really predict
+the names and classification of income and expense accounts, it must group them all
+into the "No Customer" entry.</para>
+<para>Note that inventory-based businesses won't benefit from this report because of its nature.</para>
+<para>Useful options:</para>
+<itemizedlist>
+<listitem><para>The Expense Accounts tab allows the selection of one or more expense accounts.</para></listitem>
+<listitem><para>The Income Accounts tab allows the selection of one or more income accounts.</para></listitem>
+<listitem><para>The Display tab allows sorting by name, profit percentage, or amount of profit.</para></listitem>
+</itemizedlist>
+</sect3>
+
+<sect3 id="rpt_easyinv">
+<title>Easy Invoice</title>
+<para></para>
+</sect3>
+
+<sect3 id="rpt_employee">
+<title>Employee Report</title>
+<para></para>
+</sect3>
+
+<sect3 id="rpt_fancyinv">
+<title>Fancy Invoice</title>
+<para></para>
+</sect3>
+
+<sect3 id="rpt_payaging">
+<title>Payable Aging</title>
+<para></para>
+</sect3>
+
+<sect3 id="rpt_prtinv">
+<title>Printable Invoice</title>
+<para></para>
+</sect3>
+
+<sect3 id="rpt_recaging">
+<title>Receivable Aging</title>
+<para>This report provides a listing of all customers, their current balance, and
+how much they have outstanding from invoices over different time periods&mdash;how
+much they owe from 0-30 days, from 31-60 days, from 61-90 days, and over 90 days.
+The report also contains links to each customer and to their current customer report.</para>
+</sect3>
+
+<sect3 id="rpt_vendor">
+<title>Vendor Report</title>
+<para></para>
+</sect3>
+</sect2>
+
+<sect2 id="rpt_grp_incexp">
+<title>Income & Expense Group</title>
+<para>Reports in this group provide information about Income and Expense</para>
+
+<sect3 id="rpt_cashflow">
+<title>Cash Flow</title>
+<para>This report shows the change in value for a set of accounts (the flow of cash)
+over a given period of time. By default, this report is based on accounts in Assets and
+Special Accounts, and covers the current financial period. The report enumerates
+all money coming in to and going out of the base accounts, broken down by the
+other account.</para>
+</sect3>
+
+<sect3 id="rpt_equity">
+<title>Equity Statement</title>
+<para>This report can be seen as extension of the Balance Sheet report. The
+Balance Sheet states the balance of Assets, Liabilities and Equity at a
+specific point of time. The Equity Statement focuses on the Equity Accounts
+by showing the cash flow to and from them for a given period of time.</para>
+<para>By balancing this cash flow with income, the report shows the available
+capital at the beginning and end of the selected time period.</para>
+</sect3>
+
+<sect3 id="rpt_expbarchart">
+<title>Expense Barchart</title>
+<para>The Expense Barchart presents the value of expenses on a monthly basis in
+barchart form. By default, the report displays the eight largest accounts that
+have specific expense types assigned to them, and it displays bars for
+the current financial period.</para>
+<para>Several settings on this report can greatly affect the information included.</para>
+<itemizedlist>
+<listitem><para>On the Accounts tab, the "Show Accounts until level" option changes how
+the report aggregates account totals. Change this value to see information at
+deeper levels of the account structure.</para></listitem>
+<listitem><para>On the Display tab, the "Maximum Bars" option will display more bars in
+the chart, allowing information for more accounts to display. Additionally,
+the "Show table" option enables the display of chart information in tabular
+form below the chart.</para></listitem>
+<listitem><para>On the General tab, the "Price Source" option can significantly
+affect the reported value of various commodities included in the report.</para></listitem>
+</itemizedlist>
+</sect3>
+
+<sect3 id="rpt_exppiechart">
+<title>Expense Piechart</title>
+<para>The Expense Piechart presents the value of expenses on a monthly basis in
+piechart form. By default, the report shows the seven largest accounts, that
+have specific expense types assigned to them, arranged in descending order by
+value as of the end of the current accounting period.</para>
+<para>Several settings on this report can greatly affect the information included.</para>
+<itemizedlist>
+<listitem><para>On the Accounts tab, the "Show Accounts until level" option changes how
+the report aggregates account totals. Change this value to see information at
+deeper levels of the account structure.</para></listitem>
+<listitem><para>On the Display tab, the "Maximum Slices" option will display more
+slices in the chart, allowing information for more accounts to display.</para></listitem>
+<listitem><para>On the General tab, the "Price Source" option can significantly
+affect the reported value of various commodities included in the report.</para></listitem>
+</itemizedlist>
+</sect3>
+
+<sect3 id="rpt_expdayoweek">
+<title>Expenses vs. Day of Week</title>
+<para>Expenses vs. Day of Week presents a pie chart showing the totals for
+selected expense accounts totaled by the day of the week of the transaction.
+The report options enable you to make some adjustments (such as accounts,
+display options, and the date range) but the account selector only allows
+expense accounts to be chosen. The report aggregates expense transactions by
+day of week, not by any other period or category. Due to these limitations,
+the report may be considered a demonstration or an example to someone wanting
+to examine the source code for composing a useful custom report.</para>
+</sect3>
+
+<sect3 id="rpt_incomebarchart">
+<title>Income Barchart</title>
+<para>The Income Barchart presents the value of income on a monthly basis in
+barchart form. By default, the report displays the eight largest accounts that
+have specific income types assigned to them, and it displays bars for
+the current financial period.</para>
+<para>Several settings on this report can greatly affect the information included.</para>
+<itemizedlist>
+<listitem><para>On the Accounts tab, the "Show Accounts until level" option changes how
+the report aggregates account totals. Change this value to see information at
+deeper levels of the account structure.</para></listitem>
+<listitem><para>On the Display tab, the "Maximum Bars" option will display more bars in
+the chart, allowing information for more accounts to display. Additionally,
+the "Show table" option enables the display of chart information in tabular
+form below the chart.</para></listitem>
+<listitem><para>On the General tab, the "Price Source" option can significantly
+affect the reported value of various commodities included in the report.</para></listitem>
+</itemizedlist>
+</sect3>
+
+<sect3 id="rpt_incexpchart">
+<title>Income & Expense Chart</title>
+<para></para>
+</sect3>
+
+<sect3 id="rpt_incomepiechart">
+<title>Income Piechart</title>
+<para>The Income Piechart presents the value of income on a monthly basis in
+piechart form. By default, the report shows the seven largest accounts, that
+have specific income types assigned to them, arranged in descending order by
+value as of the end of the current accounting period.</para>
+<para>Several settings on this report can greatly affect the information included.</para>
+<itemizedlist>
+<listitem><para>On the Accounts tab, the "Show Accounts until level" option changes how
+the report aggregates account totals. Change this value to see information at
+deeper levels of the account structure.</para></listitem>
+<listitem><para>On the Display tab, the "Maximum Slices" option will display more
+slices in the chart, allowing information for more accounts to display.</para></listitem>
+<listitem><para>On the General tab, the "Price Source" option can significantly
+affect the reported value of various commodities included in the report.</para></listitem>
+</itemizedlist>
+</sect3>
+
+<sect3 id="rpt_incstatement">
+<title>Income Statement</title>
+<para>This report lists Income and Expense account totals for a set period. By
+default, it shows all Expense and Income accounts down to 3 levels of
+sub-accounts for the current financial period.</para>
+<para>An Income Statement is also called a "Profit and Loss" report or "Revenue Statement."</para>
+<para>In earlier versions of <application>&app;</application>, this report was called
+"Profit & Loss," but with version 2, the report was renamed "Income Statement"
+to use more common accounting terminology.</para>
+<para>The Income Statement helps show where money is coming from and where it is
+going for a given time period.</para>
+</sect3>
+
+<sect3 id="rpt_incdayoweek">
+<title>Income vs. Day of Week</title>
+<para>Income vs. Day of Week presents a piechart showing the totals for selected
+income accounts totaled by the day of the week of the transaction. The report
+options enable you to make some adjustments (such as accounts, display options,
+and the date range) but the account selector only allows income accounts to be
+chosen. The report aggregates income transactions by day of week, not by any
+other period or category. Due to these limitations, the report may be
+considered a demonstration or an example to someone wanting to examine the
+source code for composing a useful custom report.</para>
+</sect3>
+
+<sect3 id="rpt_trialbal">
+<title>Trial Balance</title>
+<para>Trial Balance lists the ending balances in all accounts as of a particular
+date. It is typically run at the end of an accounting period and is primarily
+used to ensure that the total of all debits equals the total of all credits.</para>
+</sect3>
+</sect2>
+<sect2 id="rpt_grp_sampcust">
+<title>Sample & Custom Group</title>
+<para>The reports in this group offer examples on how reports can be customized
+or podified to suit personal need.</para>
+
+<sect3 id="rpt_custommulti">
+<title>Custom Multicolumn Report</title>
+<para>This report provides a base that allows several standard and custom
+reports to be combined into one view. Note that this report opens with an empty
+window; you must open the options and designate which reports to include for display.
+Once the reports have been selected, the settings for individual reports in the
+multicolumn display can be edited.</para>
+</sect3>
+<sect3 id="rpt_sample">
+<title>Sample Report with Examples</title>
+<para>This is a sample report that users can examine to learn how to write their own reports.</para>
+</sect3>
+
+<sect3 id="rpt_welcome">
+<title>Welcome Sample Report</title>
+<para>This report demonstrates how the Multicolumn Report can be use to create
+custom dashboard-type reports.</para>
+</sect3>
+</sect2>
+
+<sect2 id="rpt_grp_miscrpts">
+<title>Other Reports</title>
+<para>Several reports are included on the main Reports menu. These are described
+below.</para>
+
+<sect3 id="rpt_acctsummary">
+<title>Account Summary</title>
+<para>This lists the balances of all accounts and subaccounts as of a
+particular date. By default, this report shows accounts and totals
+down to third-level subaccounts.</para>
+<para>This report gives effectively the same information as the Chart of Accounts.
+You can use this report to export and print the Chart of Accounts.</para>
+<para>Note: To generate a report of account totals over a particular time period
+(especially if you do not close your books at regular intervals), you might
+consider using the Income Statement, or Cash Flow reports.</para>
+</sect3>
+
+<sect3 id="rpt_futsched">
+<title>Future Scheduled Transactions Summary</title>
+<para></para>
+</sect3>
+
+<sect3 id="rpt_taxtxf">
+<title>Tax Report & TXF Export</title>
+<para>Generates a report and a downloadable .txf file of taxable income and
+deductible expenses for a particular accounting period. To download the report
+data, choose the Export button on the toolbar and choose between html and .txf
+downloadable versions.</para>
+<para>To use this report, you must use Edit --> Tax Options to identify which
+form the taxing authority uses for each income or expense account. Note that
+you can see but not modify the "Tax related" checkbox in Edit --> Edit Account.</para>
+</sect3>
+
+<sect3 id="rpt_txnrept">
+<title>Transaction Report</title>
+<para>This report lists the transactions in selected accounts during a
+specified financial period. When first run, this report loads no data,
+and the report options must be changed to retrieve information from the file.</para>
+</sect3>
+
+<sect3 id="rpt_savedrpts">
+<title>Saved Report Configurations</title>
+<para>Selecting this will open a dialog with a list of available Saved Report
+Configurations. "Saved Report Configurations" means sets of customized
+settings for standard reports.</para>
+<para>These sets must be saved by the user before they appear here. See
+Report Concepts above for instructions on how to save report configurations.</para>
+</sect3>
+
+<sect3 id="rpt_acctreport">
+<title>Account Report</title>
+<para>The Account Report menu entry only appears when an account register is
+the active tab. This report produces a list of all transactions in the open
+register.</para>
+<para>Note that if you conduct a search that retrieves several transactions, the
+results are displayed in a new search register, which can then be used to create
+a report for just those transactions.</para>
+</sect3>
+
+<sect3 id="rpt_accttxnrept">
+<title>Account Transaction Report</title>
+<para>This report also only appears when an account register is the active tab.
+However, this report only lists transactions that have been selected
+(e.g. by mouse click) in the current register. If no transactions are selected,
+an empty report will be generated.</para>
+</sect3>
+</sect2>
+</sect1>
+</chapter>
diff --git a/guide/ru/ch_txns.xml b/guide/ru/ch_txns.xml
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+<!--
+      (Do not remove this comment block.)
+  Version: 2.0.0
+  Last modified: 2014-09-26 (fell)
+  Maintainers:
+               Chris Lyttle <chris at wilddev.net>
+  Author:
+  		Jon Lapham <lapham at extracta.com.br>
+  	Updated	Bengt Thuree <bengt at thuree.com>
+  Originally written by Carol Champagne.
+  Translators:
+               (translators put your name and email here)
+-->
+<chapter id="chapter_txns">
+  <title>Transactions</title>
+
+  <para>This chapter will give you the basic information you need to
+  understand and use transactions in <application>&app;</application>. Whereas accounts are the
+  framework and structure of a chart of accounts, transactions are the data
+  which fills each account.</para>
+
+  <sect1 id="txns-concepts1">
+    <title>Basic Concepts</title>
+
+    <para>A <emphasis>transaction</emphasis> in a double entry accounting
+    system such as <application>&app;</application> is an exchange between at least 2 accounts. Thus, a
+    single transaction must always consist of at least two parts, a <emphasis>from</emphasis> and
+    a <emphasis>to</emphasis> account. The <emphasis>from</emphasis> account is transferring value to the <emphasis>to</emphasis> account.
+    Accountants call these parts of a transaction <emphasis>Ledger
+    Entries</emphasis>. In <application>&app;</application>, they are called
+    <emphasis>Splits</emphasis>.</para>
+
+    <para>A split identifies the account to which it refers, the
+    amount of money specifically moved to or from that account, and
+    can contain a few other specific pieces of information if needed.
+    <application>&app;</application> supports multiple splits in a
+    single transaction, and the splits can move money into or out of
+    the involved accounts arbitrarily.</para>
+
+    <para>For example, you receive a paycheck and deposit it into your savings
+    account at the bank. The <emphasis>transaction</emphasis> that occurs is
+    that your bank savings account (an asset) received money from your income
+    account. Two accounts are affected, and in this case there is a net
+    increase in your equity.</para>
+
+    <para>Working with transactions in <application>&app;</application> is performed using what is
+    known as the <emphasis>account register</emphasis>. Every account you
+    create has an account register. It will appear familiar to you as it looks
+    very similar to the log used to track checkbooks.</para>
+
+    <para>The account register is explained in the upcoming section,
+    <xref linkend="txns-register-oview"/>.</para>
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="txns-register-oview">
+    <title>The Account Register</title>
+
+    <para>The <emphasis>account register</emphasis> is the <application>&app;</application> window, which allows you to view or edit preexisting transactions, or add new transactions for a particular account. To open an account register from the Account Tree, double-click the account name, right click the account name and select Open Account from the menu, or use the Open button on the toolbar. <application>&app;</application> will display the account register window.</para>
+        <sect2 id="txns-registers-features2">
+            <title>Features of the Account Register</title>
+
+            <para>The <emphasis>Titlebar</emphasis> of the account register displays the account name. Below the <emphasis>Titlebar</emphasis>, the <emphasis>Menubar</emphasis> displays the menu items available within the account register, and the <emphasis>Toolbar</emphasis> contains handy buttons that help you work with the account register.</para>
+
+            <para>At the bottom left of the register window, <application>&app;</application> displays helpful messages as you move about the register. To the right, you can see the current account balance and the total of cleared splits.</para>
+        </sect2>
+<sect2 id="txns-regstyle1">
+    <title>Choosing a Register Style</title>
+
+    <para><application>&app;</application> offers several options for viewing your registers. The
+        default style is <guilabel>Basic Ledger</guilabel> mode, which displays
+        only the summary of splits affecting the current account. This is the
+        style that most closely resembles other popular personal financial
+        packages. You can choose a different register style from the <menuchoice><guimenu>View</guimenu></menuchoice> menu. There are two other view modes:</para>
+    <itemizedlist>
+        <listitem><para><menuchoice><guimenu>View</guimenu><guimenuitem>Auto-Split Ledger</guimenuitem></menuchoice>
+        style expands the current transaction automatically. As you highlight a
+        new transaction in the register, the transaction automatically expands to
+        show all splits.</para></listitem>
+    <listitem><para><menuchoice><guimenu>View</guimenu><guimenuitem>Transaction
+        Journal</guimenuitem></menuchoice> style shows all splits for all transactions in the register, which is more like an accounting journal.</para></listitem>
+    </itemizedlist>
+
+    <para>All styles permit you to view your data in either single-line or
+        double-line format. Select <menuchoice><guimenu>View</guimenu>
+            <guimenuitem>Double Line</guimenuitem></menuchoice>, and you will see your transaction
+        line expand to two register lines. Double-line mode will also display the transaction-level Notes field.</para>
+
+    <para>Below are screenshots that demonstrate how the Basic Ledger and Transaction Journal views differ.
+    </para>
+    <para>For this example, let’s assume that you have purchased 3 pair of Jeans for $1,000, and have recorded the purchase as a split transaction with each pair entered on a separate split.</para>
+    <para>The below screenshots illustrate the different view modes.</para>
+
+    <para>First let’s view the Jeans transaction from your checking account:</para>
+
+    <screenshot id="txns-registersplit4">
+        <mediaobject>
+            <imageobject>
+                <imagedata fileref="figures/txns_registersplit4.png" format="PNG"
+                srccredit="Bengt Thuree" />
+            </imageobject>
+
+            <textobject>
+                <phrase>3 Jeans purchases</phrase>
+            </textobject>
+
+            <caption><para>
+                This image shows one split transaction with 3 Jeans purchases
+            </para></caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+    </screenshot>
+
+    <para>Now, let's open the <emphasis>Expenses:Clothes</emphasis> account, and look at it in Basic view.</para>
+
+<screenshot id="txns-registersplit5">
+        <mediaobject>
+            <imageobject>
+                <imagedata fileref="figures/txns_registersplit5.png" format="PNG"
+                srccredit="Bengt Thuree" />
+            </imageobject>
+
+            <textobject>
+                <phrase>A jump to the <emphasis>Expenses:Clothes</emphasis> account</phrase>
+            </textobject>
+
+            <caption><para>This image shows <emphasis>Expenses:Clothes</emphasis> account
+                in Basic Ledger mode.</para></caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+    </screenshot>
+<para>Three entries appear here, but there was only the single split entry in the checking account. Further examination shows that each row has a different amount, $200, $300, and $500. This demonstrates that each row in this view reflects a single split from the original transaction.</para>
+
+    <para>Changing to Transaction Journal mode will display only the original split transaction.</para>
+
+    <screenshot id="txns-registersplit6">
+        <mediaobject>
+            <imageobject>
+                <imagedata fileref="figures/txns_registersplit6.png" format="PNG"
+                srccredit="Bengt Thuree" />
+            </imageobject>
+
+            <textobject>
+                <phrase>A jump to the <emphasis>Expenses:Clothes</emphasis> account</phrase>
+            </textobject>
+
+            <caption><para>This image shows <emphasis>Expenses:Clothes</emphasis> account in
+                Transaction Journal mode.</para></caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+    </screenshot>
+
+</sect2>
+
+<sect2 id="txns-shortcuts1">
+    <title>Using Entry Shortcuts</title>
+
+    <para><application>&app;</application> provides several time-saving shortcuts for entering your
+        data. When you type the first few characters of a description that you
+        have used before, the QuickFill feature automatically fills in the rest of
+        the transaction as you last entered it. When you type in the first
+        characters of an account name in either the <guilabel>Transfer</guilabel>
+        field of the transaction line or the <guilabel>Account</guilabel> field of
+        the split line, QuickFill will automatically complete the name from your
+        account list. It also helps you with entering sub-accounts in these
+        fields: simply type the first characters of the parent account name
+        followed by a <keycap>:</keycap> (colon) and the first characters of the sub-account name. For
+        example, to enter <emphasis>Assets:Checking</emphasis>, you might type
+        <userinput>A:C</userinput> and let <application>&app;</application> fill in the rest.</para>
+    <warning><para>Because <keycap>:</keycap> is the account separator symbol,
+        you can not use it in your account names.</para></warning>
+    <tip><para>If you really need the colon in your account names, you can select another symbol by
+        <menuchoice><guimenu>Edit</guimenu><guisubmenu>Preferences</guisubmenu><guisubmenu>Accounts</guisubmenu>
+            <guilabel>Character</guilabel></menuchoice>.</para></tip>
+    <para>Register keyboard shortcuts also save you time, and <application>&app;</application> provides
+        several of them. In the date field, you can type:</para>
+
+    <itemizedlist>
+        <listitem>
+            <para><keycap>+</keycap> or <keycap>=</keycap> to increment the date
+                and <keycap>-</keycap> or <keycap>_</keycap> to decrement the
+                date</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+            <para><keycap>]</keycap> or <keycap>}</keycap> to increment the month
+                and <keycap>[</keycap> or <keycap>{</keycap> to decrement the
+                month</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+            <para><keycap>M</keycap> or <keycap>m</keycap> to enter the first date
+                of the month</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+            <para><keycap>H</keycap> or <keycap>h</keycap> to enter the last date
+                of the month</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+            <para><keycap>Y</keycap> or <keycap>y</keycap> to enter the first date
+                of the year</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+            <para><keycap>R</keycap> or <keycap>r</keycap> to enter the last date
+                of the year</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+            <para><keycap>T</keycap> or <keycap>t</keycap> to enter today’s
+                date</para>
+        </listitem>
+    </itemizedlist>
+
+    <tip><para>These date shortcuts not only work in the account register but everywhere
+            you can enter a date.</para></tip>
+
+    <tip><para>Specifically for dates there's another way you can save time: you can enter
+            partial dates. For example if you only enter one number, <application>&app;</application>
+            will interpret it as the day in the current month of the current year. If you only enter
+            a day and month, <application>&app;</application> will automatically append the year. By
+            default this is the current year. You can however also configure
+            <application>&app;</application> to take such a date in a sliding window starting
+            a number of months before the current month. This can be done via
+            <menuchoice><guimenu>Edit</guimenu><guisubmenu>Preferences</guisubmenu><guisubmenu>Date/Time</guisubmenu>
+            <guilabel>Date Completion</guilabel></menuchoice>.</para></tip>
+
+    <para>In the <guilabel>Num</guilabel> field of the transaction line, you
+        can type <keycap>+</keycap> to increment the transaction number from the
+        last one you typed in. Typing <keycap>-</keycap> will decrement the
+        number. This will also work in the <guilabel>Action</guilabel> field of
+        the split line, if you choose to enter split numbers there. The
+        <guilabel>Action</guilabel> field also supports QuickFill - if you type
+        the first characters of a common action (such as
+        <guilabel>Deposit</guilabel>), <application>&app;</application> will fill in the rest.</para>
+
+    <para>The <guilabel>Transfer</guilabel> field supports QuickFill
+        of account names.  You can start typing an account name and
+        <application>&app;</application> will fill in the remaining part of the name.  Typing the
+        separator character at any time will complete the current level of
+        the account name, leaving the cursor positioned to start the next
+        level of account name.  For example, typing <keycap>A:C</keycap> the
+        standard set of account names will complete to the
+        <emphasis>Assets:Checking</emphasis> account.  You can also type the
+        <keycap>Menu</keycap> or <keycombo><keycap>Ctrl</keycap><keycap>Down</keycap></keycombo> keys in this
+        field to pop up a list of all account names.</para>
+
+    <para>In any of the amount fields, you can use a built-in calculator.
+        Simply type in the first value, followed by <keycap>+</keycap>,
+        <keycap>-</keycap>, <keycap>*</keycap>, or <keycap>/</keycap>, then type
+        in the second value. <application>&app;</application> will perform the calculation and return the
+        resulting value to the amount field when you press the
+        <keycap>Tab</keycap> key.</para>
+
+    <para>All of the menu items have access keys defined, and these are marked
+        by underlined characters in the menu names. Press <keycap>Alt</keycap> +
+        [underlined character] to bring up the menu, then select an item by typing
+        its underlined character. For example, typing <keycombo>
+            <keycap>Alt</keycap>
+
+            <keycap>A</keycap>
+        </keycombo> brings up the Actions menu, then typing
+        <keycap>P</keycap> will split the transaction. A few of the menu items
+        also have shortcut keys that immediately invoke the command (typically
+        using the <keycap>Ctrl</keycap> key).  These shortcuts are listed next
+        to the item.</para>
+
+    <para>To move around the register, use these keys to save time:</para>
+
+    <itemizedlist>
+        <listitem>
+            <para><keycap>Tab</keycap> to move to the next field, <keycombo>
+                <keycap>Shift</keycap>
+
+                <keycap>Tab</keycap>
+            </keycombo> to move to the previous field</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+            <para><keycap>Home</keycap> to move to the beginning of the field,
+                <keycap>End</keycap> to move to the end of the field</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+            <para><keycap function="enter">Enter</keycap> or <keycap>↓</keycap> to move to the next
+                transaction, <keycap>↑</keycap> to move to the previous
+                transaction</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+            <para><keycap>Page Up</keycap> to move up one screen, <keycap>Page
+                Down</keycap> to move down one screen</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+            <para><keycombo>
+                <keycap>Shift</keycap>
+
+                <keycap>Page Up</keycap>
+            </keycombo> to go to the first transaction, <keycombo>
+                <keycap>Shift</keycap>
+
+                <keycap>Page Down</keycap>
+            </keycombo> to go to the last transaction</para>
+        </listitem>
+    </itemizedlist>
+
+    <para>In the <guilabel>Reconcile</guilabel> window you can use these
+        keyboard shortcuts:</para>
+
+    <itemizedlist>
+        <listitem>
+            <para><keycap>Tab</keycap> moves to the next box and
+                <keycombo><keycap>Shift</keycap><keycap>Tab</keycap></keycombo>
+                moves to the previous
+                box</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+            <para>Space bar toggles the status between reconciled and not
+                reconciled</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+            <para><keycap>↑</keycap> and <keycap>↓</keycap> navigate through the
+                entries within the current box</para>
+        </listitem>
+    </itemizedlist>
+</sect2>
+</sect1>
+    <sect1 id="txns-registers-txntypes">
+    <title>Simple vs. Split Transactions</title>
+
+    <para>Every transaction in <application>&app;</application> has at least two splits, but a transaction can have more than two splits. A transaction with only two splits is called a <emphasis>simple transaction</emphasis>, since it only involves the current account and a single remote account. A transaction with three or more accounts is called a <emphasis>split transaction</emphasis>.</para>
+    <para>When the register is in Basic view, you will see a summary of the splits affecting the current account. For a simple transaction, the <guilabel>Transfer</guilabel> column will display the other account from which money is <emphasis>transferred</emphasis>. For a split transaction, the <guilabel>Transfer</guilabel> column will display <guilabel>-- Split Transaction --</guilabel>. You can see the individual splits of each
+        transaction by clicking the <guibutton>Split</guibutton> button in the
+        <emphasis>Toolbar</emphasis> while selecting the appropriate transaction.</para>
+
+    <para>For split transactions, the first line of the transaction is the
+        <emphasis>transaction line</emphasis>. It contains a
+        <guilabel>Date</guilabel>, optional <guilabel>Num</guilabel> (such as a
+        check number), transaction <guilabel>Description</guilabel>, total
+        amount affecting the current account (<guilabel>Tot Deposit</guilabel>
+        here), and updated account <guilabel>Balance</guilabel> after the
+        current transaction. Note that in the expanded view, the
+        <guilabel>Transfer</guilabel> column heading disappears, and there is no
+        account name listed in that field. This line shows you only a summary of
+        the transaction’s effect on the current account. For more detailed
+        information, you need to look at the individual splits that make up the
+        transaction.</para>
+        <note>
+          <para>Note: An account register displays a transaction when that
+          transaction has a split assigned to the account. If a given transaction
+          has more than one split assigned to the account, then in Basic and
+          Auto-Split views, that transaction will appear in the register one
+          time for each split assigned to that account. In Transaction Journal
+          view, such a transaction will only appear once in the register.</para>
+        </note>
+
+<para>The partial lines below the transaction line are the
+    <emphasis>split lines</emphasis>, and they are separated by gray lines.
+    As you highlight one of the split lines, the column headings change to
+    show the split-related fields:</para>
+
+<screenshot id="txns-registersplit2">
+    <mediaobject>
+        <imageobject>
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/txns_registersplit2.png" format="PNG"
+            srccredit="Bengt Thuree" />
+        </imageobject>
+
+        <textobject>
+            <phrase>How split headings change</phrase>
+        </textobject>
+
+        <caption><para>This image shows how split headings
+            change.</para></caption>
+    </mediaobject>
+</screenshot>
+
+<para>Each split contains an optional <guilabel>Action</guilabel>, or
+    type of split, which you can either type in or choose from a pull-down
+    list. The split also contains an optional <guilabel>Memo</guilabel>
+    which describes the split. Each split affects an
+    <guilabel>Account</guilabel>, which can be selected from a pull-down
+    list of your accounts. The <guilabel>R</guilabel> field indicates
+    whether the split has been reconciled. The last two columns show the
+    amount of the split and whether money is coming into or going out of the
+    account.</para>
+
+<para>As we discussed in <xref linkend="basics-accounting1" />, total
+    debits (left-column entries) must equal total credits (right-column
+    entries) for each transaction. In the example shown above, the total
+    debits equal the total credits, so this transaction is balanced. If you
+    notice, the transaction line contains the same debit amount as the
+    <guilabel>Checking</guilabel> split line. Why is this shown twice?
+    Because the transaction line is merely a <emphasis>summary</emphasis> of
+    the transaction’s effect on the current account. The same transaction in
+    a different account will have a different transaction line, one that
+    shows the effect on that particular account. You can see this by
+    highlighting another split line and clicking the
+    <guibutton>Jump</guibutton> button on the <emphasis>Toolbar</emphasis>.</para>
+
+<para>In this example, if you jump to the
+    <emphasis>Income:Salary</emphasis> account, <application>&app;</application> brings up the same
+    transaction in the <emphasis>Income:Salary</emphasis> - Register:</para>
+
+<screenshot id="txns-registersplit3">
+    <mediaobject>
+        <imageobject>
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/txns_registersplit3.png" format="PNG"
+            srccredit="Bengt Thuree" />
+        </imageobject>
+
+        <textobject>
+            <phrase>A jump to the <emphasis>Income:Salary</emphasis> account</phrase>
+        </textobject>
+
+        <caption><para>This image shows a jump to the
+            <emphasis>Income:Salary</emphasis> account.</para></caption>
+    </mediaobject>
+</screenshot>
+
+<para>Note that the transaction line total now summarizes the effect on
+    the <emphasis>Income:Salary</emphasis> account instead of the
+    <emphasis>Checking Account</emphasis>, because you are looking at the
+    <emphasis>Income:Salary</emphasis> account register. The splits are
+    exactly the same, but the transaction line now reflects the credit to
+    the <emphasis>Income:Salary</emphasis> account.</para>
+
+    <sect2 id="txns-registers-twoaccount2">
+      <title>Simple Transaction Example</title>
+
+      <para>Starting with the chart of accounts we created in the
+      previous chapter <filename>gcashdata_3</filename>, double click on the
+      <guilabel>Checking</guilabel> asset account. Let’s add a simple
+      transaction to the checking account. When you first create your accounts
+      in <application>&app;</application>, it is common to start them off with an initial
+      balance.</para>
+
+      <para>In the first transaction row, enter a date (eg: March, 1, 2006), a
+      description (eg: <quote>Opening Balance</quote>), click on the <guilabel>Transfer</guilabel> pop-up menu
+      and select <emphasis>Equity:Opening Balances</emphasis>, add a deposit
+      value of $1000, and press the <keycap function="enter">Enter</keycap> key. The account register should now
+      appear similar to this figure:</para>
+
+      <screenshot id="txns-register-2account">
+        <mediaobject>
+          <imageobject>
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/txns_register_2account.png"
+                       format="PNG" srccredit="Bengt  Thuree" />
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>The Checking Account - Register</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption><para>This image shows <emphasis>Assets:Checking</emphasis> -
+          Register after inserting a starting value
+          transaction.</para></caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+
+      <para>Setting the starting balances of an account is an example of a
+      simple two account transaction. In this case, affecting the
+      <emphasis>Assets:Checking</emphasis> and the <emphasis>Equity:Opening Balances</emphasis>
+      accounts.</para>
+
+      <para>As another example of a simple 2 account transaction, add another
+      transaction to describe the purchase of $45.21 worth of groceries. From
+      within the <emphasis>Assets:Checking</emphasis> account, you would set
+      <guilabel>Transfer</guilabel> to
+      <emphasis>Expenses:Groceries</emphasis>. The account register should now
+      appear:</para>
+
+      <screenshot id="txns-register-2account2">
+        <mediaobject>
+          <imageobject>
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/txns_register_2account2.png"
+                       format="PNG" srccredit="Bengt Thuree" />
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>The Checking Account - Register</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption><para>This image shows <emphasis>Assets:Checking</emphasis> -
+          Register after adding a transaction for
+          groceries.</para></caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="txns-registers-multiaccount2">
+      <title>Split Transaction Example</title>
+
+      <para>The need for 3 or more splits in a transaction occurs when you need
+      to split either the <quote>from</quote> or the <quote>to</quote> account in a transaction into
+      multiple accounts. The classic example of this is when you receive a
+      paycheck. Your take home pay from a paycheck will typically be less than
+      your net pay, with the difference being due to taxes, retirement account
+      payments, and/or other items. Thus, the single transaction of you
+      receiving a paycheck involves other accounts besides simply
+      <emphasis>Assets:Checking</emphasis> and
+      <emphasis>Income:Salary</emphasis>.</para>
+      <para>To add the paycheck split transaction from the<emphasis role="italic"> Assets:Checking</emphasis> account register window, click on a new transaction line and click <guilabel>Split</guilabel>. Note that if you have set your register view to Auto-Split or Transaction Journal, the splits will be opened for you. Enter the description of this transaction on the first line(e.g. “Employers R Us”). In the split lines below this, enter the various splits that make up this transaction, one by one. To enter the splits, first choose the account, then enter the amount by which to change the account. Keep in mind that when in an asset account register, amounts entered in the left column increase the account balance, while amounts entered in the right column decrease the balance (for more about this, see <xref linkend="basics-transactions2"/>). Tab or click the next split line and repeat the process. Note that if you are using the keyboard to navigate the transaction, use<keycap> Tab</keycap> to move from field to field, as using <keycap>Enter</keycap> will commit the transaction and create splits to an Imbalance account.</para>
+      <note>
+        <para>When creating a transaction in <application>&app;</application>, splits can be entered in any order.
+        However, when the transaction is closed (either when leaving the transaction, or when
+        pressing the <keycap function="enter">Enter</keycap> key), all debit splits will jump ahead of all credit splits.</para>
+      </note>
+
+      <para>In this example, choose the deposit account
+      (<emphasis>Assets:Checking</emphasis>) and then enter the amount that
+      is being deposited into it (e.g. $670). Follow this by entering the
+      amounts for the various taxes:
+      <emphasis>Expenses:Taxes:Federal</emphasis> account, $180;
+      <emphasis>Expenses:Taxes:Medicare</emphasis> account, $90; and
+      <emphasis>Expenses:Taxes:Social Security</emphasis> account, $60. Finally,
+      enter the gross total of your paycheck ($1,000 in this example) as a
+      withdrawal transfer from <emphasis>Income:Salary</emphasis>.</para>
+
+      <para>The final split should look like <xref
+      linkend="txns-register-multiaccount"/>. Remember to press <keycap function="enter">Enter</keycap> after finishing the entry. But you
+      should also know that when you press <keycap function="enter">Enter</keycap>, the split view will be
+      <quote>folded</quote> back into a simplified transaction view. The
+      splits are still there; you just have to click
+      <guilabel>Split</guilabel> to view them. See <xref
+      linkend="txns-registers-features2"/> for details.</para>
+
+      <figure id="txns-register-multiaccount">
+        <title>Entering a split transaction</title>
+        <mediaobject>
+          <imageobject>
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/txns_register_multiaccount.png"
+                       format="PNG" srccredit="Bengt Thuree" />
+          </imageobject>
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>Account Register - Split Transaction</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </figure>
+    </sect2>
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="txns-reconcile1">
+    <title>Reconciliation</title>
+
+      <para>Once transactions have been entered into <application>&app;</application>, it is important to verify
+      that they agree with the records of your financial institution. This
+      verification process is known as <emphasis role="strong">reconciliation</emphasis>, and it is key to determine
+      whether your records are accurate. Most commonly, you will check transactions
+      against bank statements, although you can use this process to verify any
+      transaction.</para>
+
+      <para><application>&app;</application> keeps track of the reconciliation status of each
+        transaction. The reconciliation status of a transaction is shown by the
+        reconciliation <guilabel>R</guilabel> field in a register:
+        <emphasis>y</emphasis> indicates that a transaction has been
+        reconciled, <emphasis>n</emphasis> indicates that it has not, and <emphasis>c</emphasis> indicates that it has
+        been cleared, but not reconciled. A split marked cleared signifies that you got some kind of confirmation
+        that the institution accepted the order (e.g. you have the restaurant's receipt for your credit card purchase).
+        You can toggle the reconciliation status
+        between <emphasis>n</emphasis> and <emphasis>c</emphasis> by clicking in the <guilabel>R</guilabel> field; you can set
+        it to <emphasis>y</emphasis> by using <xref linkend="txns-reconcile-window2" />.</para>
+
+      <para>At the bottom of the account window, there are (among others) two running
+      balances (the <guilabel>cleared</guilabel> and <guilabel>reconciled</guilabel> balance), and the
+      <guilabel>total</guilabel> balance. The former balances should correspond to how much money
+      the bank thinks you have in your account, while the latter includes outstanding transactions.</para>
+
+      <para>For example, when you write a check for something, you should
+      enter the transaction into <application>&app;</application>. The reconciliation <guilabel>R</guilabel> field of the
+      transaction will initially contain <guilabel>n</guilabel> (new). Your new entry will
+      contribute to the <guilabel>total</guilabel> balance, but not to the <guilabel>cleared</guilabel> and
+      <guilabel>reconciled</guilabel> balance. Later, if you got some confirmation that the check has been cashed,
+      you might click on the transaction’s <guilabel>R</guilabel> field to change it to <emphasis>c</emphasis>
+      (cleared). When you do this, the <guilabel>cleared</guilabel> balance will
+      change to include this amount. When the bank statement arrives, you can
+      then compare it to what you’ve recorded in <application>&app;</application> by opening the reconciliation
+      window. There, you will be able to change the <guilabel>R</guilabel> field to <emphasis>y</emphasis> (reconciled).</para>
+
+      <note>
+        <para>You cannot reconcile directly in a register window by clicking in the <emphasis>R</emphasis> field. You must use the
+        reconciliation window. Once a transaction has been marked <emphasis>reconciled</emphasis>,
+        it can no longer be easily changed without breaking the
+        <link linkend="rec-start-blnc"><guilabel>Starting Balance</guilabel></link> of the next reconciliation.</para>
+      </note>
+
+      <warning>
+        <para>It is important to understand that reconciliation is done for a given
+        date, and when you reconcile an account based on a statement from a given date,
+        you are reconciling <emphasis role="strong">all transactions prior to that date</emphasis>. Therefore, if you
+        add or modify transactions that predate your last reconciliation, your
+        <emphasis role="strong">reconciled</emphasis> balances will be thrown off.</para>
+      </warning>
+
+    <sect2 id="txns-reconcile-window2">
+      <title>Reconcile windows</title>
+
+      <para>The reconciliation windows are used to reconcile a <application>&app;</application> account
+      with a statement that a bank or other institution has sent you.
+      Reconciliation is useful not only to double-check your records against
+      those of your bank, but also to get a better idea of outstanding
+      transactions, e.g. uncashed checks.</para>
+
+      <para>To use the reconciliation windows, select an account from the
+      account tree and click on <menuchoice><guimenu>Actions</guimenu>
+      <guimenuitem>Reconcile</guimenuitem></menuchoice>. A window like the one below will appear in which you can
+      enter the reconcile information.</para>
+
+      <screenshot id="txns-reconcile-window-1">
+        <mediaobject>
+            <imageobject role="html">
+              <imagedata fileref="figures/txns_reconcile_window1.png"
+                         format="PNG" srccredit="Cristian Marchi"></imagedata>
+            </imageobject>
+            <imageobject role="fo">
+              <imagedata fileref="figures/txns_reconcile_window1.png"
+                         format="PNG" srccredit="Cristian Marchi"></imagedata>
+            </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>Reconcile Window</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption><para>The initial reconcile window.</para></caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+
+      <para>In the initial reconcile window, some <guilabel>Reconcile Information</guilabel> need to be entered.</para>
+      <variablelist>
+        <varlistentry><term><guilabel>Statement Date</guilabel></term>
+          <listitem>
+            <para>The date of the statement you will be reconciling against.</para>
+	  <tip>
+	    <para>Click on the down arrow in the right of this field to open a calendar</para>
+	  </tip>
+          </listitem>
+        </varlistentry>
+
+        <varlistentry id="rec-start-blnc"><term><guilabel>Starting Balance</guilabel></term>
+          <listitem>
+            <para>This is a non-editable item which displays the balance from the previous
+              reconciliation. It should match the starting balance in your statement.</para>
+
+            <warning><para>Sometimes, the opening balance in <application>&app;</application> does not match
+              that found on your statement. This can happen the first time you reconcile your account or
+              when a previously-reconciled transaction is de-reconciled or deleted.</para></warning>
+
+            <note><para>The first time you reconcile your account, the <guilabel>starting balance</guilabel>
+              will be <guilabel>0.00</guilabel>, thus probably not the  <emphasis>opening balance</emphasis>
+              of your account. When you reconcile the account, the <emphasis>opening balance</emphasis> for the
+              account will be included in the reconciliation, and the result should balance.</para></note>
+
+            <tip>
+              <para>In the case when a previously-reconciled transaction is accidentally de-reconciled, you
+                can simply re-reconcile the transaction along with the transactions on the current statement, and
+                the result should balance.</para>
+
+              <para>The case of accidentally deleting a previously-reconciled transaction presents
+                more of a challenge; if you cannot determine what was
+                deleted and restore it to the register, you will have to create a dummy
+                transaction to get the reconciliation to finish.</para>
+            </tip>
+            <caution><para>While the latter case does not matter for your private accounting,
+              you should have a really good explanation for your auditors, if you are the
+              accountant of a club or a company.</para></caution>
+          </listitem>
+        </varlistentry>
+
+        <varlistentry><term><guilabel>Ending Balance</guilabel></term>
+          <listitem>
+            <para>This field should be filled with the ending balance as it appears in the statement.</para>
+	  <note>
+	    <para><application>&app;</application> automatically fills this field with the
+	    <guilabel>Present</guilabel> balance as shown in the lower part of the
+	    account’s register.</para>
+	  </note>
+          </listitem>
+        </varlistentry>
+
+        <varlistentry><term><guilabel>Include Sub-accounts</guilabel></term>
+          <listitem>
+            <para>Check this option if you want to include in the reconciliation the transactions
+            that belongs to the sub-accounts of the currently selected account. Note that all sub-accounts must be in the same commodity as the parent for the option to be enabled.</para>
+          </listitem>
+        </varlistentry>
+
+        <varlistentry><term><guibutton>Enter Interest Payment</guibutton></term>
+          <listitem>
+            <para>Clicking this button opens a new window that allow you to enter an interest transaction to the account to be
+            reconciled.</para>
+	    <tip>
+	      <para>The <guilabel>Interest Payment</guilabel> window might be opened automatically when you start a reconciliation
+	      for an account of the type <emphasis>Bank</emphasis>, <emphasis>Credit</emphasis>,
+	      <emphasis>Mutual</emphasis>, <emphasis>Asset</emphasis>, <emphasis>Receivable</emphasis>,
+	      <emphasis>Payable</emphasis>, and <emphasis>Liability</emphasis>. If you want to disable
+	      this behavior for any of the previous accounts, go to the <guilabel>Register</guilabel> tab of the
+	      <guilabel>&app; Preferences</guilabel> and uncheck the <guilabel>Automatic interest transfer</guilabel>
+	      option. Alternatively, to disable this behavior only for the selected account, press the
+	      <guibutton>No Auto Interest Payments for this Account</guibutton> button in the
+	      <guilabel>Interest Payment</guilabel> window.</para>
+	    </tip>
+          </listitem>
+        </varlistentry>
+       </variablelist>
+
+      <para>Then, click on the <guibutton>Ok</guibutton> button, and you will see
+      the transactions listing reconcile window:</para>
+
+      <screenshot id="txns-reconcile-window-2">
+        <mediaobject>
+            <imageobject role="html">
+              <imagedata fileref="figures/txns_reconcile_window2.png"
+                         format="PNG" srccredit="Cristian Marchi" width="510"></imagedata>
+            </imageobject>
+            <imageobject role="fo">
+              <imagedata fileref="figures/txns_reconcile_window2.png"
+                         format="PNG" srccredit="Cristian Marchi"></imagedata>
+            </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>Reconcile Window</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption><para>The transactions listing in the reconcile
+          window.</para></caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+
+      <para>The two panes called <guilabel>Funds In</guilabel> and
+      <guilabel>Funds Out</guilabel>, lists all the unreconciled transactions that belongs to the account
+      that is going to be reconciled.
+      The <guilabel>R</guilabel> columns show whether the transactions have been reconciled.</para>
+
+      <para>Now, examine each item on the bank statement, and look for the
+      matching item in the <guilabel>Reconcile</guilabel> window.</para>
+
+      <para>If you cannot find a transaction, then perhaps you forgot to enter it, or did not know that the transaction
+      had happened. You can use the <guibutton>New</guibutton> button on the <emphasis>Toolbar</emphasis>, or the
+      <menuchoice><guimenu>Transaction</guimenu><guimenuitem>New</guimenuitem></menuchoice>
+      menu item in the  menu, to open a register window and enter the missing
+      transaction. The new item will appear in the <guilabel>Reconcile</guilabel> window when you
+      press the <guibutton>Enter</guibutton> button in the register after entering the transaction.</para>
+
+      <para>When you find the item in the <guilabel>Reconcile</guilabel> window, compare the amount
+      in the item to the amount on the statement. If they disagree, you may
+      have made an error when you entered the transaction in <application>&app;</application>. You can
+      use the <guibutton>Edit</guibutton> button on the <emphasis>Toolbar</emphasis>, or the
+      <menuchoice><guimenu>Transaction</guimenu><guimenuitem>Edit</guimenuitem></menuchoice>
+      item, to open a register window and correct the transaction.</para>
+
+      <para>If the amounts agree, click on the item in the <guilabel>Reconcile</guilabel> window.
+      A check mark wil appear in the <guilabel>R</guilabel> column aside the selected transaction.
+      <application>&app;</application> will automatically update the amounts in the lower right summary pane.</para>
+
+      <tip>
+        <para>You can use the <keycap>up</keycap>/<keycap>down</keycap> arrow keys to scroll to the item, the
+        <keycap>space</keycap> key to mark the item as reconciled and the <keycap>Tab</keycap>
+        key to switch panes.</para>
+      </tip>
+
+      <para>You then repeat this for each item that appears on the bank
+      statement, verifying that the amounts match with the amounts in <application>&app;</application>,
+      and marking off transactions in <application>&app;</application> as they are reconciled.</para>
+
+     <tip>
+       <para>You can check or uncheck the reconcile status of all transactions in 
+       either pane by clicking on a transaction in the required pane then clicking 
+       <keycap>Ctrl-A</keycap> followed by <keycap>space</keycap>. This will toggle 
+       the reconcile status of all transactions in the pane to either checked or 
+       unchecked state. This procedure can be repeated to achieve the desired status 
+       for the transactions in the pane.</para>
+     </tip>
+
+     <para>At the bottom of the <guilabel>Reconcile</guilabel> window there is a <guilabel>Difference</guilabel> field,
+      which should show <guilabel>0.00</guilabel> when you are done reconciling. If it shows some
+      other value, then either you have missed transactions, or some amounts
+      may be incorrect in <application>&app;</application>. (Or, less likely, the bank may have made an
+      error.)</para>
+
+      <note><para>Under some circumstances, it may be difficult or impossible to determine why an account will not reconcile. If you are unable to correct the discrepancy between your books and a statement, <application>&app;</application> includes a <guibutton>Balance</guibutton> button on the <emphasis>Toolbar</emphasis> that will automatically create a balancing entry for you in the amount that cannot be reconciled.</para>
+          <para>To use this, carry out the full reconciliation (marking all transactions that you can identify) and then click this button. <application>&app;</application> will create a balancing entry for the remaining discrepancy that uses the <emphasis>Special Accounts:Orphan-XXX</emphasis> account (where "XXX" represents your currency). The Reconcile window will close; re-opening it will allow you to check the newly-created balancing entry and finish the process.</para></note>
+
+      <para>When you have marked off all the items on the bank statement and the difference is 0.00, press the <guibutton>Finish</guibutton> button on the <emphasis>Toolbar</emphasis> or
+      select <menuchoice><guimenu>Reconcile</guimenu><guimenuitem>Finish</guimenuitem></menuchoice> from the menu.
+      The <guilabel>Reconcile</guilabel> window will close.
+      In the register window, the <guilabel>R</guilabel> field of the reconciled transactions will
+      change to <emphasis>y</emphasis>.</para>
+
+      <para>In this case, we have not received all the information yet, so we
+      simply press the <guibutton>Postpone</guibutton> button, so we can continue at
+      a later stage. Observe that the <guilabel>R</guilabel> column indicates we cleared (<emphasis>c</emphasis>)
+      two transactions. They have not been reconciled yet, but we have
+      verified these two transactions so they have been marked as cleared. If
+      you look at the <emphasis>Statusbar</emphasis> at the bottom of the account register, you
+      will see a summary of what has been reconciled and what has been cleared
+      (<guilabel>Cleared:USD 954.79 Reconciled:USD 0.00</guilabel>)</para>
+
+      <screenshot id="txns-reconcile-window-3">
+        <mediaobject>
+          <imageobject>
+            <imagedata fileref="figures/txns_reconcile_window3.png"
+                       format="PNG" srccredit="Bengt Thuree" />
+          </imageobject>
+
+          <textobject>
+            <phrase>Checking account</phrase>
+          </textobject>
+
+          <caption><para>The Checking account after postponing the
+          reconciliation.</para></caption>
+        </mediaobject>
+      </screenshot>
+    </sect2>
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="txns-sxn1">
+    <title>Scheduled Transactions</title>
+
+    <para>Scheduled transactions are made to help entering repetitive money
+    operations, like subscriptions, insurances or taxes. By using scheduled
+    transactions, you only have to enter the concerned transaction once, set a
+    few parameters like start date, frequency and a little description, and
+    then <application>&app;</application> will tell you whenever a scheduled transaction is ready to be
+    created, and create it for you.</para>
+
+    <para>In this howto, we’ll take a monthly Internet subscription of 20 USD
+    as example, which is taken on the 28th of e